Indexicality

Chardjou dialect of Turkmen

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Indexicality of a tribal affiliation through use of code switching from Chardjou dialect to Russian.

Posted by Ylham Jorayev on May 11, 2018

Tags:
Indexicality;
Accommodation;
Race,Ethnicity

Larry the Cable Guy: My fake southern accent

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Larry the Cable Guy explains where he picked up his southern accent and gives examples of code-switching.

Posted by Josh Searle on May 11, 2018

Tags:
Indexicality;
Code-switching;
Style-shifting

Mock Spanish

This poster is an example of mock Spanish with the phrase Cinco de Drinko.

Posted by Macie Rouse on May 11, 2018

Tags:
Ideology;
Indexicality;
Mock Spanish;
Race,Ethnicity

Mock Spanish

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This is an example of Mock Spanish with the phrase Cinco de Drinko.

Posted by Macie Rouse on May 11, 2018

Tags:
Ideology;
Indexicality;
Mock Spanish;
Race,Ethnicity

Chancletas

This meme highlights the multifunctionality of a word within and across various languages. It also displays the importance of context when using a word as well as how a word can index both cultural identity and community membership.

Ear Hustle Podcast

This podcast, "Ear Hustle" discusses the reality of life in prison, created in a prison by prisoner Earlonne Woods and a prison volunteer and artist named Nigel Poor. The first episode, "Cellies" describes the meaning of the word "Ear Hustle" which is synonymous with eavesdropping. Prison language and the language used outside of prison is highly various. This is just an example of various language used in prison and the connection to prison culture. [Published on 06-14-2017]

Posted by Tatiana Cosper on April 27, 2018

Tags:
Indexicality;
Code-switching;
Style-shifting;
Slang;
Stigma

Sev'ral Timez Songs

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This video parodies 90s-style boy bands, especially their appropriation of AAE. Of note is their declaration, "We're non-threatening!" (found in the first and second clips) which I think captures many white Americans' attitudes towards black culture: a little is cool, but too much is scary. See 0:31 for an example of their use AAE features in speech.

Posted by Aidan Malanoski on April 17, 2018

Tags:
Indexicality;
African American English

Papyrus Font

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This 2017 SNL skit explores the indexical associations of the Papyrus font, showing indexicality's role in a semiotic system larger than language features similar to the indexical associations of Comic Sans.

Posted by Amber Burns on April 13, 2018

Tags:
Indexicality

British Woman Wakes Up With Chinese Accent??

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This is a perspective on what 'Chinese' accents sound like and how social stigma/racism influence how we could perceive speech - and in a larger context, a way to sensationalize stigma of accents.

Posted by Tiffany Chang on April 10, 2018

Tags:
Indexicality

The Meaning of "Za": Pizza or Lasagna?

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This video is an SNL sketch in which two courtroom attorneys argue over the meaning of a specific word used by the defendant. This argument revolves around the question: Does "Za" mean pizza or lasagna? Because the two attorneys have differing language ideologies and are a part of different speech communities, they interpret the word "Za" differently and therefore each believe the defendant belongs to their speech community and uses "Za" the way it means to them. This video also plays on linguistic indexicality, which is the way in which language references or points us to certain aspects of the world; in this case the pronunciation of "Za" pointed one attorney towards lasagna and the other towards pizza.

Posted by Bridgette Befort on March 4, 2018

Tags:
Indexicality;
Communities of Practice;
Slang

The trouble with Trump's word choices

This is an opinion article on the interruption of President Trump's word choices. During the Presidential race, Trump used trouble words when referring to a community, based on their race or language. This article points out the various examples of Trump using trouble wording then explains how offensive he was being. [Published on 10-20-2016]

Key & Peele: School Bully

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Comedians Key and Peele act out a skit vocalizing the true thoughts and meanings behind the stereotypical school bully threats and phrases. While humorous, the skit displays how one’s words and language can be used to hurt, secretly signal one’s own emotions, and even the stereotyping of bullies and the struggles that lead to their outward aggression.

Posted by Josh Lewis on January 7, 2018

Tags:
Enregisterment;
Indexicality;
Stigma

AI Programs Exhibit Racial & Gender Biases

The article addresses the occurrence of AI algorithms picking up on racial and gender prejudices in their data and "learning" them. This is an artifact of the way language is used by humans, showing that it is in fact socioculturally embedded. AI programs were found to be adapting implicit biases held by humans, associating words such as "female" or "woman" with the home, positive words such as "happy" with European American names, and negative words with African American names. [Published on 08-13-2017]

Posted by Kari Huynh on December 16, 2017

Tags:
Ideology;
Indexicality;
Gender;
Race,Ethnicity

Empowering Identity with Language

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A YouTube blogger named Finn talks about how language can power and disempower identities. Specifically he talks about how trans individuals need to use confident language when talking about their identity. He points out the faults of expressions and phrases commonly used by the Transgender community that feed into the disempowered dialogue used by non-trans individuals. The way that we talk about ourselves not only influences the way we feel about ourselves but also how we allow others to talk about us.

Posted by Natoshea Cate on December 15, 2017

Tags:
Ideology;
Indexicality;
Stigma

Philadelphian Accent - Indexing and Ideologies (PhillyTawk: Da Accent inna Media)

Philadelphian and self-proclaimed “accent nerd” Sean Monahan makes Youtube videos about the accents in the Mid-Atlantic region. In this video he talks about representations of the Philadelphian accent in movies and TV (or lack thereof), then it cuts to a montage of Philadelphians speaking to hear the difference between actors and native speakers. This video is a great example of indexicality and language ideologies at play. Sean is very proud of the accent that indexes him as a Philadelphian but aware that the lack of accurate representations of the dialect makes it hard for outsiders to recognize it. In the beginning of the video he even mentions people on the west coast though he had a speech impediment – this reveals a language ideology they have about how English “should” sound. [Published on 12-15-2017]

Posted by Heaven Snyder on December 15, 2017

Tags:
Ideology;
Indexicality;
Philadelphia English;
Variation;
Accent

Winter Is Coming

The phrase "Winter Is Coming" is used by the northern folk in the popular novel and TV series Game of Thrones. This phrase contains serious elements of the linguistic concepts of indexicality and multifunctionality. The saying can be interpreted both literally and in a metaphorical sense in reference to impending doom. The use of the phrase also indicates a prepared, rugged nature of the northern people.

