Variation

SODA / POP / COKE

This video is a nice, cute compilation of examples of linguistic variation across the US. Most of the examples are more semantic, simply having different names for things like "soda" or "sub" as we've seen in class. The different areas that are highlighted on the map are particularly drastic for some of them, like "in line" versus "on line," with "on line" only really being said around New York and in most of Colorado (outside Denver). These isolated instances make me wonder what drove the variation, especially when they aren't very populated areas. It would also be interesting to know how multidialectal individuals would respond to these questions.

Posted by Maria Panopoulos on May 7, 2019

Tags:
English;
Variation;
Accent;
Slang

The King 2 Hearts

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The part I'm interested in is about 51:10-53.00. This South Korean drama features a fictional South Korean prince who falls in love with a North Korean Special Forces soldier (Kim Hangah). This is the end of the last episode, and in this clip, their son says "Mother" in a North Korean accent. In a change from earlier in the series, the rest of the royal family is supportive, whereas earlier they regularly criticized Hangah for her North Korean accent and vocabulary. Towards the end of this selection, the king's advisor tells him the foreign press is making a big deal out of it because they consider North Korean a "dialect" instead of a language. There's some interesting social commentary on North Korean versus South Korean language throughout the rest of the series too, especially when Hangah pretends not to know South Korean slang or English and fools the prince, who assumes that a North Korean wouldn't know (forgetting that she is a Special Forces Intelligence Officer).

Beijing speech meme

"When you speak Chinese after a week in Beijing" - to complement the Zhang paper.

Posted by Miranda Rintoul on April 10, 2019

Tags:
Variation;
r vocalization

Don Omar - Danza Kuduro ft. Lucenzo

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The song Danza Kuduro is an example of the effect globalization has had on language. It is sung in both Portuguese and Spanish, with the music video also utilizing English, by Don Omar, a Latin American pop star, and Lucenzo, a French-Portuguese artist. Borrowing from African culture, the kuduro itself is a type of dance that originated in Africa becoming popular in Angola, a Portuguese colony. The song was number one on the charts in Argentina, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland, showcasing how the song transcended language barriers and how globalization has impacted language use.

Posted by Madison McGuire on January 14, 2019

Tags:
Spanish;
Code-switching;
Borrowing;
Variation;
Accent;
Globalization;
Multilingualism

Different Chinese Dialect Groups in Malaysia

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This video shows different Chinese dialect groups in Malaysia and their respective histories. From the video, the relationship between language and immigration can be seen clearly, addressing the importance of social environment in the process of forming different Chinese dialect groups in Malaysia.

Posted by Shang Shi on January 11, 2019

Tags:
Language Shift;
Variation

How “Rez Accents” Strengthen Native Identity

A cool article about identity and “reservation English” [Published on 03-06-2017]

What Makes a Dialect a Dialect: The Roots of Upper Peninsula English

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History and development of English in Michigan's Upper Peninsula, a regional dialect also known as Yooper.

Sonic girls making new words

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These girls are taking words that already exist and combining them to make a new word with a new meaning.

Fargo - Chit Chat

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Having experiences traveling around the country, many people find Minnesotan accents to be a novelty. In this clip from the movie "Fargo", two Minnesotan men are discussing a recent homicide in the town. The example does a great job of portraying the conversational mannerisms and (overwhelmingly polite, questioning, not all that descriptive, and full of town references) and linguistic relativity that one finds in Minnesota, North Dakota, and Wisconsin.

Posted by Brighid Hegarty on June 29, 2018

Tags:
Northern Cities;
Variation;
Accent;
Linguistic Relativity

Teens Tell All About Slang

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This video emphasizes a new language habit of teenagers in todays' world. What I mean is using slang. Slang is highly informal and often used in colloquial speech. It is a part of a language that is usually outside of standard usage and that may consist of both newly coined words and phrases and of new or extended meanings attached to established terms. This video helps you to understand some slangs with a good explanation of the reason for these changes.

Posted by Wenqi Zang on June 17, 2018

Tags:
English;
Variation;
Youth;
Internet Language;
Slang

Excerpt from Donald Glover's

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I used these four songs, a clip from "Weirdo," and this interview of Donald Glover's coronal stop deletion.

