Power

Performativity, Ideology, Power and Disability

In this article, it shows how the performativity of the writer matters when discussing the r-word, and how the word harms people like the persons being quoted. Ideology is represented in that those who are quoted discuss the usage of the r-word and how it is inappropriate. Power is represented in the dichotomy between abled and non-abled persons discussed in the article, while also mentioning that the r-word is exclusionary. One quote also notes the r-word dehumanizes people. Trigger Warning: The r-word is written out in full in the article

Posted by Matthew Ferrel on May 10, 2018

Tags:
Ideology;
Performativity;
Power

Masculinity and Femininity in Disney's Mulan

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The song “I’ll Make A Man Out of You” from the 1998 classic Mulan shows gender stereotypes and battling them. Mulan is a Disney classic that confronts battling feminine stereotypes head on and throughout the movie the protagonist Mulan shows that she can do anything a man can do. In this song specifically, the gender stereotypes of being a man in the war and what a man should be able to do and be is explained to a very catchy rhythm. Along with this throughout the song, Mulan shows how she is strong and she can fight just the same as them, but because of the laws, she must do this all while dressed as a man to blend in.

Fox News clip sampled on DAMN.

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This clip is a really clearly delineated example of "language as proxy" for racism. It's really clear in the tone of the broadcasters when reading Kendrick's lyrics that their issue is not only with the content but with the stigmatized aspects of AAVE. I also wanted to bring up this clip/the album DAMN. because it's a great example of a lot of the themes talked about in the film Talking Black in America, particularly regarding hip-hop. The way Kendrick puts his music, which deals with issues of race and is basically the way he was able to survive violence in dialogue with white people saying "hip hop is doing more damage than racism" is really masterful and gives me chills.

Things Not to Say to Women at Work

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This video challenges language used in ways that specifically applies to women. This video produced by the BBC discusses common phrases, words and topics that specifically target and apply to women in the workplace that portray sexist ideologies. The women in the video confront these, explain why they are inappropriate, and in some cases offer alternate ways to frame these discussions.

Posted by Chelsea on December 7, 2017

Tags:
Power;
Femininity;
Gender;
Communities of Practice;
Sexism

A Conversation with Native Americans on Race

This video details the issue(s) surrounding Native peoples on former indigenous lands and current U.S. territory. It mentions blood quantum, a measure of genetic pedigree which determines native-ness, actual indigenous regulation which determines native-ness, and linguistic terms for tribes such Anglo-American term “Apache” vs the actual indigenous word referring the tribe among other topics.

Posted by Haroun Said on December 5, 2017

Tags:
Power;
American Indian;
Race,Ethnicity;
Communities of Practice

Linguist Jennifer Scalfani’s analysis on Trump’s “unique” use of language

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This video is about Jennifer Scalfani, a linguist at Georgetown University, who analyzed Donald Trump’s “unique” use of language that he uses as the President of the United States. His language is unique in a way that it is different than the language that other Presidents spoke in the past. He uses much more simple vocabulary and grammar, jumps from one topic to another, involves a variety of hand gestures, and uses an expression at the end of the phrase to emphasize his message. Scalfani analyzed how Trump’s unique use of language is a representation of how language can create a brand, construct an identity that is recognizable, and create an authentic persona.

Ellen DeGeneres' coming out episode

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In a televised talk show this year host Ellen DeGeneres celebrated the twentieth anniversary of her revelation on national prime time television that she was a lesbian. Forty-two million viewers tuned in to watch Ellen’s sitcom character declare “I am gay”, and this challenging and controversial decision made television history. A media frenzy followed with heated debates on gay rights and lifestyles. Ellen’s difficult and personal decision to reveal her lesbianism led to her sitcom show being cancelled in 1997. By 2004 she returned to television as a talk show host, and since then has earned ten Emmys for excellence in television. By making it acceptable for a public figure to declare a sexual preference, social change has occurred, and since then, gay marriage has become legal in the United States.

Posted by Mary Jo Frazier on October 8, 2017

Tags:
Performativity;
Power;
Sexual Orientation;
Politics and Policy;
Sexism

John Oliver interviews the Dalai Lama

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“Last Week Tonight” host John Oliver interviewed the Dalai Lama, a Nobel Peace laureate and Tibet’s spiritual and political exiled leader. With a hint of investigative journalism, Oliver used his gift of humor to engage the Dalai Lama in broad discussions from conflicts with the Chinese Government to claims that drinking horse milk will cure alcoholism. The interview demonstrated a self-reflective Dalai Lama laughing at labels from the Chinese Government. This televised comedy show provoked the Chinese government so much that they proclaimed the interview to be politically motivated and propaganda for an anti-China separatist movement.

Posted by Mary Jo Frazier on October 2, 2017

Tags:
Performativity;
Power;
Globalization;
Politics and Policy;
Religion

School of Rock First Day

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This is a clip from the movie School of Rock when Jack Black who plays Newy Finn has his first day as a substitute teacher. The language that he uses and the way he communicates is very out of role than what a student would expect from a teacher. Teachers are expected to all be in one speech community and Jack Black shows that he is not part of that speech community that most teachers are in.

Posted by Kayla Schulz on September 26, 2017

Tags:
Power;
Standard Language Ideology;
Style-shifting;
Education

Vladimir Putin Speaks English for the International Expositions Bureau

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This artifact shows Russia´s president Vladimir Putin welcoming the members of the 2013 International Exhibitions Bureau while speaking entirely in English. Putin usually avoids speaking in English even though he is known for knowing enough English to even correct his translators. Speaking English in this welcome video shows his appreciation and respect to the members and guests of the exhibition.

Posted by Giovanni Artavia on July 27, 2017

Tags:
Performativity;
Power;
English;
Accommodation;
Multilingualism

10 ASL Signs All Police Officers Should Know

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A deaf youtuber shares 10 signs that would be beneficial for police officers to know. Their knowledge of these signs would increase cooperation, breakdown linguistic barriers, and relieve anxiety for both the police officer and the person being detained.