Posted by Lucas Cooper on December 15, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality

Delivery Job Advertisement, Mock Spanish

This is a example of the use of "Spanglish" or mock Spanish where people combine what they see as simple Spanish words with English words to try to communicate with Spanish speaking people. This sign is a advertisement targeting both English and Spanish speakers for a delivery driver job, under the English portion the sign simply says "Se Necesita Delivery guy". The use of the Spanish mock Spanish is indexing Spanish speakers. [Published on 12-14-2017]

Posted by Landon Sweeney on December 14, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Spanglish;
Mock Spanish

#I'mNoAngel

Lane Bryant challenges gender stereotypes about what it means to be sexy using #I'mNoAngel, indexing and contrasting with the stereotypical representation of sexy: the Victoria's Secret Angel.

Posted by Kailey Utech on December 14, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Gender

Comedian Darren Knight aka Southern Momma and the big snow storm

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Comedian Darren Knight's rendition of how southern mothers react to a snow storm in the south.

Posted by Richardson Chickaway on December 13, 2017

Tags:
Ideology;
Indexicality;
Southern English

Grammer Nazi

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A satirical scene from the show That Mitchell and Webb Look—season 4, episode 1—depicting those who force their language ideology with regard to "correct English grammar" on others in an oppressive way. It comments on hegemony and the difficulty of conforming to the myriad of proposed rules by some, as well as the impossibility to conform perfectly even for those imposing such rules, since English borrows words from languages with different grammatical structures. Furthermore, it is entitled, "Grammer Nazi," indexing a notion of domination and violent imposition of rules by those who hold such views of "correct English."

Posted by James on December 9, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Standard Language Ideology

The Kardashians' Language

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In this video (at around time 1:25), Millie Bobby Brown talks about the particular way the Kardashians speak, including slang terms that are used by the family members and viewers of their show.

Posted by Andrea Sodergren on December 7, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Communities of Practice;
Slang

Spanish Words "White" People Can't Say

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A comedic take on "white" people trying to pronounce Spanish words and their struggle in the performance of a basic Spanish lexicon—even in words that share a striking spelling resemblance to its English cognate. Some noteworthy examples appear when the participants are asked to pronounce “refrigerador” and “negar,” with some subjects showing visible apprehension to merely attempt the latter.

When You're Latino & You Suck At Spanish

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This video depicts a young Latina woman who struggles to fit into a bilingual speech community. Her peers code switch between English and Spanish, expect her to do the same, and tease her when she cannot.

Posted by Stefanie Weiland on November 20, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Spanish;
Code-switching;
Communities of Practice

Vocal Fry: The Rules

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A somewhat comedic look at what vocal fry is and a plea from the video's author to stop it. The narrator talks about vocal fry's spread across various mediums and how it may be a reaction to rising vocal intonation that went way too far.

Posted by Jeremy Pafford on October 16, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Style-shifting;
Youth;
Femininity;
Discourse Marker

The Female Language Translator

A comedic if somewhat patronizing attempt to illustrate how the subtleties of communication between males and females do matter, and that "it's fine" does not always mean that "it's fine."

Posted by Jeremy Pafford on October 7, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Femininity;
Masculinity;
Womens Language

19 Words Your Kids Use, Explained

An article from 2014 explaining several key slang words and phrases that youth were using at the time, many of which seem relevant today including “bae” and “shade.” The article further displays how language continues to evolve, as the words people use as youths can make their ways into their adult speech and thus possibly garner mass acceptance across a community of speech or practice. [Published on 10-07-2014]

Posted by Jeremy Pafford on October 7, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Youth;
Communities of Practice;
Slang;
Lexicon

My name is Jose Jimenez

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“My name is Jose Jimenez” became a popular catch phrase in America after Hungarian-Jewish descent Bill Dana performed this skit dressed as Santa Claus. Bill Dana utilized humor to soften the racializing stereotypes seen in most portrayals of Latin American men. Using Mock Spanish, the naïve character of Jose Jimenez was seen playing a variety of professions, including a United States astronaut. So popular was the character that Mercury astronaut Alan Shepherd adopted “Jose” as his official code name, and astronaut Jose Jimenez made a “guest appearance” at the 1961 Kennedy Inaugural Gala. In the 1960’s Bill Dana was honored by the National Hispanic Media Coalition for his work as an activist. In 1970 with changing sensitivities concerning Mock Spanish and racial stereotypes, Bill Dana had an “official funeral” to declare Jose Jimenez dead.

Posted by Mary Jo Frazier on October 4, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Mock Spanish;
Race,Ethnicity;
Multilingualism

Mandana Seyfeddinipur's TED Talk on Endangered Languages

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This is a TED Talk video of Mandana Seyfeddinipur, a linguist and the director of the Endangered Lanuages Documentation Programme at SOAS University of London, sharing her perspective on endangered languages. Seyfeddinipur shares how globalization, climate change, urbanization and political unrest are causing the extinction of languages at a rate equivalent to the loss of biological diversity during the mass extinction of the dinosaurs. She also emphasizes how such change can negatively impacts cultural diversity and decreases social resilience.

1960 - Jackie Kennedy Spanish Ad

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This is a video of Jackie Kennedy doing a campaign ad in 1960 in Spanish. The goal of this video was to connect with the Hispanic voters. I chose this particular video because it shows how Jackie Kennedy used different speech communities to reach a certain group of people. Indexicality plays a role as well because she is indexing the Spanish speaking community.