International Art English

This article explores the linguistic features of a highly stylized register of English called 'International Art English'. Looking at a corpus of words taken from e-flux, an art publishing platform, Rule and Levine explore the history, vocabulary, and syntax of IAE. I think that this article not only showed the ways in which IAE was used to enforce the boundaries of the art world, but also showed how writers (speakers?) of IAE actively used it to construct a persona for themselves that drew upon stylistic features to reinforce relevant and desirable traits. They noted that IAE users used it to "signal the assimilation of a powerful kind of critical sensibility, one that was rigorous, politically conscious, probably university trained." This meshes well with the Eckert's belief that third-wave variationist papers focus on variation as the result of "lifelong projects of self-construction and differentiation." (Eckert 2012) by highly agentic speakers.

Posted by Isaac Gray on April 3, 2018

Tags:
Enregisterment;
Variation

Denzel Washington - Dillard commencement speech

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Video of a commencement address delivered by Denzel Washington at Dillard University in May 2015. Compare to Washington's commencement address given at the University of Pennsylvania in 2011. Washington is an African American actor and director from New York who is a native speaker of AAE. Dillard University is a small, private, historically black university in New Orleans. Over 90% of the Dillard student body is black. Used for /ai/ monophthongization project for Reed AAE class Spring 2018.

Posted by Oskar Soderberg on March 14, 2018

Tags:
African American English;
Variation;
ai monophthongization1

Denzel Washington - Penn commencement speech

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Video of commencement speech delivered by Denzel Washington at the University of Pennsylvania in May 2011. Compare to commencement speech given at Dillard University in May 2015. Washington is an African American actor and director from New York who is a native speaker of AAE. The University of Pennsylvania is a large Ivy League university located in Philadelphia. White students make up a relative majority of the Penn student body. Used for /ai/ monophthongization project in Reed College AAE class Spring 2018.

Posted by Oskar Soderberg on March 14, 2018

Tags:
African American English;
Variation;
ai monophthongization1

Philadelphian Accent - Indexing and Ideologies (PhillyTawk: Da Accent inna Media)

Philadelphian and self-proclaimed “accent nerd” Sean Monahan makes Youtube videos about the accents in the Mid-Atlantic region. In this video he talks about representations of the Philadelphian accent in movies and TV (or lack thereof), then it cuts to a montage of Philadelphians speaking to hear the difference between actors and native speakers. This video is a great example of indexicality and language ideologies at play. Sean is very proud of the accent that indexes him as a Philadelphian but aware that the lack of accurate representations of the dialect makes it hard for outsiders to recognize it. In the beginning of the video he even mentions people on the west coast though he had a speech impediment – this reveals a language ideology they have about how English “should” sound. [Published on 12-15-2017]

Posted by Heaven Snyder on December 15, 2017

Tags:
Ideology;
Indexicality;
Philadelphia English;
Variation;
Accent

Australian English

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Looking at the different Australian accent varieties. Also shows some popular language myths about why the Australian accent sounds the way it does, and shows a bunch of people pronouncing the same line.

Posted by Miles Baker on November 7, 2017

Tags:
Australian English;
Variation;
Accent

Vin Diesel Says I Am Groot in Multiple Languages

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In this clip from The Tonight Show, Vin Diesel says the same phrase in multiple languages, as he learned to do for his role in Guardians of the Galaxy. Interestingly enough, the language spoken by his character Groot is one that uses only those three words, with variation in tone that indicates different meanings and emotions.

Posted by Garrett Girard on July 27, 2017

Tags:
Performativity;
Code-switching;
Variation;
Multilingualism

Differences between English, Korean, Japanese, and Chinese

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The four speakers compare word pronunciations across languages with the general discourse held in Korean. Terms involving English morph to and from other languages depending on phonetic inventories. Also, note that the social practice of taboo words in Korean carries over when other languages a have a taboo Korean word in the comparisons leading to a humorous moment.