Posted by Emily Jacobs on July 26, 2017

Tags:
Power;
American Sign Language;
Education

Martin Impersonates Daphne (Frasier)

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A scene from the show Frasier which showcases Martin Crane teasing Daphne Moon's English Accent. I see a two linguistic-anthropology elements in the scene. First, by code-switching dialect during the interaction he is drawing attention to the fact that Daphne is not American. What this accomplishes is up for debate given that the two are friends and that the interaction was not hostile in nature. I'm guessing that the impression may mildly suggest that the two are not on equal footing; one is a "native" while the other isn't. This may work in elevating Martin's position in the argument. Second, Martin mentions how Daphne is always complaining about what to do with her hair. Here he is indexing a gender identity that might conflict with his own. In the reading I came across portions that relate language use as a form of identity expression and so while Daphne was being expressive of her female identity Martin, annoyed by her, replied with an antagonistic male critique of her speech.

ASL Interpretation of Music

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The video starts by explaining some basics of ASL. It goes on to discuss the complexities of interpreting music in ASL and the language ideologies associated with ASL and deafness. I think this video also addresses issues of language and power when it discusses how ASL is subordinate to spoken language at things like music events, which limits access for those who are part of the ASL speech community.

Posted by Grace Bridges on June 27, 2017

Tags:
Ideology;
Power;
American Sign Language

Man Insults Puerto Rican for Speaking Spanish

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In this video, a man named Mike starts a racist rant against another man for speaking Spanish. Hector Torres, the guy speaking Spanish, was simply communicating to his mother in her mother tongue. Mike spends most of the video insulting Hector, and he even calls Hector a “spic”, which is a racist derogatory slur against Hispanics. Further, when Hector asked what he did wrong, Mike yells, “Talking that fucking stupid Spanish around here when everybody else is fucking English-speaking American.” His emphasis on separating Hector as a "spic" that speaks Spanish and everyone else as an English-speaking American is an attempt to alienate Hector because of his race and the language he speaks. We can infer from the video that Mike attributes to English some sense of national pride; he subscribes to the ideology of a single, exclusive national language that everyone in America has to speak.

Posted by Brian Quiroz on June 27, 2017

Tags:
Ideology;
Power;
Race,Ethnicity

Why Germans Can Say Things No One Else Can

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This video talks about language and it's ability to allow for thought, emotion, and the expression of feelings. It talks specifically about the German language and how they have a wide variety of words they can use to better describe a situation or feeling other languages might not be able to do as effectively. It explains many examples of this, along with the appropriate meaning in English. Having a different set of words to think with and use allows for a wide variety of unique knowledge one can obtain. This video just scratches the surface of the importance of language, and how language in our lives can change the way we think and interpret the world around us.

Being a Lady vs. commoner and your language usage

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Reign is a TV show based on the Mary Queen of Scots. I felt this show would be a great representation of what we have learned from because of how the women at during this time period are portrayed in the show. Lady Greer from the episode I shared is someone who cannot marry the ‘real’ man of her dreams. She ultimately falls in love with a servant who is below her station. Lady Greer’s sisters are hoping that Greer will marry a Lord or Duke who can provide them with dowries and have better chances to marry. Women during this time period had very little power in their role in society. Most of their lives depended on marrying someone well above their station. Your station determined whom you interacted with and your overall life. This reminds me of hegemony and hierarchy. Money was important especially to be considered for marriage. As Gramsci mentioned “one of the biggest driving struggles in society is money.” Though during this time many of those in power did not have the consent of the people. Many of those in power took what was not theirs for taking. Symbolic violence/misrecognition is also at play because as Bourdieu stated, “if you speak an accepted form of language then you have linguistic capital.” Based on your station if you were high ranking in society then you spoke a more “proper” form than those of lower ranking. As a result, those of higher ranking had more power. The class system then and now plays a role in society. Where you lie determines what opportunities you have available. It is a continuous process and struggle between the upper class and the lower class.

Posted by Angie Maupin on May 12, 2017

Tags:
Power

Words Without Humanity: George Carlin's explanation of "soft language"

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George Carlin discusses the changes in language that are used to control or manipulate certain viewpoints. He begins by stating that certain words or phrases are being replaced with others that totally drain them of meaning and humanity. Carlin points out changes in how we are supposed to refer to others ("freedom fighter" rather than commando), what certain objects are called ("dental appliances" rather than false teeth), and what certain conditions or actions should be called ("neutralize" rather than kill). Carlin says that it is those in power (whom he calls "smug, greedy, well-fed white people") change what language is socially acceptable in order to manipulate the average person and to benefit themselves.

Posted by Mitch Quaney on May 12, 2017

Tags:
Power;
Language Shift;
Politics and Policy

Icelanders Seek to Keep Their Language Alive and Out of 'the Latin Bin'

Icelanders are becoming concerned that their language is being overridden by the English language. The current official language in Iceland is Old Norse. It has changed in incredible amount over more than a thousand years and is now a unique dialect. Nowadays English is becoming more prominent due to the tourism industry and devices with automated voices in English. Only about 400,000 people speak it now, and with the vast globalization Icelanders as well as linguistic experts are in fear that Old Norse will have the same fate as Latin. [Published on 04-22-2017]

Posted by Eden Hailemariam on May 11, 2017

Tags:
Power;
English;
Change;
Language Shift

"Why Explaining 'The N-Word' To Non-Black People Is So Damn Exhausting"

Article on Cultural Perceptions of the N-Word. Deals with which groups have responsibility or control over a word (and if they can have this control). This also shows lay-person perspective on key socio-linguistic issues. [Published on 05-09-2017]

Covert Racism Found in Grey's Anatomy

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During this scene of Grey’s Anatomy, Amelia approaches Maggie, who is African American, about a situation where she felt like she may have come off racist. There are several points during their conversation in which anthropological elements are highlighted. One major example is presented when Maggie talks about about how people assume things about her based on her race. She mentions that she approached an airline ticket booth with a first class ticket and the attendant said, “We aren’t boarding coach yet.” Although this isn’t an overtly racist statement, the subtle racist ideas are still present. This example is similar to the statement “You can turn the air conditioning on if you want to” that we talked about during lecture. When we make implicit statements like these, we are giving power to racist ideas without coming out and using actual racist language. We let our assumptions do the talking and reinforce the racial stereotypes that already exist in our society.

