A video explaining diglossia with some examples of how and where it occurs. Only about the first 3 minutes are relevant.
An SNL sketch about how to speak "the language of children".
Rich Vs Good In English | Street Interview IndiaPlay video
Siddhartth Amar, a youtuber, interviews Indian people in the street to ask whether they'd prefer a romantic partner be rich or be fluent in English.
Culcha Candela- I like itPlay video
This is a German band that sings in various codes, this song is an example of code switching between Spanish, German and English. [Published on 03-19-2015]
Angel Haze interview with white DJPlay video
Artifact 1 of 2 in an analysis of style-shifting as a function of interviewer race. This interview was analyzed as part of a project on Coronal Stop Deletion in the speech of Hip Hop artists. [Published on 02-06-2014]
9 LanguagesPlay video
Matthew tells his story about the languages he speaks. He speaks several different languages throughout the clip.
President Obama's Anger TranslatorPlay video
President Obama gets an anger translator. This video is comedic twist to a typical presidential speech.
Code-switching in the song "Exotic"Play video
This artifact is the song “Exotic” by Priyanka Chopra ft. Pitbull, and this is an example of code-switching because they sing in Hindi and English, which is because of Priyanka Chopra and her Indian roots and her attempt to add some of her culture and language to this song. The song also mentions various cities/countries around the world. Thus, the song’s use of Hindi and English expresses code-switching and shows her reaching out to a larger and more diverse audience.
Code switchingPlay video
This is a video showing a young boy and his sister speaking to each other in Korean. Their father asks the boy some questions in English, and the boy responds to him in English. This is a perfect example of code-switching between the English and Korean languages.
Scarface interview with Sway's UniversePlay video
Scarface appears on Sway's Universe's radio show as a guest and talks about his life and gives stories about his time with Tupac. Used in analysis of his linguistic authenticity.
Interview with rapper Angel HazePlay video
Artifact 2 of 2 in an analysis of style-shifting as a function of interviewer race. This interview was analyzed as part of a project on Coronal Stop Deletion in the speech of Hip Hop artists.
White Chicks TrailerPlay video
this is just the trailer, the real artifact is the movie as a whole. Two black men put on whiteface to impersonate rich white women to solve a case for the FBI. The only thing keeping their characters intact is their use of language, which sometimes returns to AAE for comedic contrast. WARNING the movie features some casual homophobia and transphobia.
Gob's Perception of the Effect of Skin Color on VoicePlay video
In this very short clip from Arrested Development, Gob's puppet Franklin comes out of the dryer with the color drained from his cloth. Gob had always used AAL for the puppet, but in this clip he uses British English. Since Franklin's cloth/skin is light now, the joke is that he also lost his AAL repertoire and gained a British English variety of speaking. This is an example of the the oversimplified way that people often see language variants as stereotypically mapping on to people.
When You Sound Different on the PhonePlay video
This is a skit about a mother and daughter who are Cuban-Americans and each have a different voice when talking on the phone. This is an example of a linguistic repertoire- the mother and daughter are pulling on different resources. It also shows the speaker shifting in speech towards the audience, and the mother and daughter each chose (subconsciously) to use a different accent when on the phone to index things different to what their natural accents would index.
How do Mexican People Say "Despacito"Play video
Cutest video of a young girl who has grown up hearing different ways of pronouncing loan words, and is able to pronounce both an English and Mexican pronunciation perfectly. She is showing the different linguistic resources that she can draw on, see our discussion on Tuesday in class about repertoire.
Encounter between two polyglots in 21 languagesPlay video
Just a fun video where two people spontaneously meet on the street and discover that they can fluently communicate with each other in 21 languages.
Usage of clothing by immigrant women in the United States as a form of code-switching to help them identify / be identified with the culture they want to be [Published on 07-13-2017]
Don Omar - Danza Kuduro ft. LucenzoPlay video
The song Danza Kuduro is an example of the effect globalization has had on language. It is sung in both Portuguese and Spanish, with the music video also utilizing English, by Don Omar, a Latin American pop star, and Lucenzo, a French-Portuguese artist. Borrowing from African culture, the kuduro itself is a type of dance that originated in Africa becoming popular in Angola, a Portuguese colony. The song was number one on the charts in Argentina, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland, showcasing how the song transcended language barriers and how globalization has impacted language use.
Language Bias Among GenerationsPlay video
How the way you speak can show what kind of person you are. Vera Regan, a sociolinguists discusses this topic and how language is always changing. This can vary from word order, to the ways things are said differently and can mean the same thing, to the ways that different generations speak. Dependent on what generation you are from, you might have different rules for the way to speak and understand languages. This can lead to language ideologies and how one generation believes how everyone that speaks that language should speak.
Here is an article from NBC News reporting about code-switching between the Spanish and English languages in one conversation, called ‘Spanglish’. Spanglish speakers make up a Community of Practice by sharing the practice of using a combination of English and Spanish language. Other language combinations, like Chinglish, often a combination of Mandarin and English, are also acknowledged as a Community of Practice for bilinguals. [Published on 04-05-2018]
Dialects of the English LanguagePlay video
This video is an example of the various dialects of the english language, based on speech communities and certain language ideologies. Jamila Lyiscott is a "tri-tongued orator". Race/ethncity have a lot to do with the way in which people speak, as well as where same one was raised. Jamila is an example of these language ideologies, and how perceptions made of the way one speaks may not always be informative to who they are.
In this article AT McWilliams observes the light the movie _Sorry to Bother You_ brought to code switching. He also observes what code switching really means for African Americans and highlights the importance of more people learning about code switching [Published on 07-25-2018]
World of dave: Guessing Konglish words.Play video
Dave, an American Youtuber who lives in Korean uses his youtube channel to teach Korean to English speakers and English to Koreans. In this video, his brother is visiting and he makes him guess the meaning of Konglish words. Konglish words, as you might be able to guess by the name, English words only used in Korean, but not really. It is a bit of a slang language as most Konglish words are spoken an American accent but are not the same words used in American English. The Koreans made their own words based on the properties of the item, idea or place. Some words are also based on American slang terms, such as sum, this is based on the slang for "something" which means there is a relationship between two people that are not an official couple.