Broad City

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For my sociolinguistic artifact I've chosen a brief clip from the popular show, Broad City. This clip is relevant to the course because it references language ideologies and addresses the issue of "Standardized English," or language. The clip shows how different pronunciation and ways of saying words can index cultural and social values.

Posted by Kara Toney on July 30, 2017

Tags:
Ideology;
Indexicality;
Standard Language Ideology

Indian Summer Part One with Mom John Roberts

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John Roberts doing an impression of his mom, who is a n Italian from Brooklyn. This voice would later be used as the voice of Linda Belcher on the show Bob's Burgers.

Posted by Dustin Wendt on July 27, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
New England;
Femininity;
Gender;
Accent;
falsetto

English Motherf*****

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An interrogation scene from the HBO series The Wire. Through their use of mock language two detectives index a language ideology that places the immigrant's language as substandard to English. This language ideology restricts the agency of the immigrant by reinforcing language inequality through the positioning of English as the only tool that can serve the communicative function in this discourse.

Nail Salon

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In this video a comedian is talking about her time at a nail salon, all the while impersonating the women who work at the nail salon. She uses an accent to do so. Although she is using it as a joke, is stereotypes Vietnamese nail salon workers to be both pushy but also unaware. By doing this she further emphasizes a separation between the English customers and non-English workers. In watching the video, it is easy to think that the workers are uneducated because it seems as though they don't understand English, but there is no effort being done on the customers side to really communicate in their language. Here, English is being depicted as a more educated language, creating stigma for the women working.

Posted by Jackie B on July 2, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Race,Ethnicity;
Monolingualism;
Stigma

Differences between English, Korean, Japanese, and Chinese

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The four speakers compare word pronunciations across languages with the general discourse held in Korean. Terms involving English morph to and from other languages depending on phonetic inventories. Also, note that the social practice of taboo words in Korean carries over when other languages a have a taboo Korean word in the comparisons leading to a humorous moment.

Posted by Justin Connolly on June 28, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Code-switching;
Borrowing;
Variation

Martin Impersonates Daphne (Frasier)

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A scene from the show Frasier which showcases Martin Crane teasing Daphne Moon's English Accent. I see a two linguistic-anthropology elements in the scene. First, by code-switching dialect during the interaction he is drawing attention to the fact that Daphne is not American. What this accomplishes is up for debate given that the two are friends and that the interaction was not hostile in nature. I'm guessing that the impression may mildly suggest that the two are not on equal footing; one is a "native" while the other isn't. This may work in elevating Martin's position in the argument. Second, Martin mentions how Daphne is always complaining about what to do with her hair. Here he is indexing a gender identity that might conflict with his own. In the reading I came across portions that relate language use as a form of identity expression and so while Daphne was being expressive of her female identity Martin, annoyed by her, replied with an antagonistic male critique of her speech.

Ad Meter 2016: Jeep Super Bowl Portraits

The commercial exemplifies prosody, indexicality and performativity. The speaker's poetic fluctuations are amplified by literary devices such as alliteration making prosody evident. By pointing to the individual (and eventually concluding "we don't make jeep. You do"), indexicality is evident. Performativity is also relevant because Jeep constructs identity in its audience by giving the audience something to identify with (via speech and photographs).

Posted by Robyn Payne on June 27, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Performativity;
Prosody

Trying American

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In this scene Daphne shares her frustration with how people react to her accent. This demonstrates how different accents and dialects index social identity, eliciting feelings and reactions sometimes unwanted by the speaker. These interactions may influence future discourse practices.

Posted by Crystal Ronduelas on June 27, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Accommodation

Differenze Linguistiche Meme

This meme features the translation of the same word in many different languages. All but one of the translations are usually the same. By comparing the words that sound similar with one that sounds different, the meme promotes the language ideology that the language with the different translation is incorrect. The faces beside the translations are also indexical to ideologies that already exist about the languages in the meme. In the linked image, all of the faces are calm except the one beside the German translation, which is angry. This indexes the common ideology that German is a harsh, angry language.

Posted by Nicole Johnson on June 27, 2017

Tags:
Ideology;
Indexicality;
Multilingualism

Fabricated Cognates as Memes

In October 2016 a trend began of tweets that were probably photos of food, with a caption that ended with a nonsense phrase; a phrase that when read, makes no sense, but when spoken, sounds oddly like "bon appetít." The use of this and related phrases indexed the users/tweeters as cool, hip, and knowledgeable about pop culture, and it allowed them to show off their creativity as the actual photos of food became more and more ridiculous. This meme is particularly interesting from a sociolinguist viewpoint because there's no actual speaking occurring, but anyone in on the joke knows that speech is a vital part of the humor - this entire phenomenon is text-based, and yet intimately tied to the pronunciation of English.

Posted by Logan Hotz on June 26, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Performativity;
Language Shift;
Internet Language

Why Germans Can Say Things No One Else Can

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This video talks about language and it's ability to allow for thought, emotion, and the expression of feelings. It talks specifically about the German language and how they have a wide variety of words they can use to better describe a situation or feeling other languages might not be able to do as effectively. It explains many examples of this, along with the appropriate meaning in English. Having a different set of words to think with and use allows for a wide variety of unique knowledge one can obtain. This video just scratches the surface of the importance of language, and how language in our lives can change the way we think and interpret the world around us.

A Few Things to Know About American Sign Language

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Similar to the different accents that exist in the English language, different styles of sign language express different cultural upbringings. This video is a short personal account into a few individual’s experiences with sign language and its perception from none deaf people. Explaining issues like the use of the term “hearing impaired”, is considered more offensive than being labeled deaf because it does not recognize deaf people as a “linguistic minority”. The point is that deaf people have a culture. One of the speakers talks about how slang has influenced ASL specifically in the African-American cultural community. Being deaf does not exclude people from existing in a living language that adapts and changes to fit the times. Rich with the impact of various cultures.

Do I sound Gay?