Posted by Brianna Johnson on May 10, 2017

Tags:
Performativity;
Power;
Race,Ethnicity;
Slang

"El Messy Look": Mock Spanish and Code-switching in AXE Commercial

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Axe's new commercial for their "Messy Look" hair styling cream is a perfect example of the ways in which Mock Spanish is still prevalent in our society in 2017. Jane Hill, the inventor of the term, states in "Language, Race, and White Public Space" that one practice of Mock Spanish is "taking elements of Spanish morphology" such as the suffix -o and using Spanish modifiers such as "el" to create "jocular and pejorative" terms. In Axe's commercial, the actor refers to the product as "El Messy Look". Then, while giving instructions on using the cream, he says "First-o, take a finger to the cream..." At the end of the commercial, after showing off his confidence and "cultural awareness", the actor mishears the female bartender who actually speaks Spanish when she asks him a question, showing his ignorance. However, the bartender smiles at him, further enforcing Hill's ideas about Mock Spanish directly indexing the speaker as having desirable qualities, while simultaneously indirectly indexing the idea that Spanish is somehow less valuable than English.

Posted by Laurel Nagengast on May 8, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Power;
Code-switching;
Mock Spanish;
Race,Ethnicity;
whiteness

Alice Walker: Fear of Being Feminine

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Alice Walker is an American novelist, poet, and civil and women’s rights activist. She is best known for her critically acclaimed, Pulitzer Prize-winning novel The Color Purple. In this video, she talks about the negative repercussions of referring to women as ‘guys’. The type of situation she is referencing are when someone, say a server at a restaurant, walks up to a group of women and addresses them by saying “Hi guys, how are you doing today?” Men and women both do this in America and it only perpetuates the fear of being feminine, or a female in general. With so many women still fighting for equal rights, it is crucial to be proud of being a woman and for women to not label themselves or other women as ‘guys’. This way of speaking stems from the fact that the English language is a “masculine default” language. This means that masculinity, along with masculine terms, are the default in English and other feminine terms have been unnecessarily created in order to differentiate between a male and female performing the same role. A good example of this sociolinguistic model is actor vs. actress and waiter vs. waitress. The original words are changed when talking about a woman when really, the word itself is just supposed to describe the job someone is doing. Although feminine words are added, many people still use the masculine terms by default, creating an alienation and feeling of unimportance or lack of superiority for women. Unfortunately, the aforementioned linguistic features, along with calling a group of women “guys”, are innate in most people’s vocabulary and using them can be a very difficult habit to break. Walker suggests women coming together to change the way that they label themselves and other women in order to first separate women from men and then empower those women. Although it may seem like a small step on the way to equality, it is an extremely vital one.

Political Speech Comparison

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In this clip from "The Daily Show" Trevor Noah compares the speech of Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump. He comments on the surprise of hearing a politician "speak in full sentences", but also comments on how after listening to Donald Trump for so long a fruitful and complex political discussion is difficult to continue paying attention to.

Posted by Janet Sebastian-Coleman on May 4, 2017

Tags:
Ideology;
Performativity;
Power

Mad Men: Challenging Male Hegemony

This image is from the pilot episode of the TV series Mad Men and involves a character named Don Draper and a potential business partner Rachel Menken. In the scene, Don is pitching a business venture to Rachel, whom in a prior scene was wrongly assumed by Don to be a man due to her status in the business world. Rachel forcefully disagrees with Don’s pitch and asserts dominance over him, as she has the power to decline the business deal. Don becomes increasingly agitated and eventually abruptly exits in the meeting stating, “I’m not gonna let a woman talk to me like this”, as shown in the image above. Because Rachel is a woman in a dominant position, she comes across as being a “bitch”, whereas if she were a man, she would come across as confident and assertive. This is due to gendered ways of speaking that have been socially constructed based on ideologies and through socialization. Women’s language is expected to be cooperative and supportive while men’s is expected to be competitive and dominating. Furthermore, girls are socialized to maintain intimacy and criticize without appearing aggressive, while boys are socialized to assert dominance over situations. However, roles were reversed in the business meeting between Don and Rachel, challenging the language ideologies and male hegemonic society. This role reversal and challenge of male hegemony and its associated language ideologies sparked irritation in Don, causing him to react in a distasteful way and insult Rachel, thus furthering the notion that men are seen as superior to women.

Chelsea Handler Criticizes First Lady For Having An Accent

This news article/video is about how comedian Chelsea Handler put down First Lady Melania Trump for having an accent. Chelsea Handler stated that she would never have Melania Trump on her show because "she barley speaks English." However, the article quickly points out that the First Lady actually speaks at least five languages, including French, Slovene, Italian, German, and English. This portrays how language ideologies are used in everyday life and how it influences individuals' attitudes, beliefs, opinions and knowledge about language. In linguistic anthropology language ideologies are a set of shared beliefs, such as the appropriate language use or how language should be used by particular groups. Chelsea Handler has a negative attitude towards Melania Trump's accent because in the U.S., there is the idea or belief that powerful leaders in politics should not possess "foreign accents." Chelsea Handler's comment about not wanting Melania Trump on her show portrays the idea that English is the dominant language. In the United States the popular ideology in regards to the English-only Movement is very prevalent in today's society. [Published on 01-24-2017]

Posted by Marissa Khalil on May 3, 2017

Tags:
Power;
Standard Language Ideology;
Accent;
Politics and Policy

Always #LikeAGirl

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This term, “like a girl,” can show not only gender differences but also the power of masculinity in the United States. This commercial was able to take adults and ask a series of simple questions, for example, “show me how to run like a girl?” and everyone had their own way of “running like a girl.” However, when they asked younger girls, those who haven’t experienced the hegemony of our society, they showed “running like a girl” no different than “running like a boy.” Moreover, there are clear language ideologies between men and women in our society. This constitutes the fact that there are deep gender inequalities especially with the use and the meaning of certain phrases. However, this phrase and the way the younger girls interpret shows that there is performativity of gender, meaning that people constantly strengthen or reconfigure their gender ideologies.