Dilarya Bagapova "Soldier"/Диляра Вагапова "Солдат"Play video
This is a video of Tatar singer Dilarya Vagapova performing a half-Tatar half-Russian reggae song 'Soldier', originally a Russian song by a Ukrainian band, on the Russian version of the Voice. She uses the switch between Tatar and Russian to reinforce her own ethnic identity and to also display her knowledge of multiple codes, including international ones (as the song contains some English lyrics). наслаждайтесь!
For Me Formidable, French & English code-switchingPlay video
This song utilizes code-switching between English and French to make use of puns and access prestige in both languages. It questions constraint models with its intra-sentential switches that produce ungrammatical expressions in both English and French.
Stand By Me - Prince RoycePlay video
Released in 2010, this version of 'Stand By Me' sung by Prince Royce utilizes code-switching between Spanish and English.
Palabra Mi Amor - A French song that’s mostly English and Spanish!Play video
The French band Shaka Ponk is known for their multilingual lyrics, as they code switch in Spanish, French, English, and Esperanto. This song is semi-exceptional as they use more French than in their other songs. (For a song with Esperanto, listen to Eh La Mala Lama Laico). They use a non standard variety of English while singing (copula deletion), and you can also see adoption of English loanwords into their French vernacular.
Japanese/English Code Switching / BorrowingPlay video
Nihonglish Gairaigo -- English words sprinkled throughout the speech... although this is was created mostly as a showcase of intonation, it seems to be a bit of a social commentary on language use and foreigners.
Tant Que J'ai Soleil (Staring at the Sun - French Version) - MIKAPlay video
A song by French-speaking British artist MIKA, who is known for releasing songs in English, French, and occasionally both, as this example demonstrates. It features examples of inter- and intra-sentential codeswitching and has an all-English counterpart against which it can be compared.
Helga Feddersen & Didi Hallervorden - Du, die Wanne ist vollPlay video
Du, die Wanne ist voll is a very famous parody on the song "You're the one I want". It demonstrates code-switching between German and English.
Made In-MedinePlay video
This song is "Made In" by the French-Algerian Kabyle rapper Medine. The lyrics are mostly in French, with code switching to English and briefly to Arabic. The song is about being proud of one's ethnic/cultural heritage and/or immigrant identity. The song celebrates diverse origins and experiences, and the code switching helps to support that message and lend the lyrics a global feeling.
Chinglish PhrasesPlay video
This video gives examples of Chinglish (Chinese and English) phrases found in everyday life.
Hip Hop Artists in China Add American Rap Language and Culture in Their Rap musicPlay video
“Made in China” is a Chinese rap music. The lyrics contain Chinese and English, and the singers add rhymes of both languages in some words and sentences. Meanwhile, the artists mix Chinese and American hiphop culture together. This song also represents a group of Chinese rappers try to break some traditional “rules” in mainstream culture.
Learning Language Out of Comfort LevelPlay video
This is a clip from an Indian movie 'English Vinglish'. The protagonist, a small snack entrepreneur, secretly enrolls in an English speaking course to stop her husband and daughter mocking her lack of English skills. She goes out of her comfort level and tries to learn new language. This clip shows her newly gained self-confidence and self-respect when she gives a speech in English during a relative's wedding.
Chardjou dialect of TurkmenPlay video
Indexicality of a tribal affiliation through use of code switching from Chardjou dialect to Russian.
This podcast, "Ear Hustle" discusses the reality of life in prison, created in a prison by prisoner Earlonne Woods and a prison volunteer and artist named Nigel Poor. The first episode, "Cellies" describes the meaning of the word "Ear Hustle" which is synonymous with eavesdropping. Prison language and the language used outside of prison is highly various. This is just an example of various language used in prison and the connection to prison culture. [Published on 06-14-2017]
Hinglish - Code Switched Hindi + EnglishPlay video
The Portsmouth College, UK has started a course for Hinglish language. Hinglish is the mixed/code switched version of Hindi and English, and is the popular street language in India.
Excerpt from Donald Glover'sPlay video
I used these four songs, a clip from "Weirdo," and this interview of Donald Glover's coronal stop deletion.
Kevin Hart in "Night School"Play video
In the trailer for the new movie "Night School" starring Kevin Hart, the white principal of the high school "talks Black" and is confronted by Kevin Hart about it, as can be seen at the 48 second mark and the 2 minute and 14 second mark.
Jackie Aina's Review of Inclusive Fenty BeautyPlay video
Jackie Aina is a popular black makeup artist and YouTuber who frankly discusses issues of race. She also frequently employs some features of African American English along with Standard English, unlike some other popular black beauty YouTubers who use more Standard English in their videos.
The Cost of Code SwitchingPlay video
This is a 10 minute TedX video addressing the complexities of style shifting/code switching in America, specifically AAE speakers being expected to conform to "standard forms" to survive in America. This talk addresses issues of police brutality, racism, and expectations of who is expected to style shift/code switch and why.
This article discusses the immense popularity of the Maori dub of Moana, showed at 30 free theaters across New Zealand. Maori has historically been a highly stigmatized language in New Zealand, and many speakers of the boomer generation were discouraged from speaking Maori when they were younger. Much like Hungarian in the Gal (1978) paper dealing with a Hungarian/German bilingual community, Maori is in danger of extinction as younger speakers use it less and less to attain prestige through English. However, this film is part of an effort to give Maori covert and explicit prestige among younger speakers through its association with a cool, hip film.
Comedy podcast including race and gender. [Published on 04-18-2016]
Hey MaPlay video
Pitbull, J Balvin, and Camila Cabello made a bilingual version of the song Hey Ma. This song is an example of code-switching with them switching between Spanish and English throughout the song. They do this to bring in a larger audience and be more inclusive and show off their heritage.
I know you Want MePlay video
This artifact is of the Song "I know you want me" by Pitbull and is an example of code switching because he uses Spanish and English to sing the song, Pitbull also tries to incorporate his version of the Spanish heritage into the song by switching between Spanish and English to reach out to his audience of both languages.
Dave/Erina trying Super Spicy Yeobki TteokbokkiPlay video
In this video Dave (the man) and Erina (the woman) are trying a super spicy Korean rice cake dish. In the video both are using Korean, neither being their native languages, but through the experience of eating the food we see an instance of code-switching from both parties due to the spiciness; Erina to Japanese, and Dave to English.