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This is a documentary on netflix that looks what the stereotypes of how gay men speak. It also looks at the homophobia that present in in the conformity to the speech pattern and the stigma of "sounding gay". Stereotypes of speech patterns for gay men show indexicalitys of language. Hearing a person speak in a certain tone, pattern, etc. and using a social constructed stereotype, one is assumed to be gay if their speech pattern conforms to the stereotype and index identities that they might hold. Now whether this index is accurate of the person's identities are not is the problem that is being addressed in the documentary. The documentary also looks at how this stereotype of gay speech originated and how it was socially constructed to convey that the speaker is gay when conforming to this style of speech. The documentary as whole however assumes a naturalness to the speech patterns and features of straight males, and ignores the fact that there also features and patterns that are stereotypical of straight males that speak English that can be used to index their identities as well and is no way natural and is constructed by society as well.

Posted by Jadon Beck on May 12, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality

The Crows in Dumbo

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Childhood is an extremely critical time for socialization into a given culture. Children learn from parents, teachers, and friends about the norms and beliefs of their community. Language is an important category to be socialized into as language and ideologies surrounding language are intertwined with race, class, and status. Although there is no official language of America, English is pushed as the official language so much so that historically non-English speakers were forced by violence to shed their culture’s identity and language and subscribe to the “English-only” agenda. While the use of corporal punishment is not prevalent in modern society as a means of restricting non-English languages, the general attitude towards anyone who speaks something other than Standardized American English is unfavorable. The crows in Disney’s Dumbo show the ways in which language is used to stereotype a group of people which also acts to socialize young children to stigmatize people either directly or indirectly. In Jane Hill’s study on the use of Mock Spanish, she concluded that mock Spanish is directly linked to ideas of racism by saying, “racism is largely produced in and through everyday talk, not through the obvious racist slurs that most people today condemn but through unintentional, indirect uses of language that reinforce racist stereotypes” (Hill, 2008).  Furthermore, Rankin and Karn’s study on Ebonics led them to the conclusion that “anti-Ebonics ideology is transmitted by a simple set of strategies which suggest one can ‘speak’ Ebonics by simply pejorating standard English” which then “produces a racialized language stereotype of a subordinate group” (Rankin & Karn, 1999). Disney’s portrayal of an animal who is colored black and speaking in a stereotypical manner of African Americans would further push the ideology that this is how all African Americans speak. This portrayal would then be normalized and viewed as acceptable based on the influence and power of media especially on children.

Posted by Alanna Daniels on May 11, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Standard Language Ideology;
Ebonics Controversy

"Why Explaining 'The N-Word' To Non-Black People Is So Damn Exhausting"

Article on Cultural Perceptions of the N-Word. Deals with which groups have responsibility or control over a word (and if they can have this control). This also shows lay-person perspective on key socio-linguistic issues. [Published on 05-09-2017]

British Villains -Tom Hiddleston en Jaguar F-Type Coupé

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This Jaguar car commercial adds to an ideology that an English accent sounds villainous. Indexically and through performativity the actor, Tom Hiddleston, describing how to successfully sound "villainous". This commercial is a part of a series featuring other British actors describing how to sound "villainous".

British Villains -Tom Hiddleston en Jaguar F-Type Coupé

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This Jaguar car commercial adds to an ideology that an English accent sounds villainous. Indexically and through performativity the actor, Tom Hiddleston, describing how to successfully sound "villainous". This commercial is a part of a series featuring other British actors describing how to sound "villainous".

Mock Asian in Song Sung by Jennifer Murphy

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The woman in this video uses both code-switching and direct indexicality to emulate a sort of acquisition of Asian culture in her becoming of a "ninja." She switches between her native Anglo-American dialect and a stereotypical East Asian accent when she uses more “proper” and “improper” grammar, respectively. The most prevalent of this is the omission of grammatical morphemes (“I want to be ninja” omitting “a” and “I almost a ninja,” omitting the word “am”), a characteristic of Mock Asian as defined by Elaine Chun (Ideologies of Legitimate Mockery, 2004). The usage of her overly stereotypical mimicking of an East Asian accent is a direct indexicality of non-native English-speaking Asians having “improper” grammar as well as enforcing a stereotype that implies that all East Asians are ninjas, another aspect of Mock Asian as defined by Chun, in her use of Chinese imagery ("take Chow down to Chinatown") when referring to a piece of Japanese culture. The instrumentals that change from a rock track to an Asian-sounding track that is reminiscent of "Chopsticks" every time she assumes her Mock Asian identity in the performance, another piece of Mock Asian according to Chun.

Posted by Aiyana Moyer on May 9, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Code-switching;
Race,Ethnicity

"El Messy Look": Mock Spanish and Code-switching in AXE Commercial

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Axe's new commercial for their "Messy Look" hair styling cream is a perfect example of the ways in which Mock Spanish is still prevalent in our society in 2017. Jane Hill, the inventor of the term, states in "Language, Race, and White Public Space" that one practice of Mock Spanish is "taking elements of Spanish morphology" such as the suffix -o and using Spanish modifiers such as "el" to create "jocular and pejorative" terms. In Axe's commercial, the actor refers to the product as "El Messy Look". Then, while giving instructions on using the cream, he says "First-o, take a finger to the cream..." At the end of the commercial, after showing off his confidence and "cultural awareness", the actor mishears the female bartender who actually speaks Spanish when she asks him a question, showing his ignorance. However, the bartender smiles at him, further enforcing Hill's ideas about Mock Spanish directly indexing the speaker as having desirable qualities, while simultaneously indirectly indexing the idea that Spanish is somehow less valuable than English.