Posted by Sarah Zimmerman on May 2, 2017

Tags:
Performativity;
Power;
Standard Language Ideology

Sometimes, it's ok to throw rocks at girls...

I was listening to a radio station (can't remember which one now) but they talked about an ad that said "Sometimes, it is okay to throw rocks at girls". This reminded me of a girl and wild shoe ad shown in class. "Rocks" in the ad simply meant that gems are often referred to as rocks. It was widely criticized for its in-sensitiveness. As the article reads, “many argued the advertisement supported a culture of violence against women.” Of course, a child would not see the play on words the company tried to convey but the literal message that it is okay to basically throw things at girls and hurt them. [Published on 03-27-2017]

Posted by Maria D. Santiago on May 2, 2017

Tags:
Power;
Youth;
Gender;
Sexism

Boys' keypads Versus Girls' keypads

This image of “boys’ keypads versus girls’ keypads” shows ideologies about gender and texting. Apparently on a woman’s keypad, there are only three not-so-much-informative words: hm, ok, and oh, while boys seem to text normally, at least in words or sentences. It also shows a phonological feature of women’s texting habits like “hmmmmm, okkkkkk, ohhhhhh” which seems unnecessary when conveying information. In the place of the punctuation button, women apparently use two emojis: smile and wink. This may indicate two things: women’s talk is more cooperative, emotional and encouraging; or women’s talk is mostly not genuine, since whatever others text, women only reply with a happy emoji. Compared to the ideologies that women talk more than men, this keyboard image seems to show women scarcely text anything more than three non-informative words and emojis. However, they both portray a negative image of women’s talk: not too much content. The anecdote also portrays a binary distinction between girls’ talk and boys’ talk, and ignores the varieties of how women/men actually talk in real life.

Posted by Mengting Jiang on May 1, 2017

Tags:
Ideology;
Power;
Gender;
Gender Binary;
Womens Language

Boys' keypads Versus Girls' keypads

This image of “boys’ keypads versus girls’ keypads” shows ideologies about gender and texting. Apparently on a woman’s keypad, there are only three not-so-much-informative words: hm, ok, and oh, while boys seem to text normally, at least in words or sentences. It also shows a phonological feature of women’s texting habits like “hmmmmm, okkkkkk, ohhhhhh” which seems unnecessary when conveying information. In the place of the punctuation button, women apparently use two emojis: smile and wink. This may indicate two things: women’s talk is more cooperative, emotional and encouraging; or women’s talk is mostly not genuine, since whatever others text, women only reply with a happy emoji. Compared to the ideologies that women talk more than men, this keyboard image seems to show women scarcely text anything more than three non-informative words and emojis. However, they both portray a negative image of women’s talk: not too much content. The anecdote also portrays a binary distinction between girls’ talk and boys’ talk, and ignores the varieties of how women/men actually talk in real life.

Posted by Mengting Jiang on May 1, 2017

Tags:
Ideology;
Power;
Gender;
Gender Binary;
Womens Language

Mitchell on Manners

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This is the first of a four part series exploring linguistic interactions surrounding manners and their culturally-defined meanings. The program describes how cultural norms determine what is considered polite or rude, such as what questions you can ask another person and how you should address people who are older or younger than you. Manners in Western Europe are explained to be standards set by the ruling and higher class members of society who sought to further establish their superiority over the lower classes, who couldn't afford eight different knives for a singular meal. The discussants also speak about a possible delineation between "etiquette" and "manners." The later portions of the program discuss expectations of social interaction, such as not constantly looking at one's phone while accompanied by another person and to ensure that there are no awkward pauses during a conversation.

Russell Peters - Red, White, and Brown

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Russell Peters is a famous Stand up comic who is known for his portrayals of other cultures and ability to mimic their accents. Russell is a world traveled individual who has shows in Bangkok, Dubai, Europe and America. He draws on his life interactions to really capture a moment or interaction and portray it in a humorous way. In this clip he is setting up a power hierarchy of cheapness and claiming that cheap is good thing to the minority and an insult to the Hegemonic identity in America. “Cheap” in this sense is going against the dominant cultural belief of cheap is an attribute that is unfavorable. This is showing the intermingled power struggle between the dominant class and others and how pushing back against ideologies is occurring. The voices used in separating the characters also indicate indexicality and Language socialization. The voices used help guide and reaffirm how we preserve different culture groups to sound. His experience and worldliness is also a point of power. Most people are not as traveled as Russell Peters and cannot truly understand the differences in cultures he is portraying however through him we get a glimpse of the other. He has the power in the setting and his perception of life is the one we are subjected to. His viewpoint on life is guided by humor and stereotyping for a broader audience in order to showcase cultural differences and how they interact and intermingle within the world.

Posted by Luke Engleman on April 27, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Power;
Code-switching

Hillary and Her Iconic Pantsuits.

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One thing that really stood out when Hillary Clinton was running for president was iconic attire. Orthodoxically, woman who are in or are running for higher professions, such as the Presidency or any other higher office, would be expected to wear clothing such as a dress, a skirt, or a pair of slacks. The pantsuits worn by Clinton, however, during much of the campaign, is heterodoxical to much of what is normally worn by women in these positions. Conventionally, there has been a very negative sentiment towards this style of clothing as it has been received as inappropriately masculine, and there have even been attempts to ban it in certain places. Therefore, her use of this masculine attire during her campaign can be seen as an appeal of increasing power among women.