When You're Latino & You Suck At SpanishPlay video
This video depicts a young Latina woman who struggles to fit into a bilingual speech community. Her peers code switch between English and Spanish, expect her to do the same, and tease her when she cannot.
Camila Cabello - Havana (Spanglish Solo Version)Play video
Camila's Havana song is one of many examples of popular songs that are using Spanglish. Spanglish, an example of how code-switching, is becoming popular in the music industry. It is interesting to see how artists are proud and secure to show that they are bilingual. I feel, in a way, these artists are using code-switching to grab audience's attention and to show their roots (Hispanic/Asian/ etc.).
Google translate DespacitoPlay video
Language ideology; it was thought Spanish can be a sexy/scandalous language but do non Spanish speakers really know what's being said. The lyrics does sound sexy and perfect with the melody. Code-switching; the translation is not what the music (song) portrays. The lyrics translation is not sexy, or 'catchy' it's not even what us non Spanish speakers feel the music should be. The fella said Despacito meant slowly, but the song indicates it means quickly.
This article shows and interesting way of performativity in regards to the way texting has evolved over time. [Published on 12-20-2015]
Why don't Chinese students speak EnglishPlay video
The video Why don't Chinese students speak English statements the reasons why Chinese students don’t speak English from the youtubers’ perspective. The video starts with a daily scenario of a few Chinese students speaking Chinese in the elevator. It makes the three American guys feeling awkward because what the Chinese people are talking about. I agree with the claim that that it is easier to solve problems in native language. It ends with a scenario that two Americans try to speak Chinese in an elevator when some Chinese people is present but they finally give up and speak their native language English. This video is related with code-switching and language globalization.
This Is How I talk SNL SkitPlay video
The SNL skit "This is How I Talk" plays off of linguistic and societal norms attributed to different groups of people (in this case black and white people) to create a humorous situation. The situation is funny because Louis C.K. who is an extremely white individual and a speaker of Standard English, pretends to be a native speaker of African-American Vernacular English to avoid letting his new boss know that he was making fun of her. This is unusual because AAVE is strongly associated with race, so to see a white man using this speech type is so out of the ordinary as to be humorous. Later on in the clip, Brenda switches to SE in order to find out for sure if Louis C.K.'s character is only pretending to speak AAVE natively. While she is speaking, she says that "this is my real voice. See, I went to a good college..." indicating the common conception that AAVE is not an "academic" form of speech and reinforcing the social hierarchy that is related to American dialects.
Moana - How Far I'll GoPlay video
This version of the song “How Far I’ll Go” in the 2016 Disney movie, Moana, features a combination of 24 various languages. The clip details code-switching which can be described as the practice of alternating between two or more languages. Typically, code-switching is done in conversation but this example offers a better understanding for monolingual persons as adaptations of this song can be found in nearly any language.
Vin Diesel Says I Am Groot in Multiple LanguagesPlay video
In this clip from The Tonight Show, Vin Diesel says the same phrase in multiple languages, as he learned to do for his role in Guardians of the Galaxy. Interestingly enough, the language spoken by his character Groot is one that uses only those three words, with variation in tone that indicates different meanings and emotions.
SchoolBoy Q - Collard Greens(Explicit) ft. Kendrick LamarPlay video
"Collard Greens" by Schoolboy Q featuring Kendrick Lamar contains a verse which is an example of Mock Spanish in pop culture. This verse is from Kendrick Lamar and features him utilizing Spanish words as obscene euphemisms for humorous effect.
This episode from NPR's Code Switch podcast reminds me of Bell's discussion of audience design. Code Switch is a podcast by journalists of color where they discuss race and identity. Sometimes, the topics they discuss are out of context for those who have different socialization. In the episode below, they talk about having to use what they call an "Explanatory comma" in order to accommodate the different backgrounds of their listeners. [Published on 12-14-2016]
Differences between English, Korean, Japanese, and ChinesePlay video
The four speakers compare word pronunciations across languages with the general discourse held in Korean. Terms involving English morph to and from other languages depending on phonetic inventories. Also, note that the social practice of taboo words in Korean carries over when other languages a have a taboo Korean word in the comparisons leading to a humorous moment.
Mexican Slang with Salma HayekPlay video
This video is of Mexican, multilingual actress Salma Hayek describing and translating Spanish slang terms into English. She attempts to translate words and phrases literally, but then provides more nuanced and accurate translations. She employs some code-switching in her commentary, and the video helps illustrate elements of Spanish-speaking Mexican identities and speech communities.
Code SwitchingPlay video
This video talks about code switching, which means people sometimes use more than one language in a conversation. I found it very interesting, because I usually do code switching. I speak Chinese to my friend, and speak English to my professors. In this video, it introduces us why people would use more than one language or dialect in a conversation. Sometimes people act different around different people, such as we always use formal English to talk to teachers, but we will use causal or personalized English to talk to our friends. Also, when people are sharing a secret, they are more likely to use a different language, because they don't want the people around them to understand it.
"Spanish Radio" - Gabriel IglesiasPlay video
Comedian Gabriel Iglesias "Spanish Radio" skit relates to language ideologies regarding the Spanish language. Iglesias, who speaks Spanish and English, creates a humorous effect on how people from the "motherland" of Mexico speak rather fast, even for himself. Iglesias has the ability to speak two different languages (bilingualism) and codeswitches between the two languages in a lot of his skits. The skit can relate to our standard language ideology in that the Spanish speaking language is fast and hard to understand and he presents that concept through mock Spanish.