Posted by Justin Connolly on June 28, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Code-switching;
Borrowing;
Variation

Why Germans Can Say Things No One Else Can

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This video talks about language and it's ability to allow for thought, emotion, and the expression of feelings. It talks specifically about the German language and how they have a wide variety of words they can use to better describe a situation or feeling other languages might not be able to do as effectively. It explains many examples of this, along with the appropriate meaning in English. Having a different set of words to think with and use allows for a wide variety of unique knowledge one can obtain. This video just scratches the surface of the importance of language, and how language in our lives can change the way we think and interpret the world around us.

A Few Things to Know About American Sign Language

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Similar to the different accents that exist in the English language, different styles of sign language express different cultural upbringings. This video is a short personal account into a few individual’s experiences with sign language and its perception from none deaf people. Explaining issues like the use of the term “hearing impaired”, is considered more offensive than being labeled deaf because it does not recognize deaf people as a “linguistic minority”. The point is that deaf people have a culture. One of the speakers talks about how slang has influenced ASL specifically in the African-American cultural community. Being deaf does not exclude people from existing in a living language that adapts and changes to fit the times. Rich with the impact of various cultures.

American vs. British Words

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In this, you can see how different countries use the same language and the same words to refer to different things. One example that is given is that in the U.K., what Americans know how french fries are called chips. In America, a french fry and a chip are two completely separate things. It helps to show how people can use the same language to mean different things in different cultures.

Posted by Chris Schreiber on May 8, 2017

Tags:
Standard Language Ideology;
Variation

African American Sign Language Different from whites

The article goes over how even today there is a difference in signing between blacks and whites. Some of the African American signs may be different and the way they express signs in stories varies. This difference can create a barrier when signing to a group of African Americans and to a group of white signers. Throughout history and even through the English Only period, many African Americans switched to the way whites sign in order to “fit in.” [Published on 09-17-2012]

Survey of California and Other Indian Languages

A series of California maps over the years depicting the Languages spoken among various Native American tribes and what Linguistic roots these Languages have drawn from posted by as University of California Berkeley.

Posted by Sarah Patton on October 6, 2016

Tags:
Variation;
American Indian

The Differences Between Latin American Spanish and Spanish in Spain

This article, by Alex Hammond, gives a historical background on how Spanish came to be different all throughout South America, Central America, and Spain through segregated colonialism and practices of differing phrases and words. [Published on 02-06-2012]

Posted by Sarah Patton on September 29, 2016

Tags:
Spanish;
Language Shift;
Variation;
Communities of Practice

Why Linguists are Fascinated by the American Jewish Accent

In this article, the various features of what is commonly thought of as the American Jewish accent are detailed. This accent is most commonly associated with comedians such as Mel Brooks, Larry David, and Don Rickles. The accent, while not as common as it used to be, is still recognizable to listeners by the word order and intonation it borrows from Yiddish, as well as its "sing-songy" quality. [Published on 09-26-2016]

3 Types of English

This TedTalk features Jamila Lyiscott, who describes the "three Englishes" she speaks on a daily basis, which is determined by her surrounding environment and who she is with. Her detailed breakdown of the different "tongues" she speaks shows the correlation between language, culture, and race, as well as how society and culture effect language acquisition/usage. [Published on 02-01-2014]

Pidgin English from Nigeria

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A video of two Nigerian Men who explain and give example of language divergence and Pidgin English.

African-American ASL

Variations that have developed and been maintained by White and Black signers of ASL are examined to reveal surprising cultural implications [Published on 09-07-2012]

Ebonics Dictionary

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In this video stand up comedian Steve Harvey explains the complexity of Ebonics. Although he is African American Steve Harvey's stand up routine plays into certain African American stereotypes while pointing out the differences between American English and AAVE.

Key & Peele - Awkward Conversation

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In this video, Key & Peele use a sketch to poke fun at people they feel simply react to others instead of sharing actual views. Jordan Peele's character uses types of performativity, including drawn-out words and phrases, eye rolls, and looking at his friends while excluding Keegan's character to express his displeasure with Keegan's opinions on pop culture.

Posted by Dante Colombo on March 8, 2016

Tags:
Performativity;
Variation;
Youth;
Internet Language

Hooked on Ebonics

The article dives into several important concepts as they relate to the understanding of Ebonics. The author explains that there are rules and variety within Ebonics that demonstrate its value as a variety of English. The author also addresses that Ebonics is not just "a black thing" and that many whites, Hispanics and Asian Americans all engage in AAVE.