Posted by Alex Petersen on April 26, 2017

Tags:
Power;
Gender;
gender non-conforming

Trump Relies on Mock Spanish to Talk About Immigration (OPINION)

This blog post is about how non-Spanish speaking white peoples' use of "mock Spanish" is a form of covert racism that is used as a unconsciously strategic effort to silently dominate the folks who are imagined to speak the language, but to do so through attempts at silliness, humor and acting "cool” or "with it". [Published on 10-20-2016]

"Stop Trying to Make 'Fetch' Happen"

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"Mean Girls" has provided us with an excellent example of the shortcomings of trying to attribute the success of certain linguistic features and usages solely to language-internal factors. The term 'Fetch', which would appear to offer extensive linguistic utility and and appeal, finds its success limited by the asymmetric, structural power differential between Regina George and Gretchen. As sociolinguists we must consequently keep in mind the need to contextualize speech features within wider historical and political movements (see Milroy and Milroy 1985: 13, "Prescription and Standardization" in Authority in Language).

Posted by Alex Li on March 30, 2017

Tags:
Power;
Borrowing

Hurt BAE

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This video shows a younger couple discussing the infidelity on part of the male in the relationship, while a variety of older viewers watch the conversation. The video shows the differences in how younger generations communicate versus older generations, and the changes in how we communicate. Throughout the video, you see and hear the various reactions from the group and hear their thoughts and perception of the situation based on the conversation between the couple and the memes that were posted on the internet about the video.

Posted by Stephanie Maxwell on March 9, 2017

Tags:
Power;
Change;
Gender

My Fair Lady - Why Can't The English?

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This song called "Why can't the English?" from the movie My Fair Lady. In this song Henry Higgins starts the song off by singing: "Look at her, a prisoner of the gutter, Condemned by every syllable she utters By right she should be taken out and hung, For the cold-blooded murder of the English tongue." referring to Hepburn. With this, followed by a lot of remarks that are similar in nature, he is implying very strongly that there is a Standard English language that should be spoken by all English people, and if anyone doesn't, "by right" they could be hung. He says most people are never "taught" and instead learn other stigmatized varieties of English and refers to these as murderers of the English tongue. He is in this way implying that there is a legitimate use of proper English language, and that is the standard variety that he speaks. therefore considering himself as a "better Englishman", and more educated, in this way making a social class distinction between him and the others. He is also implying that there should be unity of the nation as mentioned by Bourdieu in "The Production and Reproduction of Legitimate Language". Higgins refers to the English speaking people of England as Englishmen, but also mentions that non-standard speaking varieties are "painful to your ears" and is afraid they will never be able to get "one common language".

Be Free- J. Cole

The artist J. Cole uses his lyrics to express the danger of blacks and the hardships they face. He shares the pain and sorrow they go through his words.

Posted by Kayla Springs on February 28, 2017

Tags:
Performativity;
Power;
Grammaticalization;
Youth;
Race,Ethnicity

Jamila Lyiscott: 3 ways to speak English

Jamila Lyiscott is a “tri-tongued orator;” in her powerful spoken-word essay “Broken English,” she celebrates — and challenges — the three distinct flavors of English she speaks with her friends, in the classroom and with her parents. As she explores the complicated history and present-day identity that each language represents, she unpacks what it means to be “articulate.” [Published on 02-01-2014]

African Children Punished for Speaking Vernacular (Luganda in Uganda)

This brief web article exposes punishment of children for speaking their native languages in Africa and debunks the myths for why English is "needed." [Published on 2014]

Posted by Julia Swan on February 5, 2017

Tags:
Power;
Standard Language Ideology;
Multilingualism

Donald Trump’s strange speaking style, as explained by linguists

This article has linguists examine Donald Trumps speaking style. It examines his linguistic approach through many different angles and talks about why some people can relate to it more than others. It proves how language and power can play a pivotal role in politics and spreading a message. [Published on 09-26-2016]

Posted by Chris Robb on October 16, 2016

Tags:
Power;
Style-shifting;
Politics and Policy

Talk “Like a Man”: The Linguistic Styles of Hillary Clinton, 1992-2013

This article examines the changes in Hillary Clinton's linguistic style from the years of 1992-2013. Many people have claimed that she talks "like a man," and this article examines that theory. In the article Jennifer J. Jones proves how Hillary went to more of a masculine linguistic approach to a more feministic approach in 2007. There are many reasons for these changes that are reflected in this article. [Published on 08-17-2016]

Watch the second presidential debate between Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton

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Certain ideologies have been established without actually speaking, such as handshaking. In the recent debate it was apparent as the candidates met on the debate stage there was no such exchange. Throughout the debate Mr. Trump displayed numerous was to establish power, both through gestures and verbal exchange. Mr. Trump stood throughout and when Senator Clinton was speaking he often stood behind her. This could be interpreted as a stand of power. Mr. Trump interrupted and made comments while Senator Clinton was talking that could have been an attempt to establish power. Mr. Trump’s continued reference to “locker room talk” could appear to be gender based.

Posted by Madison Curnow on October 16, 2016

Tags:
Ideology;
Power;
Gender

Broken English

Poet Jamila Lyiscott expresses her anger towards racial disparity in specifically the English language in her essay "Broken English." She mocks what it means to be articulate and how language is identified as good versus bad according to societal norms. Touching on the three voices she considers are her languages, Jamila confronts the issue of euro-centrism and what language stands for.

Posted by Samantha Blaesing on October 15, 2016

Tags:
Power;
Standard Language Ideology

Inner White Girl

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This video shows how comedy has taken advantage of code switching. This is comedy but it exemplifies the power of speech. When the character speaks AAVE they are stereotyped as untrustworthy and dishonest. The style of speech is indexical in social positioning. Even though the skit was meant to be funny it has been criticized as degrading and insulting.