Die Antwoord's Evil Boy: A Dynamic Crossroad of Language, Culture, and Rap in South AfricaPlay video
Die Antwoord is a controversial rap group from Cape Town, South Africa fronted by Ninja Yolandi Vi$$er. Speaking from a post-apartheid perspective, this group offers an underrepresented view of young, lower-middle class, white Afrikaans - a subculture known as "Zef." Historically, Zef has been considered a derogatory term describing someone who was white, poor, and "trashy." However, Die Antwoord and others have looked to transform this into a self-reflective, somewhat satirical, parody that Ninja described as being "apocalyptic debris that we’ve stuck together." In this music video, they display their unique code-switching between Afrikaans and English, as well as Xhosa - the Bantu language of the Xhosa people. Adding to their mixed-bag controversial nature, is the relationship of the Afrikaans languages’ association with apartheid. Through dynamic language and visual use, this video reflects the complex sociocultural and sociolinguistic interactions that occur in this region. The lyrical narrative told is a statement on the clash between traditional tribal circumcision rituals, and the modern subcultures that seem to offer an alternative path to "manhood." This can be heard in the verse by the guest rapper Wanga, sung in his native tongue: "Mamelapa umnqunduwakho! (listen here, you fucking asshole) Andifuni ukuyaehlatini! (I don't want to go to the bush with you) Sukubammba incanca yam! (don't touch my penis) Andi so stabani! (I’m not a gay) Incanca yam yeyamantobi! (this penis is for the girls) Incanca yam iclean! (my penis is clean) Incanca yam inamandla! (my penis is strong) Ndiyinkwekwe enkulu! (I am a big boy) Angi funi ukuba yeendota! (don't want to be a man) Evil boy 4 life! yebo! (yes) Evil boy 4 life!" Through the use of polyglossic code-switching, performativity, sociocultural and racial integration, and a revamping of contextual meanings, Die Antwoord is doing its part to redefine what it means to be young and Zef in South Africa, and what a socioculturally- and sociolinguistically-complex rebellion sounds like.
In Jane H. Hill’s 1999 work “Language, Race, and White Public Space” she piggy-backs off of a piece of 1996 literature written by Bonnie Urciuoli about bilingual Puerto Ricans living in New York City. While referring to these bilingual Puerto Ricans, Hill acknowledges that they symbolize all of the greater Spanish speaking community, not just themselves. Hill’s main points throughout the article argue that there are two spheres of spoken language throughout a community and that there is a blatant double standard between whites and the Spanish speaking people. Let’s start with the two spheres of bilingual spoken language. Throughout a Spanish speaking community in the united states, there sits two spheres of spoken language, an “inner-sphere” and an “outer-sphere”. The inner sphere of bilingual spoken language includes all the informal speech regarding subjective personal matter. Within this sphere speakers are relaxed, often code switching to help relate with whom they are speaking to. Code switching also allows them to use words that don’t “exist” in the English language, allowing them to broaden their conversational vocabulary and to help get their point across. The boundaries between English and Spanish are blurred, and the speaker jumps back and forth as they please. Code switching is popular within the inner-sphere. The outer-sphere however, is a much different space for a foreign bilingual speaker. The outer-sphere consists of the societal normalcies that cater to the English only speakers and gives them an unfair advantage when speaking with native Spanish speaking bilinguals. According to Hill, “In an "outer-sphere" of talk with strangers and, especially, with gatekeepers like court officers, social workers, and schoolteachers, the difference between Spanish and English is ‘sharply objectified’. Boundaries and order are everything. The pressure from interlocutors to keep the two languages "in order" is so severe that people who function as fluent bilinguals in the inner sphere become so anxious about their competence that sometimes they cannot speak at all.” These two spheres do not coexist in the eyes of a native Spanish speaker. They make sure to differentiate the two at all times, as well as verify the status of the space they are in to make sure they do not bring inner-sphere speech into an outer-sphere setting. Residing within these two spheres of speech (formal and informal), we have just two languages being spoken (English and Spanish), and two “kinds” of speakers (white English-only and native Spanish speaking bilinguals), but there are four dialects (two per language). These dialects are as follows: English spoken in an American accent and a Spanish accent, and Spanish spoken in a heavy English accent and a Spanish accent. Native Spanish speakers such as the bilingual Puerto Ricans studied by Bonnie Urciuoli speak immaculate Spanish, sometimes even speaking perfect English as well. The only thing that separates them from engaging as effectively in white culture is their accent, which causes them to be very self-conscious while speaking. On the contrary, whites of course speak perfect English but when they attempt to speak Spanish, their heavy English accent does not concern them, though it disrespects and upsets native Spanish speakers. Hill says for them it’s like hearing “nails on a chalkboard”. These four spoken dialects within these two spheres ties into Jane Hills biggest main point, the double standard that manifests between these two social and spoken classes. The blatant double standard between these two groups in today’s society is pointed out by Hill in her text by stating: “Puerto Ricans experience the "outer sphere" as an important site of their racialization, since they are always found wanting by this sphere's standards of linguistic orderliness. My research suggests that precisely the opposite is true for Whites. Whites permit themselves a considerable amount of disorder precisely at the language boundary that is a site of discipline for Puerto Ricans that is, the boundary between Spanish and English in public discourse. I believe that this contrast, in which White uses of Spanish create a desirable "colloquial" presence for Whites, but uses of Spanish by Puerto Ricans are "disorderly and dangerous," is one of the ways in which this arena of usage is constituted as a… "White public space": a morally significant set of contexts that are the most important sites of the practices of a racializing hegemony, in which Whites are invisibly normal, and in which racialized populations are visibly marginal.” This creates a frustrating double standard between whites and native Spanish speakers because like Hill says in the texts, English speaking whites can speak Spanish in whatever accent or regard they care to, but when a native Spanish speaker chooses to speak Spanish, it becomes intimidating and labeled “dangerous”. Another double standard arises while regarding the intelligence of both classes of speakers, involving the two spheres of spoken language. While speaking in a non-formal inner-sphere setting, a native Spanish speaker can fluently transcribe his thoughts to words in brilliant discourse. Habitually speaking his home language, he doesn’t have to think twice about his accent, only the words he chooses to speak. Though when we shift him from the inner to the outer-sphere and put him in a formally objective conversation with a white English speaker, he becomes cornered because he has had his identity taken away from him. Among worrying about his accent while speaking within the outer-sphere he must worry about his speech as well such as his choice of diction and avoidance of simple grammatical mistakes an English speaker wouldn’t have to think twice about. Unfortunately, the opposite applies to white English speakers. On top of their English dominated speech, whenever they decide to speak what they know of the Spanish language, it is often times “grossly nonstandard and ungrammatical”. Though because English is the dominant language among the two, whites can get away with speaking a slaughtered Spanish speech because it is socially acceptable, and almost deserving of praise for learning a new language. Despite the intelligence it takes to become bilingual, that intelligence is often times not recognized by whites regarding native Spanish speakers. Native Spanish speakers are often times seen as inferior and stupid just because they may take longer with responses in Spanish/English discourse. Spanish accents in English are also seen labeled as inferior without even observing the intelligence of a speaker. A brilliant Spanish speaker may be disregarded as insufficient only because of the way he sounds to a white English speaker. These double standards between white English speakers and native Spanish speakers are frustrating to observe but important to understand. [Published on 05-11-2017]
Disney's Frozen: Let It Go - 25 LanguagesPlay video
One special version of the Song “Let it go”, featured in Disney’s Frozen, is the multilingual version, which incorporates 25 languages. Different language versions show the song gains global popularity. This song in 25 languages embodies the linguistic concept of “code switching”. But it doesn’t mean the stratification of language. Instead, such a successful fusion of 25 languages in one song reflects communication among different language. Different languages are mutual related and inclusive, because this fusion is so harmonious with 25 languages cooperating to achieve one theme of the song. The original version is English, but the song is widely adapted in different language, which is against the idea of centralizing or decentralizing force in language as well.