Posted by Laurel Nagengast on May 8, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Power;
Code-switching;
Mock Spanish;
Race,Ethnicity;
whiteness

British People Attempting Their Best American Accent

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This is titled "British People Attempting Their Best American Accent," which really encapsulates the main point of the video. Essentially, aside from a handful of outliers, the attempts at accents reflected stereotypes that some British people tend to think Americans hold. The accents revolved around "Southern," "Californian/Surfer," and "Hyper-Metropolitan" accents. The words included by those speaking generally reflected stereotypes involving surfing and smoking weed (for the Californian/Surfer), eating cheeseburgers, shopping, and gossip (Hyper-Metropolitan), and drinking beer and shooting guns (Southern). The participants were not asked to do a specific kind of "American accent," either, they merely did an accent that they deemed to be what is "the American accent." How Americans are perceived by these participants was evident in their style of speech and words chosen to reflect typical American conversation along; one could also possibly argue that this reflects that some British people group all of the American identities into one conglomerate identity which they deem to be wholly "American." Thinking about this more outside of the video, I feel that this could be true in terms of how Americans think of other cultures as well, like how Americans think of the British identities.

Donald Trump: We need to get out 'bad hombres'

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This is what Donald Trump said in the third presidential debate in regarding to the issue of immigration. In his speech, he used Spanish word “hombre” to refer to the immigrants that he views as bad people, which has some negative meaning. However, “hombre” in Spanish only means “men” without any negative meanings. This is a good example of mock Spanish as defined by Hill (1998). People can’t understand the meaning without understanding the indirect index of the badness and criminal of Spanish people. It also contains underlying racism which shows that Spanish people have a stereotype of being bad, and in contrast white culture is better than others.

Posted by Yujia Wu on May 7, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Mock Spanish;
Race,Ethnicity

Louis CK 2015 - Racism and Sexism are very different

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In this video, Louis C.K. discusses gender issues and being self aware. When doing an impression of a couple of female college students, he uses vocal fry to get the message across to the audience. Not only is the content of what she is supposedly saying in this situation shallow and stereotypical, but he also uses the glottal, creaking sound of lower-register speech oscillation typical of vocal fry. By using this register to do his impression, and in making his impression of a college girl appear dumb and not self aware, he is perpetuating the dominant stereotype that vocal fry is used by young women only, and that it indexes a set of negative attributes. He does this again when describing the USA as a 'terrible girlfriend to the world'. He uses the same register to describe a United States that remembers everything bad that ever happened to it, but does not acknowledge its own faults and mistakes. Tags: Gender, Women's language, Ideology, Femininity, Sexism, Indexicalityhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C-Y17YG63B4 Louis CK 2015 - Racism and Sexism are very different In this video, Louis C.K. discusses gender issues and being self aware. When doing an impression of a couple of female college students, he uses vocal fry to get the message across to the audience. Not only is the content of what she is supposedly saying in this situation shallow and stereotypical, but he also uses the glottal, creaking sound of lower-register speech oscillation typical of vocal fry. By using this register to do his impression, and in making his impression of a college girl appear dumb and not self aware, he is perpetuating the dominant stereotype that vocal fry is used by young women only, and that it indexes a set of negative attributes. He does this again when describing the USA as a 'terrible girlfriend to the world'. He uses the same register to describe a United States that remembers everything bad that ever happened to it, but does not acknowledge its own faults and mistakes.

Posted by Sierra Hurd on April 28, 2017

Tags:
Ideology;
Indexicality;
Femininity;
Gender;
Womens Language;
Sexism

"That's Not How Gay Men Talk!"

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This clip of the television series, "New Girl", indexes language ideologies regarding perceptions of how gay men should speak. At the end of the clip, Jess informs Nick, who is pretending to be gay, that his speech was incongruent with how gay men speak. This indexes the language ideology that there are a believed set of speech qualities that all gay men possess.

Posted by Malkie Hematillake on April 27, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Standard Language Ideology

Russell Peters - Red, White, and Brown

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Russell Peters is a famous Stand up comic who is known for his portrayals of other cultures and ability to mimic their accents. Russell is a world traveled individual who has shows in Bangkok, Dubai, Europe and America. He draws on his life interactions to really capture a moment or interaction and portray it in a humorous way. In this clip he is setting up a power hierarchy of cheapness and claiming that cheap is good thing to the minority and an insult to the Hegemonic identity in America. “Cheap” in this sense is going against the dominant cultural belief of cheap is an attribute that is unfavorable. This is showing the intermingled power struggle between the dominant class and others and how pushing back against ideologies is occurring. The voices used in separating the characters also indicate indexicality and Language socialization. The voices used help guide and reaffirm how we preserve different culture groups to sound. His experience and worldliness is also a point of power. Most people are not as traveled as Russell Peters and cannot truly understand the differences in cultures he is portraying however through him we get a glimpse of the other. He has the power in the setting and his perception of life is the one we are subjected to. His viewpoint on life is guided by humor and stereotyping for a broader audience in order to showcase cultural differences and how they interact and intermingle within the world.

Posted by Luke Engleman on April 27, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Power;
Code-switching

Flight of the Concords' Kiwi or Aussie Accents

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In this clip, two New Zealanders who live in the United States are very biased against Australians. They make a point of explaining the difference between the two nationalities' accents, and for comedic affect, they choose a sentence that has very few vowel changes, only a pitch change. In Niedzielski (1999), they saw that preconceived notions of nationality affect how listeners perceive accents. This happened with Aziz Ansari's American character, where he assumed they were Australian and therefore indexed their accents as such. In Hay and Drager (2010) they explored the perception of differences in Australian and New Zealand accents, and, as seen in the clip, it really comes down to preconceived biases, such as concept priming in Hay and Drager or previous biases against Australians.

Posted by Michaella Joseph on March 31, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Australian English;
New Zealand English;
Accent

Boston Accent Movie Trailer

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This is a fake movie trailer that appeared on "Late Night with Seth Meyers". It makes fun of the Boston accent and movie portrayals of the accent and Boston culture. It also makes fun of people's reactions to the accent including a British actor trying to do a Boston accent and fake newspaper reviews of the movie.

Posted by Janet Sebastian-Coleman on March 11, 2017

Tags:
Ideology;
Indexicality;
Boston English;
Accent;
Stigma

lesson 7.1 Tokyo vs Osaka Accent - same words, different sounds

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The differences in intonation between Osaka dialect and Tokyo dialect. Tokyo dialect is accepted as standard Japanese and is what is taught outside of Japan. In the video, the Osaka dialect speaker says that she is able to speak standard Japanese very well, but her pronunciation of "sensei" is what clued people in to her Osaka origins.