10 Surprising Ways to Offend People in Other Countries

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The video explores how the use of body language can mean one thing to a culture and a completely different thing to another. It provides good evidence to show that language can be communicated in other ways than verbal cues. It also shows the importance of the environment and the socialization process.

Language Could Diagnose Parkinson's, ALS and Schizophrenia before Lab Tests

A recent study shows the use, or lack of, certain words by patients could be diagnostic indicators of a future disease or ailment. [Published on 02-01-2016]

Posted by Jamie Schnee on March 4, 2016

Tags:
Performativity;
Change;
Language Shift;
Variation;
Contact

SNL - Sexual Harassment and You

In this Saturday Night Live skit the are discussing how the work place used to just be guys and was easier that way, now that it is filled with women as well law suits happen more often. They send this geeky guy to ask a girl on a date and he gets rejected and then a 'handsome' guy does the same thing and grabs her boob and gets accepted. This video is full of stigma's, gender issues, masculinity issues and sexism at the beginning.

Posted by Madison Rigdon on March 4, 2016

Tags:
Power;
Variation;
Masculinity;
Gender;
Sexism;
Stigma

Mapping How Americans Talk - Soda vs. Pop vs. Coke

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This video shows the numerous dialects found in and around America. The video also shows us that despite speaking the same language, we can have multiple different words to describe a single product or object.

Posted by Ariana Moll on March 3, 2016

Tags:
American English;
Variation

The Linguistics of YouTube Voice

This article focuses on YouTube stars, and how they capture a viewer's attention by changing their speech and accommodating to their audience. [Published on 12-07-2015]

Posted by Jamie Schnee on February 21, 2016

Tags:
Accommodation;
Style-shifting;
Change;
Variation

Garrard McClendon on Black English - Ebonics

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Garrad McClendon addresses the dangers of the African American language. Although he believes the African American language is beautiful, he feels strongly that the African Americans in the US need to learn how to code-switch. They need to learn when it is appropriate to talk in slang and when it is necessary to code-switch to "proper" English. Garrad also addresses the issues that teachers need to become more aggressive in correcting children's language at a young age and not be afraid of doing so. The children's future is dependent on being taught proper English and being correct when they don't use it.

Extremely British

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A satirical trailer mocking the apparent incomprehensibility of UK English varieties, notably, those featured in crime dramas for US viewers (possibly aiming toward Cockney). A claim by a film critic, "Extremely British" and USA Today reports, "I don't think I heard a single consonant." Intro ling, intro phonetics classes loved it.

Posted by Andrea Kortenhoven on October 30, 2015

Tags:
Indexicality;
Cockney English;
Variation;
Socioeconomic Status;
Slang

How Y’all, Youse and You Guys Talk

This is a quiz on the NY Times website based on the Harvard Dialect Survey. It gives you a map of which places in the US speak most similar to you. I thought of this when we were talking about conceptions of American dialects.

Posted by Gregor McGee on February 19, 2015

Tags:
American English;
Variation;
Accent;
Lexicon

Which English you speak has nothing to do with how smart you are

A Slate guest post by linguist Anne H. Charity Hudley addressing issues of language discrimination in U.S. schools based on the use of nonstandard varieties and features. She argues in favor of embracing language diversity in the classroom. [Published on 10-14-2014]

Posted by Kara Becker on October 15, 2014

Tags:
American English;
African American English;
Variation;
Education;
Stigma

Accent Tour of the UK

We talked in class about how one person producing two versions of one vowel was helpful when asking people to evaluate or respond to speech, because it eliminates other factors such as age and gender, and controls for the vowel itself. I thought this was a really good example of that: this man is really good at putting on a lot of the accents of the UK, and the fact that it is just one person makes it really easy to hear the differences in his speech.

Posted by Miriam Gölz on October 4, 2014

Tags:
British English;
Received Pronunciation;
Scottish English;
Variation

Southern Dialects: Talkin' Tar-Heel

Transcript of interview with Walt Wolfram in which many aspects of Southern English are discussed. Audio available on website.

(r) in New York City English

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The classic graph from Labov (1966) showing stratification by socioeconomic class and speaker style for coda r vocalization in New York City English