Barack Obama - Code SwitcherPlay video
Code switching is a large part of a public figures publicity arsenal. Being able to switch mannerisms, linguistic traits, and other factors of a depiction of self is incredibly important in the formulation of a diverse and accepting group of constituents. Being able to maintain all the code switching when prompted is also necessary for maintaining those groups, because being able to appear like you know exactly what they’re experiencing shows commitment and understanding. Barack Obama was known through various examples to show his ability to code switch based on the community he was visiting, whether it be rural North Carolina church, or USA basketball locker rooms. In this clip, we see his interactions with various players, male and female, and the coaching staffs. Take note how he changes the way he speaks based on their perceived race and whether they are a coach or a player. In addition, the status of the individuals he is addressing changes the way he speaks. For example, the way he talks to LeBron James (superstar) and Anthony Davis (rookie at the time) are different, even though they are both power forwards for the USA Men’s basketball team. Furthermore, in his recounting of the story about Joe Biden’s daughter, we see his use of different speech techniques with a coach who is white when compared to interactions with a black player. Finally, the handshake at the beginning of the video with Kevin Durant is a great example of an on the fly code switch.
Invisible Man - Thug Notes Summary and AnalysisPlay video
thug notes is a youtube series about a well read "thug" how wishes to share the gift of classic literature with his fellow gangster.
Ed Sheeran's "Bibia Be Ye Ye"Play video
“Bibia Be Ye Ye” is the title of a track on Ed Sheeran’s new album. In the song, the verses are sung in English while the chorus is in Twi, a dialect of the Akan language. Akan is a major native language of Ghana. While Sheeran was writing his new album, he vacationed in Ghana for a few weeks and linked up with a popular musician (Fuse ODG) while there. His time there inspired him to add part of their culture and language to his album. As most of his fame comes from American and European entertainment cultures, the mixing in of an African language adds more multicultural and multilingual recognition on a global superstar scale. The language borrowing could also be viewed as a form of language appropriation though, where Sheeran is using only a few chosen words of Twi to liven up his song, which he still translates back to English in the video’s lyrics description.
Russell Peters - Red, White, and BrownPlay video
Russell Peters is a famous Stand up comic who is known for his portrayals of other cultures and ability to mimic their accents. Russell is a world traveled individual who has shows in Bangkok, Dubai, Europe and America. He draws on his life interactions to really capture a moment or interaction and portray it in a humorous way. In this clip he is setting up a power hierarchy of cheapness and claiming that cheap is good thing to the minority and an insult to the Hegemonic identity in America. “Cheap” in this sense is going against the dominant cultural belief of cheap is an attribute that is unfavorable. This is showing the intermingled power struggle between the dominant class and others and how pushing back against ideologies is occurring. The voices used in separating the characters also indicate indexicality and Language socialization. The voices used help guide and reaffirm how we preserve different culture groups to sound. His experience and worldliness is also a point of power. Most people are not as traveled as Russell Peters and cannot truly understand the differences in cultures he is portraying however through him we get a glimpse of the other. He has the power in the setting and his perception of life is the one we are subjected to. His viewpoint on life is guided by humor and stereotyping for a broader audience in order to showcase cultural differences and how they interact and intermingle within the world.
There are many people who are upset that the DEA are hiring on individuals who are fluent in AAVE or Ebonics because they see this form of language as “broken” or a “bastardization of English.” What people don’t understand is that the DEA is doing this because it is important to have people who understand these vernaculars because of the discriminatory treatment of blacks in the criminal justice system. They want to better understand and present these types of people in their native language because of the constant misunderstandings of their words when law enforcement is involved. It is important for the DEA to have people on their teams who understand this time of vernacular so there is not discrimination or misunderstandings. [Published on 08-25-2010]
Paraguay is the only country in the American continents where 90% of the population speaks an indigenous language, Guarani', although only 5% of the population is indigenous. Spanish was the only official language for many years but now, both languages are co-official languages. The addition of Guarani’ as a co-official language resulted from the majority of Paraguayans, including the political class, feeling Guarani’ reflects who they are, their culture, even though people frequently switch between the two languages. [Published on 03-12-2012]
Mock Spanish in 'The Mexican' TrailerPlay video
This trailer for the 2001 movie “The Mexican” starring Brad Pitt and Julia Roberts, demonstrates Brad Pitt’s character utilizing mock Spanish saying words like “el trucko” and “towno” in an interaction with Hispanic men. He also attempts Spanglish in another interaction saying a phone call is “muy muy important.”
Tim Kaine Speech in SpanishPlay video
Tim Kaine made a campaign speech done entirely in Spanish. The speech was done in Phoenix, AZ and was given to invited Latino groups. This is the first time a vice presidential candidate has given a speech entirely in Spanish.
Anjelah Johnson-Nail SalonPlay video
This video is a stand-up comedy act about an experience in a nail salon. Johnson’s voice changes as she impersonates a nail technician. Although she is using it as a joke, Johnson stereotypes Vietnamese nail salon workers to be both pushy but also unaware. In watching the video, it is easy to think that the workers are uneducated because it seems as though they don't understand English, but there is no effort being done on the customers side to really communicate in their language. Here, English is being depicted as a more educated language, creating stigma for the women working.
Tanto and Lone RangerPlay video
This is a clip from Lone Ranger, featuring scenes with the famous Tonto. It shows how Tonto talks versus the cowboys/other Americans. It also shows a very skewed view of how Native Americans interact and how they speak English (broken sentences and a sense of "inproper" English).