Posted by Katie Allen on October 16, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality;
Performativity;
Japanese;
Style-shifting

Plan Now to Avoid Post - Brexit Languages Crisis

There is a focus right now on the education system of the UK, with areas most at risk being language performance. If a crisis was to emerge in language performance from the UK split areas of official practice; such as trade, could be jeopardized. There are plans as of right now to push and ensure the emphasis on particularly language skills to ensure the enhancement post Brexit. This plan includes residency and a national plan to better primary education to even the post graduate level. With the quality of education slipping in the UK as it is, and a nation wide crisis within the linguistics field, the Brexit could only worsen the matter with children potentially receiving a lacking education. The goal of these reforms and education plan is to ensure a quality education to students at all levels, and hopefully encourage the emergence of language skill teachers and even linguistics majors. [Published on 10-16-2016]

"Engrish" in the anime Jojo's bizarre adventure

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This video is a compilation of samples of "Engrish" from Jojo's Bizarre Adventure. "Engrish" is the term used for English used in what is perceived as an "incorrect" or "awkward" way. Primarily this term is applied to English translations. The most famous of these would be from the intro of the game Zero Wing. The Japanese version has the villain saying: "With the cooperation of Federation Forces, all your bases now belong to us." However, the english translation became "All your base are belong to us". This term has developed a broader meaning, being used to describe code switching in Anime. Often times these phrases seem almost nonsensical, such as "hail to you", other times the accent is incredibly think and difficult to understand.

Posted by Matthew Mena on October 11, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality;
Received Pronunciation;
Japanese;
Code-switching

"Token Black Woman" -Issa Rae

This gif comes from an episode of the show "Insecure" that aired recently on HBO. The show is based on Issa Rae, an African American woman, trying to navigate her way through her 20's. Rae works for a non profit called "We Got Ya'll," which helps children of color from low income communities to be successful in school. The non-profit was created by a white woman and Rae is the only black woman working there. Rae refers to herself as the "token black woman." This gif shows a white co-worker asking Rae the meaning of "on fleek." Her co-worker is assuming that because Rae is black, that she is familiar with this language. This is an example of her co-worker's language ideologies. Unfortunately for her co-worker, due to indirect indexicality, making this assumption actually makes her appear racist. Rae spoke about the show, saying that the series will examine "the complexities of 'blackness' and the reality that you can’t escape being black." Rae also said, in regards to the potential mainstream reaction to the series: "We’re just trying to convey that people of color are relatable. This is not a hood story. This is about regular people living life."

Posted by Erica Hageman on October 6, 2016

Tags:
Ideology;
Indexicality;
Style-shifting;
Race,Ethnicity

"That Mexican Thing"

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During the Vice Presidential Debate, Tim Kaine referred to some of the demeaning comments Donald Trump has made in the past, regarding Latinos. In response, Mike Pence said, "Senator, you whipped out that Mexican thing again." Whether Pence meant to be offensive to the Latino community or not, he most certainly was. Recently, Trump has tried to redeem himself with the Latino community, but with his VP referring to Latino issues as a "Mexican thing," it is apparent that Trump is engaging in hispandering.

Posted by Erica Hageman on October 5, 2016

Tags:
Ideology;
Indexicality;
Race,Ethnicity;
Politics and Policy

Sh%t Southern Women Say, Episode 1

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This comical satire highlights common phrases and slang frequently used by southern women. These iconic sayings can also index their southern roots.

Posted by Allison Maxfield on October 4, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality;
Womens Language;
Communities of Practice;
Slang

Inner White Girl

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This video shows how comedy has taken advantage of code switching. This is comedy but it exemplifies the power of speech. When the character speaks AAVE they are stereotyped as untrustworthy and dishonest. The style of speech is indexical in social positioning. Even though the skit was meant to be funny it has been criticized as degrading and insulting.

Posted by Madison Curnow on October 4, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality;
Power;
African American English;
Code-switching

Who is really “American”?

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People from North, South and Central America discuss the use of the term “American” as an identifier by people from the United States. "Americans" have a linguistic ideology about what it means to be one and seem to ignore the fact that it excludes people from all other regions in the Americas.

The Office “I declare bankruptcy” Michael Scott

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Michael Scott, the lead role in The Office, is seen here proclaiming that he is declaring bankruptcy. The comedy of this statement is that he believes that saying “I declare bankruptcy!” in front of others will officially clear him from his financial obligations. He even goes as far as performing the card cutting ritual he associates with his “bankrupt” status. His co-worker, Oscar, has to inform him that this performance does not have the power to change his current financial standing in the way he intended.

Posted by Allison Maxfield on September 26, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality;
Performativity;
Semantics

New Slanf Added to Australian Dictionary

This article covers the addition of modern Australian slang to their national dictionary. The content added includes modern words and phrases commonly used by the various Australian native dialects and their definitions. As a lot of Australian saying and slang are uncommon and foreign to other English speakers, this addition to the Australian dictionary can provide definitions for their otherwise unfamiliar sayings. [Published on 08-24-2016]

Posted by Missy Mirenzi on September 22, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality;
Language Shift;
Communities of Practice

Jamila Lyiscott: 3 ways to speak English

Jamila Lyiscott performs her powerful spoken-word essay "Broken English," where she uses distinct flavors of the English that she speaks to explore the complicated history and present-day identity that each language represents, and what it means to be "articulate." [Published on 06-19-2014]

Posted by Jordan Huntley on September 18, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality;
Code-switching;
Ebonics Controversy;
Semantics

How WSJ Used an Algorithm to Analyze ‘Hamilton’ the Musical

Joel Eastwood and Erik Hinton wrote an algorithm to analyze the different types of rhymes used in the tony Award Winning Broadway Musical "Hamilton", and reveal their Hip-Hop influences. [Published on 06-06-2016]

British People Attempting Their Best American Accent

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In this video we have people on the streets of Great Britain trying to do their best American accent

Posted by Stephen Alexander on July 29, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality;
Standard Language Ideology

Bacon Bowl

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The Bacon Bowl commercial shows how knowledge about certain language communities and indexicality are used to make sales. The female host uses rhymes within her cheerfully delivered presentation, common staples of similarly-styled "As Seen on TV" commercials that index friendly and familiar qualities to appeal to a stereotypical mom or grandma audience. In addition, the host emphasizes diet and portions, along with rather specific cooking terms like "crisp up evenly" and "cut of bacon", and serves up an "I heart bacon bowl" pin as a free gift, further intending to index a generally female, family-oriented language community.