Posted by Madison Curnow on October 4, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality;
Power;
African American English;
Code-switching

Burger King - World Literacy Month

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This video was used by Burger King to raise awareness for World Literacy Month. The video shows a variety of people in a Burger King drive thru line. As the customers get up to the menu they realize that all of the food items are written in gibberish. They cannot understand what is written and are told to go to the window where they are told that 1 out of 5 people in the world cannot read. This call to awareness shows how difficult it is for people with not only language barriers but people who cannot read. It demonstraits the difficulties to get through the day for many people facing this problem.

Posted by Danielle Wismer on October 2, 2016

Tags:
Power;
Language Shift;
Education;
Globalization

"Hispandering"

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This clip is a president election debate and it’s regarding Latino issue. Both of the candidates are in favor of Latino and against deportation. The debate end with “that what we are trying to do is to united families and not to divide families”. This clip is a really good example of expanding “hispandering”.

Posted by Cyndi Lin on September 29, 2016

Tags:
Power;
Mock Spanish

Who is really “American”?

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People from North, South and Central America discuss the use of the term “American” as an identifier by people from the United States. "Americans" have a linguistic ideology about what it means to be one and seem to ignore the fact that it excludes people from all other regions in the Americas.

The Power of Language

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I believe that this clip demonstrates the power that is in language. Language can be used to influence and audience and can be altered in such a way to make something seem more appealing. Language is often used as a way of creating ideologies, especially in politics. In this video Bill Maher shows us that political parties are constantly trying to find the best wording to get their ideologies across to their audience and get the best response.

Posted by Eden Franklin on July 28, 2016

Tags:
Ideology;
Power;
Politics and Policy

Code-Switching: Obama's 'Nigga' Moment Makes Civil Rights History

The article includes the quote from President Obama "Yo, Barry, you did it my nigga!" which ended the President's final White House Correspondents Dinner. The importance of this is the switch between what could be considered formal English and AAVE. The article also addresses the question of language ideologies by responding to the idea that it was inappropriate for the term "my nigga!" to be included in the speech. Furthermore, that language ideology is rooted in racist ideologies, so the utterance is also a response to power structures. [Published on 05-02-2016]

Issues of Hispandering

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Comedienne Cristela Alonzo discusses Hispandering in her own experience growing up in South Texas, often referring to political campaigns and gender issues.

Posted by Caitlin Ogren on July 27, 2016

Tags:
Performativity;
Power;
Mock Spanish

Melania Trump Echoes Michelle Obama in Convention Speech

As the title suggests, presidential hopeful, Donald Trump's wife Melania Trump gave her first major political speech last night. Many found striking similarities between her speech last night and that of First Lady Michelle Obama's earlier DNC speech. These similarities bring up the question of "shared values" or plagiarism. Also notable are factors such as Melania's native language not being English: how did this affect the speech and the way it was received? [Published on 07-18-2016]

Posted by Erika Huff on July 19, 2016

Tags:
Ideology;
Performativity;
Power;
Accent;
Politics and Policy

Should Holocaust Denial be Criminalized?

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Fascinating example of rhetorical devices and traditions at the Oxford Union...Question is whether holocaust denial should be criminalized. Proponents narrow the scope of the debate, opponents broaden the issue well beyond holocaust denial. Also, I love the fact that at the Oxford Union, the speakers are introduced by their opposition in the debate...great device that illustrates the philosophy of this great institution.

Posted by Scott Russell on March 11, 2016

Tags:
Ideology;
Power;
Discourse

Gulf Between Words and Actions @ CU-Boulder

Very interesting article illustrate a situation where simply using the "right words" isn't enough. [Published on 03-10-2016]

Posted by Scott Russell on March 11, 2016

Tags:
Power;
Race,Ethnicity;
Politics and Policy

Mock Spanish in Scrubs

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A popular T.V. comedy depicting a doctor using Spanish as a way to demean the Hispanic nurse he is speaking to.

Posted by Amanda Salamanca on March 10, 2016

Tags:
Ideology;
Power;
Code-switching;
Mock Spanish

Potty-Mouthed Princesses Drop F-Bombs for Feminism by FCKH8.com

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This video uses young girl cussing to show that there are more problems in society than little girls cussing. The fact that they are talking the way they are is shocking, which is done to make people actually listen to the bigger point.

Posted by Brittany Weinlood on March 9, 2016

Tags:
Power;
Youth;
Femininity;
Gender;
Womens Language;
Sexism;
Slang;
Stigma

Why the f*** shouldn't women swear?

This article talks about sexism in the fact that there is an idea that women should not curse. For example, it mentions that people tell female rapper, Nicki Minaj that she should not cuss, but the same is not said to male rappers, like Eminem or Lil Wayne [Published on 11-04-2014]

Posted by Brittany Weinlood on March 9, 2016

Tags:
Ideology;
Power;
Gender;
Womens Language;
Stigma

Formation - Beyonce

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In this video, singer Beyonce uses her lyrics and video to demonstrate her frustration with society, police brutality, and racism.

Posted by Zana Pascoe on March 9, 2016

Tags:
Performativity;
Power;
Race,Ethnicity;
Hip Hop Nation;
Slang

Language in prison: Solitary linguistic confinement

This article describes the importance of language and communication for human health and sanity. The effects of non communication and language between human beings is extremely detrimental to a persons sanity. They come to the conclusion that human interaction is a basic human right, just as necessary as food or water, but that it is not treated as such in prisons across the world. [Published on 04-16-2013]

Posted by Ainise Havili on March 8, 2016

Tags:
Power;
Communities of Practice;
Contact;
Slang

Power of Speech

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This is an example of the power within language. The passion, emotion and tone in which Hitler speaks reaches his supporters in an inhumane manner. Eventually, enough of these powerful speeches led to the brainwashing of many Germans and the annihilation of Jews (amongst other populations) in Nazi Germany.