These lyrics contain the lyrics from the song Bailando by Enrique Iglesias where he uses Spanish and English throughout the entire song.
SONG through ASLPlay video
"I Hate You, I Love You" Signed using ASL
TIm Kaine did a VP speech in Miami, in July of 2016. As he gets in to his introduction, he begins speaking in Spanish for a split second, as he greets the diverse crowd. He switches back to english, and switches back through out the speech. Tim Kaine even calls his running mate a "companero de alma" or "soul mates" in the presidential tussle
This is an article about a youth soccer coach being ejected for speaking Spanish to his players. The referees ejected him for simply speaking Spanish during a game. This is an obvious attempt to discriminate against this coach and his team. The coach code-switched between Spanish and English and this was deemed unacceptable because they "want everybody to understand". Yet, they say they have no rule against speaking Spanish. [Published on 12-20-2012]
The Man Of Many LanguagesPlay video
A polyglot man who can speak at least 15 languages and he wants to learn all languages in the world. He explains why and how speaking another language can give you a different perspective on life.
Code-Switching BabyPlay video
This video shows a young child speaking in German with his father for most of the video until he looks up and sees his mother, with him immediately switching to Japanese upon seeing her. This shows how code-switching is prevalent even in younger multilingual speakers and is used as a way to communicate with different people. Although the child in this video is very young, he still is aware enough to know that his father understands German best and that his mother responds best to Japanese.
This article explains what code-switching is and gives five common reasons why people use code-switching. Some of the reasons explained are because the speaker wanted to fit in, use their other language to get something, say something secretively, or because code-switching can help explain certain concepts better than in a single language. In order to emphasize these reasons, the author provides several stories from different people explaining situations where they used code-switching. [Published on 04-13-2013]
"Engrish" in the anime Jojo's bizarre adventurePlay video
This video is a compilation of samples of "Engrish" from Jojo's Bizarre Adventure. "Engrish" is the term used for English used in what is perceived as an "incorrect" or "awkward" way. Primarily this term is applied to English translations. The most famous of these would be from the intro of the game Zero Wing. The Japanese version has the villain saying: "With the cooperation of Federation Forces, all your bases now belong to us." However, the english translation became "All your base are belong to us". This term has developed a broader meaning, being used to describe code switching in Anime. Often times these phrases seem almost nonsensical, such as "hail to you", other times the accent is incredibly think and difficult to understand.
The Importance of Code SwitchingPlay video
Edward Moore explains the importance of Code Switching for success. He emphasizes that people of color need to know how to function in different environments. From "the block" to the board room.
This article is about an Indian American man who uses code switching to celebrate his many identities. His prides himself on being able to use the certain languages in appropriate settings. For example he says at any given time his family speaks in at least three languages- Marathi, Hindi, and English.
Strange Wilderness- Spanish accentPlay video
This is a clip from "Strange Wilderness" and in this clip they are mocking Mock Spanish. It's a completely over the top clip. There is obviously overt stereotyping displayed in the clip and attempt to condescend the Latino race. Its a legitimate question as to how many people would realize (because the clip is so over the top and backfires so extraordinarily) that this indeed a mockery of Mock Spanish.
Spanglish with George LopezPlay video
I have included a link to a video of Comedian George Lopez doing stand up comedy and talking about how Spanglish will always be used in America. This is interesting to me not only because of doing research paper on mock Spanish but also because I am Hispanic and have heard my relatives talk just how he does in the video.
Guatemala: Speaking in K'iche language to describe how to make foodPlay video
Juliana is speaking to the camera in K'iche. She is describing how to make pepian and other food in Guatemala. She is mixing her Spanish with her dialect, which according to the poster of the video she is speaking two different dialects: K'iche and Uspanteco.
Cespedes receives Home Run Derby trophyPlay video
Pedro Gomez, an American born reporter translates for Spanish speaking MLB players. This specific example is at the 2014 Home Run Derby where Gomez translates for Yoenis Cespedes.
Maya man Speaking Yucatec SpanishPlay video
A man in San Francisco speaks Maya. According to the video, he is speaking slowly so we are able to understand him. 10% of what he is speaking is Spanish and he is describing what you will see when you visit his town of Oxkutzcab.
Obama reflects on a conversation he remembers hearing his dad have with a native from Alabama. He recalls him using words such as "aint" "warsh" instead of wash and so forth. Even his fathers body language changed. Upon asking him, he tells his son that "I wasn't always a lawyer who went to sleep at his white friends bakehouse, son." [Published on 10-03-2012]
Bilingual children switching between English and SpanishPlay video
This video includes children in a one on one setting switching between spanish and english, during various exercise. It features bilingual children in an office setting. The focus is on literacy and acquisition of bilingual children.
Speech community or community practice/ code switching and the big bang theoryPlay video
This is a great example of a group of people who are speaking English but the are speaking a jargon that they only know and those that are in their field or have the same interests shear known as Community practice. code-switching within their speech community.
The article includes the quote from President Obama, in which he says the n-word, which ended the President's final White House Correspondents Dinner. The importance of this is the switch between what could be considered formal English and AAVE. The article also addresses the question of language ideologies by responding to the idea that it was inappropriate for the term to be included in the speech. Furthermore, that language ideology is rooted in racist ideologies, so the utterance is also a response to power structures. [Published on 05-02-2016]
The article, on face, is only about code-switching, but the article goes on to address the standard language ideology which contends that it only happens and/or is negative when African American speakers engage in code-switching. Thus, the article also addresses, although somewhat shallowly, the issues of power and/or racism. [Published on 05-04-2016]
Variety of Spanish AccentsPlay video
Joanna Rants uses analogies to compare different Spanish accents.
Jon Stewart - Thank Donald TrumpPlay video
Jon Stewart mocks the 'inspiration' of new Latino voters for Donald Trump's run for presidency.
Code-Switching and Performativity in MMAPlay video
UFC Mixed Martial Arts fighter John Lineker is interviewed following his 07-13-16 victory in the promotion's first event in South Dakota, responding primarily in Portuguese. Lineker code-switches to English at the end of the interview to direct a message to the champion (U.S. mixed martial artist Dominick Cruz) of his weight division. His promise of "coming for" the champion demonstrates a performative illocutionary act: by directing these words to Cruz, he is simultaneously performing the very action of threatening and talking about this action.