Posted by Jill Vesta on July 24, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality;
Womens Language;
Communities of Practice

Yo skater!

This sign photo was posted by a TripAdvisor user who visited North Vancouver. The sign is aimed at skateboarders. By using slang language that indexes stereotypical skateboarders and the style in which they are perceived to generally speak, the Parks Department attempts to be humorous by exaggeratedly targeting the skater community, but in the process is trying to make a directed message with this style.

Posted by Jill Vesta on July 23, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality;
Slang

The Onion: Nothing Doing Down Louisiana Way, Fly-Swattin’ Sources Report

In this article, the satirical news site The Onion attempts to imitate Louisiana/Cajun English, which is very different from the "Standard English" typically used by the media, including The Onion. The article uses phonological, morpho-syntactic, and lexical variables of Cajun English to satirize an over-the-top stereotype of people living in rural Louisiana. The linguistic features index certain social acts and attributes in order to form the Bayou stereotype. [Published on 04-12-2016]

Posted by Oskar Söderberg on April 12, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality;
Cajun English

Happy Valley creator calls for more northern accents on TV and radio

Sally Wainwright, a British writer, said that there should be more representation of northern England accents in British media, and described some of the qualities of northern English speech that she finds appealing. She also labels southern English as "posh." This might be an example of Ochs' (1993) model of indexicality, where certain linguistic features index social meaning, which then index a social category. It's also part of a larger discussion about media representation. [Published on 04-04-2016]

Posted by Oskar Söderberg on April 5, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality;
British English;
Accent

Indexing Style Since 55 BCE

Sometimes you try to pronounce your words more Greek-ly and you are made fun of 2000 years later. The Roman poet Catullus wrote this poem about an acquaintance of his whose habit of aspiration was seen as an attempt to sound more Greek. Oh how it backfired.

Posted by Colin Moore on April 4, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality

Response to "What it Means to Sound Gay" (LanguageLog)

Reed professor Sameer ud Dowla Khan's open letter response to NPR interview with filmmaker and speech pathologist from film project "Do I sound gay?" (transcript of interview found at link). Sameer describes how linguistic features do not necessarily link directly to social category (as is seen in indexical models) to problematize the concept of "natural"-ness in speech. (Compare with research done by Gaudio, Rudolph. 1994. Sounding gay: pitch properties in the speech of gay and straight men; especially re:criticisms of other studies made in introduction pp. 34-41). [Published on 07-10-2015]

Clinton and Sanders Univision Debate and Hispandering

Hispandering is brought up (with a negative connotation) to Hillary Clinton and Bernie Sanders during the Univision Democratic Debate in election 2016. [Published on 03-10-2016]

Posted by Jasmine E. Thompson on March 10, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality;
Spanglish;
Code-switching;
Politics and Policy

Code Switching

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This video uses stop motion art to explain why people use code switching. It offers multiple scenarios and situations in which people use code switching and gives a handful of examples why people do so and when. The interesting part about the video is that it's done solely using stop motion drawings.

Posted by Matt Kaufman on March 8, 2016

Tags:
Ideology;
Indexicality;
Code-switching

"Vocal Fry" speaking with Faith Salie

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This video explains "vocal fry" which is prevalent among young women. Vocal fry is described as a 'creaky voice' or a vibratory sound.

Posted by Kristi Sparks on March 7, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality;
Femininity;
Womens Language;
Stigma

10 Surprising Ways to Offend People in Other Countries

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The video explores how the use of body language can mean one thing to a culture and a completely different thing to another. It provides good evidence to show that language can be communicated in other ways than verbal cues. It also shows the importance of the environment and the socialization process.

What Is Vocal Fry?

Stigmatizing a linguistic style prevalent among young females in our society.

Posted by Mark Beal on March 3, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality;
Femininity

El Maco

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This is a perfect example of mock spanish. This ad is mixed with overt racism. I am surprised that McDonald's publicity team let this one go.

Posted by Tricia Roberson on March 3, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality;
Spanish;
Code-switching;
Mock Spanish

Little Triggers

An Excerpt from Neil Gaiman's collection of short stories 'Trigger Warning' Gaiman uses the introduction, to discuss the book's title. He discusses how the phrase is commonly being used to warn people about content that "could upset them and trigger flashbacks or anxiety or terror," He wonders if the phrase could be applied to his own writing which can often be haunting or spooky. He also wonders whether these warnings are appropriate at all. [Published on 10-23-2014]

Posted by Jared Nietfeld on March 1, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality;
Education

Ricky argues Wittgenstein with Karl (The Ricky Gervais Show)

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Ricky Gervais and Karl Pilkington discuss Ludwig Wittgenstein's famous quote "if a lion could speak, we could not understand him." They discuss how experience is an important part of shaping meaning.

Posted by Jared Nietfeld on March 1, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality

who talks more men or women

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Ellen takes a poke at women talking more than men 20K vs 7K whereas a recent study shows it is about even at 16K a piece but a good piece showing the first points of men not talking as much as women.

Posted by Michael Allan on February 26, 2016

Tags:
Ideology;
Indexicality;
Standard Language Ideology

india vs mexico

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This clip shows how different countries or races think or talk about other countries. The same thing he says here Americans typically say about Mexico.