Posted by Jeremy Gutovitz on March 8, 2016

Tags:
Power;
Race,Ethnicity

Teaching English in Ghana

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In this video, a women is teaching children from Ghana english. To me this is power, knowledge is power, and especially language is power. Language is the foundation to something powerful.

Posted by Shane Bessette on March 8, 2016

Tags:
Power

But What Does Bae Actually Mean?

In this article, the author explores the history and rise of the word "bae" in popular culture, noting that the term has actually been around much longer than its 2014 introduction to the mainstream. Many who grew up hearing and speaking AAVE have used "bae" in conversation for years, and the term has been commercialized to a point where it has lost its original vibe and is now being "sold back" to its original users. [Published on 03-07-2016]

Family Guy Stereotypes

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This video is a combination of stereotypes that have aired on family guy over the years. Many of these stereotypes have to do with race and language in society today.

Why these UK school kids love learning languages

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This group of students talk about why they feel it is important to learn a different language.These students are amazing in the sense that they seem so grown up and ready to take on the world, and language is one very powerful tool to help them do just that!

Gangs: Slang, Words, Symbols

This article contains the language used between the intricate structures of gangs in American communities. One could say gangs are like their own society with a language of their own, only used by members within it. They have grown and evolved throughout the years due to drugs and the growing popularity of fire arms. Because of this the linguistic structure of street gangs have also evolved into, sometimes, very complicated language structure. [Published on 03-01-2011]

Posted by Ainise Havili on March 7, 2016

Tags:
Ideology;
Power;
Code-switching;
Youth;
Slang

CNN Election Center

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In this video there are many different types of sociolinguistic artifacts, and in any kind of SNL skit they have to make it more dramatic to bring out the commentary. Yet, within this clip you see many types of tags used within the first few minutes. For example, Donald Trump is the first person to be impersonated, but within the short clip that he is in he shows tags of "Race/Ethnicity, Sexism, Gender, Politics and Policy". And for Hillary Clinton she is showing many of the same character traits as well. Within all of these impersonators they are all trying to benefit themselves in some way that looks appealing to the audience.

How to understand the differences between British and American English

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The video does a great job at comparing words and the differences in meanings they can portray whether being interpreted from someone from the U.S OR U.K. It shows the power of the interpretation of language and how it can cause an interaction to be positive or negative. It shows the importance of linguistic relativity and the social context individuals are a part of.

Nigerian Pidgin English accepted as unofficial second language

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A news story with examples of spoken NPE as well as cultural context for the shift in perception of the Creole Language.

Be Free

Rapper J. Cole uses his words to express the danger of African Americans and the struggle that they go through. He uses his words as symbols and powerful words to paint the picture of the pain.

Stephen Fry - The power of words in Nazi Germany

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Stephen Fry speaks about the power of language during the time of Nazi Germany and how using certain words to describe others can change everyone's perception of those people. This video significantly shows how language influences world-view.

Posted by Samuel Schmidgall on March 5, 2016

Tags:
Performativity;
Power;
Race,Ethnicity

Hillary Clinton "Hispandering" Pummeled On Twitter

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A news reporter talks about Hillary Clinton and her "Washington games." He mentions that now because of the internet, she is no longer able to continue the same political approach as she has in the past. He also calls her out on her calm that she is just like the Latinos abuela, and how far off she really is with this claim.

SNL - Sexual Harassment and You

In this Saturday Night Live skit the are discussing how the work place used to just be guys and was easier that way, now that it is filled with women as well law suits happen more often. They send this geeky guy to ask a girl on a date and he gets rejected and then a 'handsome' guy does the same thing and grabs her boob and gets accepted. This video is full of stigma's, gender issues, masculinity issues and sexism at the beginning.

Posted by Madison Rigdon on March 4, 2016

Tags:
Power;
Variation;
Masculinity;
Gender;
Sexism;
Stigma

Time to say goodbye

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Andrea and Sarah Brightman were invited to perform the duet 'Time To Say Goodbye (Con Te Partirò). I love this song and I do not even know what they are saying, until code-switching occurs. I do not know the language that they are singing in?

Posted by Mylls Cheffey on March 3, 2016

Tags:
Power;
American English;
Code-switching

Tense Present: Democracy, English and the Wars Over Usage

David Foster Wallace reviews 'A Dictionary of Modern American Usage'. In so doing, Wallace explores how language rules are developed and on what authority they are created. Near the end he tells a story about trying to convince students to write in what he calls SWE "Standard Written English" or "Standard White English". [Published on 04-01-2001]

"The Day Beyonce Turned Black"

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Within this SNL skit, there are many different forms of language used. For this skit, it is explaining how caucasian people tend to look at the world in a over dramatic way. Throughout the skit, there are race, gender, & sexualities between white and blacks. This skit has a comical view on different political problems that we have in this country today, and what the children of our culture are growing up in.

Carlton

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This particular clip shows the comparisons of what some specific groups might think of how someone should be because of color and class when it is society who defines these boundaries.

Freshwoman

This article has an interesting perspective on Language and sexism. How our language is still objectifying woman. It's speaks to the power of the words we use. [Published on 03-20-2012]

Posted by Tricia Roberson on February 17, 2016

Tags:
Power;
Femininity;
Masculinity;
Gender;
Gender Binary;
Sexism

Cultural Hegemony

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A wonderfully concise description of hegemony, with real world examples of things we see in our everyday life that we may overlook. This idea relates to language in how our society favors standard English and those who utilize it.

Posted by Amanda Salamanca on February 16, 2016

Tags:
Ideology;
Power;
Standard Language Ideology;
Slang

What Matters- Code Switching: Communication That Matters

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A great video on a more educational aspect of code switching and how important it is to understand the implications of this valuable language tool.

Posted by Amanda Salamanca on February 16, 2016

Tags:
Power;
African American English;
Code-switching

We Can Do IT

This sign was an empowerment for women to join the workforce and was widely re-popularized in the 80's Women's Movement promoting equality in the workplace. [Published on 09-22-2014]

Posted by Michael Allan on February 12, 2016

Tags:
Ideology;
Power;
Femininity

"Hispandering" through food.