A look at Rey's accent in "The Force Awakens" as a clue to her identity and parentage. Includes a discussion of style-shifting in the Star Wars universe as being representative of intersentential Code-Switching, as well as a discussion of what different codes are (generally) used to index. [Published on 12-23-2015]
YouTuber Hyunwoo Sun's segment Bilingual Talks, where two speakers of two languages have a conversation either with each speaker using a different language, or with the speakers switching back and forth between languages.
The article shows how body language is an important expression of language. It identifies how important it is when studying cultural languages to understand how body language is used. [Published on 05-14-2013]
The article explains what Hispandering is and how politicians are exposing it. It provides evidence to the strong relationship that culture and language have. It also shows how culture identification is a large factor to how language is interpreted. [Published on 03-10-2016]
Hispandering is brought up (with a negative connotation) to Hillary Clinton and Bernie Sanders during the Univision Democratic Debate in election 2016. [Published on 03-10-2016]
This article talks about Ebonics and Code-Switching, It explains what happened when the Ebonics controversy broke out.
These lyrics contain the lyrics from the song Don't Stop the Party by artist Pitbull, where he uses Spanish and English throughout the song.
Hawaiian Pidgin Recognized As A Language (In Pidgin w/ Subtitles)Play video
This video is of a man speaking Hawaiian Pidgin English. He establishes that Hawaiian Pidgin English is not the Hawaiian language.
Key & Peele - Obama Meet & GreetPlay video
This Key & Peele comedy sketch humorously depicts Obama and the different ways he talks to black and white people after a speech. There's a lot of code switching going on in this sketch. There are a handful funny references in here as well, from rap to slang.
This article is about the role code-switching plays in the success of low income students. Students that engage in code-switching tend to achieve more academically than students that do not code-switch.
Pardon my SpanglishPlay video
A comedian joins Spanish CNN to talk about his new book about Spanglish. The comedian and the anchor switch between English and Spanish throughout the video, talking in Spanglish. While there's a good deal more Spanish being spoken in the video, there's also English, just not as much as Spanish. The intro of the video is a great example of Spanglish, as is the whole interview for the most part.
This video explains some of the main reasons why people engage in code switching. Code switching can be used in many different ways, but the primary function of this practice is to switch between two languages in a single conversation.
African American Vernacular English (AAVE)Play video
A humorous look at the interpretation of AAVE from the movie Airplane! ca. 1980. Beyond this being an example of linguistic ideologies at work it also serves as social commentary on how AAVE was perceived in the time the movie was made.
Obama Code-Switches at the Voting BoothPlay video
President Obama is interrupted while voting and code-switches while talking to a woman.
Fresh Prince: Carlton plays "Gangster"Play video
In this video created from the show Fresh Prince of Bel-Air Carlton, who is known as a preppy, straight-A, and very propper character changes his complete "style". He is in the projects with a bunch of gangsters who live a completely different lifestyle and also talk completely different than Carlton. Therefore, Carlton constructs his identity and changes the way he speaks and even dresses in relation to the gang members he is surrounded by. His cousin Will is completely thrown off, but realizes that he is only changing his "style" because of his surroundings.
Meet the Man Who Speaks 15 LanguagesPlay video
Alex Rawlings speaks 15 different languages, and he explains how speaking another language can provide a different perspective on life. "Languages open doors that you never knew were there."
If Latinos Said The Stuff White People SayPlay video
This video is extremely comical, yet makes a claim that often times, white people approach other races as completely foreign, different, and even alienate them. This hints at the idea of code-switching as well as linguistic discrimination and provides examples of the white race usage of language connotations towards other races.
Dating a LatinaPlay video
Dating a Latina: Perception vs Reality. This video is funny, some may be able to relate to it. This video exhibits Spanish, American English, and Code Switching.
Time to say goodbyePlay video
Andrea and Sarah Brightman were invited to perform the duet 'Time To Say Goodbye (Con Te Partirò). I love this song and I do not even know what they are saying, until code-switching occurs. I do not know the language that they are singing in?
President Obama - HispanderingPlay video
In Obama's Cinco de Mayo speech it is clear that hispandering is taking place. He invited a crowd of what appeared to be people of hispanic background. What Obama is speaking about is clear, he wants immigration laws and reform to continuously be adjusted and bettered. Each time Obama said the term 'tequila' he changed the way he said it to sound more hispanic and the crowd went nuts so he continued to say it to please the people there. He used code-switching to his advantage in this speech.
Nathan Collins reports that psychologists at Hong Kong Polytechnic University have found that people who speak multiple languages adopt the personality traits associated with the language they are currently speaking. [Published on 05-01-2011]
This site has a good audio clip that really delves into the hispandering issue and the code-switching.
English or EbonicsPlay video
This is a video that show the code-switching involved between "Standard English" and African American Language.
Jewish American uses of YiddishPlay video
This Video contains Jewish Americans using select Yiddish words and Slang words such as JAP(Jewish American Princess).
Garrard McClendon on Black English - EbonicsPlay video
Garrad McClendon addresses the dangers of the African American language. Although he believes the African American language is beautiful, he feels strongly that the African Americans in the US need to learn how to code-switch. They need to learn when it is appropriate to talk in slang and when it is necessary to code-switch to "proper" English. Garrad also addresses the issues that teachers need to become more aggressive in correcting children's language at a young age and not be afraid of doing so. The children's future is dependent on being taught proper English and being correct when they don't use it.
Pera Code MixingPlay video
A little girl explains why she combines the Turkish and English language in her speech. She explains that she combines the two languages because she uses both languages, but at times it is hard for her to think of the words in English so she reverts to the Turkish term. It gives great examples of specific terms that she tends to revert to the Turkish term and the reason why she does.
Linguistic- Code SwitchingPlay video
This video gives the breakdown of code-switching in America. It talks about all the different types of English that exist in US. It also addresses why and individual partitakes in this linguistic practice; a word translation doesn't come to mind so they revert to the word in another language, or they are purposely excluding others from understanding. Code Switching if referred to different terms depending on the language mixture; Spanglish, Chinglish, etc.