Posted by Michael Allan on February 23, 2016

Tags:
Ideology;
Indexicality;
Race,Ethnicity

Washington Redskins NBA Commercial

In this advertisement created by the National Congress of American Indians, the narrator takes the viewer through a number of "names" for Native Americans in the United States, including tribal names and other words that could be used to define the communities, before ending with an appeal that Native Americans would never describe themselves as "redskins." [Published on 06-10-2014]

Sign Language Exchange Between Starbucks Barista and Customer Inspires Others

A Starbucks Barista initially trying to take an order in English then code-switching to ASL to communicate. This video also includes specific language used only in Starbucks, for example the sizes of the orders. [Published on 11-04-2015]

Dude

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This video is a Bud Light commercial using the word Dude only. This video is a perfect example of Indexicality. The simple word is used in multiple contexts as well as multiple tones to convey completely different meanings.

Posted by Tricia Roberson on January 22, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality

Kid Frost - Aint No Sunshine

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Here's a song by the Chicano rapper Kid Frost, from Mendoza-Denton's (2011) discussion of creaky voice and the "hardcore" chol@ persona. He uses lots of creak in this song, and the lyrics include allusions to violence and machismo.

Posted by Emma Rennie on November 16, 2015

Tags:
Mendoza-Denton, Norma;
Indexicality;
Chicano English;
Creaky Voice

Extremely British

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A satirical trailer mocking the apparent incomprehensibility of UK English varieties, notably, those featured in crime dramas for US viewers (possibly aiming toward Cockney). A claim by a film critic, "Extremely British" and USA Today reports, "I don't think I heard a single consonant." Intro ling, intro phonetics classes loved it.

Posted by Andrea Kortenhoven on October 30, 2015

Tags:
Indexicality;
Cockney English;
Variation;
Socioeconomic Status;
Slang

The "lumberjack" aesthetic as a performed masculinity

This article somewhat disparagingly describes and attempts to interpret a recent trend popular among middle-class urban white men. Beards, flannel shirts, and other symbols index a "lumberjack"-inspired identity that the author feels is disconnected from the actual history of lumberjacks. Are these men attempting to reclaim a romanticized masculine image of hard work, strength, and daring (and do they fear masculinity is "in crisis")? Or are they performing a new, exclusively urban masculinity that symbolizes some other set of attributes? [Published on 12-10-2014]

Posted by Emma Rennie on October 6, 2015

Tags:
Indexicality;
Performativity;
Masculinity

How a New York accent can help you get ahead

Sociolinguist Michael Newman discusses the positive indexes of the New York City accent in the realm of politics, as used by Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders. [Published on 10-05-2015]

Posted by Kara Becker on October 5, 2015

Tags:
Indexicality;
New York City English;
Politics and Policy

A response to Naomi Wolf

Deborah Cameron's excellent response to Naomi Wolf. [Published on 07-26-2015]

Naomi Wolf misses the point about vocal fry: It's just an excuse not to listen to women

A response to Naomi Wolf's article suggesting young women should stop using vocal fry because it makes them sound less authoritative. [Published on 07-27-2015]

"We Talk In Pictures Now, But What Does It Mean?"

This article talks about the ever-growing form of image-based communication (emojis, memes, GIFs, etc.) in Internet language. As Montreal linguist and writer Gretchen McCulloch says: "as social life migrates online, visual forms of communication become increasingly attractive because they replicate some of the physical experience we've lost." This article presents a really interesting sort of dichotomy between image and speech, and even image and word (as seen on a page). McCulloch and Tumblr-based artist Kari Altmann imply that images are in a sense more natural to us, more so than words (which, in my personal view, I don't really see as that different from images? For example, how do we check to make sure a word is spelled right? We write it out and make a judgment based on what it 'looks like.') and maybe even (spoken) language. @_@ wow... such semiotics... (See what I did there?) One other thing McCulloch mentioned was how ironic it was that it was technology that transformed "images" (religious icons, etc.) into "words" in the first place (printing press) but it is now bringing it back. Anyway, really interesting read! [Published on 05-03-2015]

Posted by Korina Yoo on May 14, 2015

Tags:
Indexicality;
Internet Language

Pledging Allegiance to Islamophobia in US Classrooms

Last month, at a high school in New York, the pledge of allegiance was recited in Arabic in observance of National Foreign Language Week. This resulted in controversy among the students/families of the high school, largely due to their associations (the usual ones relating to Islamophobia) with the language. This issue is an interesting example of indexicality, especially the way in which it can misinformed and ultimately harmful. [Published on 03-23-2015]

Posted by Jessica Hutchison on April 26, 2015

Tags:
Indexicality

Why language about race changes over time

An NPR piece on changing terms for racial and ethnic categories, but really is about how terms change over time through process of pejoration, or what Pinker calls the "euphemism treadmill." [Published on 11-10-2014]

Posted by Kara Becker on November 11, 2014

Tags:
Indexicality;
Race,Ethnicity;
Lexicon

NPR: Talking while female

An NPR video piece on the criticisms of women's voices, including their use of higher pitch, HRT, creaky voice, and their evaluation as less authoritative [Published on 10-24-2014]

Accommodation and Elongation in Texting

An investigation into what inspires soooo many people to toss extra letters into their text messages

Posted by Christina Lee Gremore on February 24, 2013

Tags:
Indexicality;
Femininity;
Womens Language;
Slang;
Discourse

The Mindy Kaling Backlash

A 2012 Jezebel article discussing the negative reaction to Indian American writer/producer/director/actress Mindy Kaling, who has been characterized as "brash" and cocky for speaking confidently about her career.

Posted on September 25, 2012

Tags:
Gender Binary;
Womens Language;
Indexicality

Dude: Stanford Linguists Probe California Accent

Penelope Eckert and fellow researchers in California examine how English is spoken and perceived in different cities around the state in efforts to refute the stereotype that California English is accentless and homogenous.