I am starting my proposal for my research paper and we are tasked with investigating "Hispandering" from a linguistic anthropological perspective. This add personifies "Hispandering" it uses performance to elicit feelings about stereotypes of ethnicity. [Published on 09-30-2014]

Posted by Tricia Roberson on February 12, 2016

Tags:
Performativity;
Power;
Spanish;
Race,Ethnicity;
Multilingualism

The US Supreme Court legally defines our words

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The United States Supreme Court defines the word "marriage" in a legal and social context by defining the "Equal Protection" clause of the 14th Amendment to the US Constitution.

Posted by Jasmine E Thompson on January 24, 2016

Tags:
Power;
Politics and Policy

LGBTQ girls and the heterosexual marketplace

This article isn't specifically linguistic, but relates to Eckert's notion of the heterosexual marketplace, where adolescents learn how to speak/act/dress/present in the best way possible to attract people of the 'opposite' sex and thus gain popularity. This article deals with how lesbian and queer girls fair in this social structure as people who essentially do not participate in the heterosexual marketplace. Interestingly, the article posits that a good way to combat the isolation of non-conforming young people would be for schools/institutions to reward non-physical and non-sexual achievements. I find this a strange concept because I think of popularity/success in the heterosexual marketplace as being determined almost entirely separately from school-sanctioned recognition of achievement; in fact, I think institutional recognition often detracts from a person's success in the marketplace, and I wonder how/whether institutions are capable of causing a shift in the dynamics of young people's social structure. [Published on 3132013]

Posted by Chase Doremus on April 16, 2015

Tags:
Eckert, Penelope;
Performativity;
Power;
Femininity;
Sexual Orientation

Debate about who gets to use a word

cw: discussion of racial slur This is a CNN interview between a white commentator and a black rapper named Trinidad. They're debating about use of the n-word. I find the controversy about who gets to use certain words fascinating. I hear a power & privilege conversation most often, as well as an "in-group" vs "out-group" conversation. [Published on 03-17-2015]

Posted by Chase Doremus on March 17, 2015

Tags:
Ideology;
Power;
African American English;
Race,Ethnicity;
Stigma;
Lexicon

Philippine "Gay Lingo"

The following quote from the Bourdieu reading reminded me of Swardspeak (or Bekimon), an argot/slang used by queer communities in the Philippines (where I was born and raised): "it is not space which defines language but language which defines its space" (44) (Citation: Bourdieu, Pierre. 1991. Language and Symbolic Power.) Swardspeak has indeed created a distinct space for gay communities in the Philippines, helping them resist cultural assimilation. The linked Wikipedia article has more information as well as great examples of Swardspeak constructions. Here's a clip of how it sounds. It's from a hit talk show; the host, Vice Ganda, a queer comedian/TV personality, makes his guests reenact a scene from their movie in standard Tagalog and then in Swardspeak. It's mostly in Tagalog, but I think it's pretty easy to tell how different Swardspeak is. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dfZ91K2MS6g

Posted by Korina Yoo on February 19, 2015

Tags:
Power;
Code-switching;
Slang

Thug Kitchen: Literary Blackface

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"Now, the Hollywood couple behind online blog turned vegan cookbook are in the limelight for a clumsily adopted, expletive-charged “thug” persona reminiscent of hypermasculine Black men. Thug is a heavily loaded word and while it is not explicitly synonymous with African Americans, it recently adopted new meaning and performs as a colloquial version of the n word. Did I mention the founders of Thug Kitchen are white? Yes, white. The authors kept their identities anonymous for quite some time." -http://www.forharriet.com/2014/10/dear-creators-of-thug-kitchen-stop.html#axzz3S8EWrMRn

Posted by Katie Farr on February 18, 2015

Tags:
Power;
Race,Ethnicity;
Socioeconomic Status;
Stigma

How to Say Sḵwx̱wú7mesh (Skwomesh)

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My housemate just got back from vacation in Canada and asked me how to pronounce "7" because she'd seen it on a road sign. I find it telling that a writing system not necessarily suited to the Squamish language is used for road signs (no glottal stop on an English typewriter). Having lived in the PNW for the past few years and being constantly surrounded by such names has made me wonder how true those names are to their originals, and what that means about the relationships between America/the English language and these native languages' speakers.

Posted by Maren Fichter on September 5, 2014

Tags:
Power;
Borrowing;
American Indian;
Contact;
Squamish

BBC News: Economic success drives language extinction

Research shows that in countries with more successful economies, minority languages are at greater risk of extinction (due to one language dominating political, educational, and economic spheres). [Published on 09-02-2014]

Posted by Emma Rennie on September 4, 2014

Tags:
Power;
Monolingualism;
Politics and Policy

Dark-skinned and plus-sized: the real Rachel Jeantel story

Report on how the defence lawyer in trial of Trayvon Martin's killer tried to make Martin's girlfriend's testimony sound less convincing by discrediting her and her non-standard English.

The 'Demubarakization' of Egypt

A NYT blog piece on the removal of the name "Mubarak" from many places and institutions after his abdication.

Posted by Meredith Tamminga on June 19, 2013

Tags:
Power;
Lexicon;
Politics and Policy

NYT: Afghan boys are prized, so girls live the part

A 2010 story about "bacha posh" ("dressed up as a boy") girls in Afghanistan.

Posted on October 4, 2012

Tags:
Gender;
Power

Anita Hill-Clarence Thomas Hearings

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A clip from the 1991 confirmation hearing of Supreme Court Justic Clarence Thomas, which shows Senator Arlen Specter questioning Anita Hill. I use this with the reading: Mendoza-Denton, Norma. 1995. "Pregnant Pauses: Silence and Authority in the Anita Hill-Clarence Thomas Hearings."