This NPR article addresses the linguistic practices of code switching and how prevalent it is in today's society. NPR's approach is not as true to the linguistic anthropologist term because it looks at different linguistic practices and behaviors of individuals when interacting with different groups or in different settings. It looks at at broader range than just the mixture of two different languages.
The Linguistics of AAVEPlay video
This video discusses the history of AAVE, "African American Vernacular English. It address the origin, the pronunciations, and how it is used. The video gives great examples of AAVE and the translation of what it means in "proper" English.
What Matters- Code Switching: Communication That MattersPlay video
A great video on a more educational aspect of code switching and how important it is to understand the implications of this valuable language tool.
In this advertisement created by the National Congress of American Indians, the narrator takes the viewer through a number of "names" for Native Americans in the United States, including tribal names and other words that could be used to define the communities, before ending with an appeal that Native Americans would never describe themselves as "redskins." [Published on 06-10-2014]
Youth codeswitchingPlay video
This is an example of a child having a conversation with both his parents in 3 different languages.
Code-switching examplePlay video
This is a perfect example of a child being put in a very unique linguistic environment. This video depicts code-switching for a boy at a very young age. While discussing a hole found in a pair of shorts, the boy uses Indonesian, French and English to talk to his parents.
A Starbucks Barista initially trying to take an order in English then code-switching to ASL to communicate. This video also includes specific language used only in Starbucks, for example the sizes of the orders. [Published on 11-04-2015]
LANGUAGE CHALLENGE ITALIAN VS POLISH WITH MY GIRLFRIENDPlay video
A boyfriend and girlfriend challenge each other in translating English works in to either Italian or Polish words.
Key and Peele Rap Album ConfessionPlay video
This Key and Peele sketch also makes use of a black AAE speaker and a white middle class establishment character. In contrast with Little Homie, this skit illustrates both Key and Peele's abilities to style shift according to the character they are portraying.
Key and Peele Little HomiePlay video
CW: Violence and blood. This skit by Key and Peele casts the comedians as a black speaker of AAE and a white establishment character who makes use of a puppet that speaks AAE.
MISS KO 葛仲珊 - CALL MEPlay video
Miss Ko is an American-Taiwanese rapper who code-switches in her lyrics, sometimes mid-sentence. It seems like the purpose of her code-switching is to create a "cool" identity. Most of the words or phrases in English are what I would associate with such an identity: references to American celebrities or slang like "main squeeze", "homie", or "holla at me". The bulk of the song is in Chinese, but she supplements English in order to (from my reading) present herself a certain way.
The following quote from the Bourdieu reading reminded me of Swardspeak (or Bekimon), an argot/slang used by queer communities in the Philippines (where I was born and raised): "it is not space which defines language but language which defines its space" (44) (Citation: Bourdieu, Pierre. 1991. Language and Symbolic Power.) Swardspeak has indeed created a distinct space for gay communities in the Philippines, helping them resist cultural assimilation. The linked Wikipedia article has more information as well as great examples of Swardspeak constructions. Here's a clip of how it sounds. It's from a hit talk show; the host, Vice Ganda, a queer comedian/TV personality, makes his guests reenact a scene from their movie in standard Tagalog and then in Swardspeak. It's mostly in Tagalog, but I think it's pretty easy to tell how different Swardspeak is. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dfZ91K2MS6g
Bon Cop, Bad CopPlay video
A clip from Bon Cop, Bad Cop, a 2006 Canadian movie that bases much of its humor on the use of Canadian French and English in Canada.
DYSA African American English (or Ebonics) in the classroomPlay video
A clip from the documentary "Do You Speak American?" profiling the use of contrastive analysis exercises to teach children who speak both SAE and AAE in the LA Unified School District.
This article examines the social stigma of using "ax" instead of "axe". NPR labels "Ax" as a distinguishable feature of AAE that many associate with being "poor, black, and uneducated". Garrard McClendon of Chicago State University stated that his parents were "well aware" of the stigma, and taught him that "there's a time and place to use it", encouraging purposeful code switching. Comedians Key and Peele joke that being half black and half white causes them to use both depending on whether they are with friends ("ax") or being pulled over ("ask"). This feature, however, dates back over 1000 years. Jesse Sheidlower, president of the American Dialect Society, says it is in the first English translation of the bible as "axe". Professor John Rickford of Stanford remarks, "so at that point it wasn't a mark of people who weren't highly educated", and that we can't be sure where the popularity of "ax" stopped yet stayed put in the American South and Caribbean. He says it could be "the empire striking back: taking language that has been imposed and making it our own". Rickford also notes, "I don't think any linguist is recommending that you get rid of your vernacular, because you need it - in a sense - for your soul". This article highlights the significance of linguistic versatility; the use of "ax" is only as "right" or "wrong" as a person labels it - and there are multiple opinions! [Published on 12-03-2013]
Denice Frohman's "Accents" (2013)Play video
Code-switching, Puerto Rican Spanish and English
SEEED - Dickes B (Code Switching and Jamaican Creole English)Play video
A reggae/dancehall song from German band SEEED, with code switching from German to English and a verse in Jamaican Creole. Submitted for Contact Languages music assignment.
Rock Me AmadeusPlay video
This is the song I chose for my music project--it shows a number of English borrowings and code-switches between German and English.
Urban Culture French, Northern French & Arabic in contact (rap music from North of France)Play video
- From Lucas' Assignment 1 in Contact Languages - Does it sound French to you? Why/why not? Can you spot the French/Arabic code-switching?
A 2013 segment on radio station WLRN about Miami English, including an interview with Phillip Carter, a clip of "Shit Miami girls say," and a discussion of features of Miami English that are the result of contact with Spanish.
Insect Triggers Dramatic Code SwitchPlay video
An African-American news reporter shifts from a very standard style into a considerably more vernacular one when a bug flies into his mouth.
A profile of the life of John Gumperz, who did in March 2013.
American Tongues: Cajun EnglishPlay video
A clip from the documentary American Tongues featuring two speakers of Cajun English who code-switch between Cajun English and French
A 2010 NPR piece about the criticism of President Obama's "negro dialect," with a broader discussing of both style-shifting and code-switching.
Deaf Poetry Jam: Rives on Deaf PoetryPlay video
In 2010, The DEA put out a job ad for nine speakers of African American English to serve as translators.