Language Shift

Patterns behind color names around the world

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Berlin and Kay did a study in 1969 comparing the ways people of different native languages recognized and categorized colors. Some, like russian had words for as many as 12 color categories, while some had as few as 4. They came up with the hypothesis that they are derived in a certain order across languages, Black and white, red, green/yellow, blue, brown, then the rest. There are criticisms in this study as the sample size was small and all participants, while native speakers of a variety of languages, were bilingual english speakers. Sometimes words for color categories can come as a noun resembling the color, eg tree sap-like, ocean like. We also do this in english to describe more specific colors like the entire pantone spectrum; seafoam green, lava orange, blood red. Upon review the same researchers re-checked their methodology with more languages including unwritten ones, and a larger sample size.

Posted by Andrew Hutchens on June 29, 2018

Tags:
Language Shift;
Communities of Practice;
Linguistic Relativity

White man speaking Nigerian pidgin English

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This artifact present a white men in Nigeria bounding with Nigerian people and using a language easy for them to understand.

Posted by Bekang on May 10, 2018

Tags:
Ideology;
Language Shift;
Communities of Practice

Language Death- How do languages die?

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This in an informational video about language death and language extinction. This video gives several examples of languages that have become extinct, and how languages become dead and/or extinct. He also goes into detail about the different kinds of language death which include, gradual, bottom-to-top, sudden, and radical. To offer a more clear understanding, the video also describes case studies of language death.

Posted by Erin Hay on May 7, 2018

Tags:
Change;
Language Shift

Hinglish - Code Switched Hindi + English

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The Portsmouth College, UK has started a course for Hinglish language. Hinglish is the mixed/code switched version of Hindi and English, and is the popular street language in India.

Posted by Kanad Sakhadeo on April 26, 2018

Tags:
Indian English;
Code-switching;
Language Shift;
Race,Ethnicity

Listen To What Shakespeare Sounded Like In The Original Pronunciation From 1600s

Linguist David Crystal and his son Ben (an actor) present an argument which reconstructs the "Original Pronunciation" of Shakespearean texts through historical linguistics. They claim that these works were meant to be read/performed with rhoticity and vowel changes that don't correspond well to Modern British English. CW: near the end of the video, a joke is reconstructed in OP that uses language some may find troubling [Published on 10-31-2016]

Posted by Elaina Wittmer on February 11, 2018

Tags:
British English;
Language Shift;
Accent

Code Switching

This is a video showing a young boy and his sister speaking to each other in Korean. Their father asks the boy some questions in English, and the boy responds to him in English. This is a perfect example of code-switching between the English and Korean languages.

Posted by Janay Jacobs on October 10, 2017

Tags:
Chinglish;
Code-switching;
Language Shift;
Multilingualism

1960 - Jackie Kennedy Spanish Ad

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This is a video of Jackie Kennedy doing a campaign ad in 1960 in Spanish. The goal of this video was to connect with the Hispanic voters. I chose this particular video because it shows how Jackie Kennedy used different speech communities to reach a certain group of people. Indexicality plays a role as well because she is indexing the Spanish speaking community.

In Singapore, Chinese Dialects Revive after Decades of Restrictions

After decades of attempts to restrict language use in Singapore to Mandarin Chinese and English, there are attempts to bring back linguistic diversity in the country. [Published on 08-26-2017]

Posted by Kara Becker on August 29, 2017

Tags:
Mandarin Chinese;
Language Shift

Anne Curzan: What makes a word "real"?

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In this video Anne Curzan reviews how a word can be introduced to language, how words can begin to move out of the language, and how the usage of words change and alter through time. Curzan also covers how people use dictionaries and resources in order to stay caught up but, editors of dictionaries are struggling to keep up with our vocabulary and have to gabble on which words will actually survive.

Posted by Spencer Q. on June 26, 2017

Tags:
Language Shift;
Youth;
Education;
Slang

Fabricated Cognates as Memes

In October 2016 a trend began of tweets that were probably photos of food, with a caption that ended with a nonsense phrase; a phrase that when read, makes no sense, but when spoken, sounds oddly like "bon appetít." The use of this and related phrases indexed the users/tweeters as cool, hip, and knowledgeable about pop culture, and it allowed them to show off their creativity as the actual photos of food became more and more ridiculous. This meme is particularly interesting from a sociolinguist viewpoint because there's no actual speaking occurring, but anyone in on the joke knows that speech is a vital part of the humor - this entire phenomenon is text-based, and yet intimately tied to the pronunciation of English.

Posted by Logan Hotz on June 26, 2017

Tags:
Indexicality;
Performativity;
Language Shift;
Internet Language

mcdonalds ads marathon in different countries

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This is McDonald's advertisements in several different countries. It illustrates how different language idealogies are perceived by each country, and which themes are more attracting to which viewers. For example, the first ad was in the US, and they showed two guys playing basketball since basketball sport is a main sport in the US. The advertisement conveys how language and culture are shaped by human actions. In addition to language ideologies, this video illustrates the power of nonverbal language, the facial expressions and the reactions of the actors all show the multi functionality of language.

Posted by Meshal on June 26, 2017

Tags:
Standard Language Ideology;
Language Shift

A Few Things to Know About American Sign Language

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Similar to the different accents that exist in the English language, different styles of sign language express different cultural upbringings. This video is a short personal account into a few individual’s experiences with sign language and its perception from none deaf people. Explaining issues like the use of the term “hearing impaired”, is considered more offensive than being labeled deaf because it does not recognize deaf people as a “linguistic minority”. The point is that deaf people have a culture. One of the speakers talks about how slang has influenced ASL specifically in the African-American cultural community. Being deaf does not exclude people from existing in a living language that adapts and changes to fit the times. Rich with the impact of various cultures.

Words Without Humanity: George Carlin's explanation of "soft language"

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George Carlin discusses the changes in language that are used to control or manipulate certain viewpoints. He begins by stating that certain words or phrases are being replaced with others that totally drain them of meaning and humanity. Carlin points out changes in how we are supposed to refer to others ("freedom fighter" rather than commando), what certain objects are called ("dental appliances" rather than false teeth), and what certain conditions or actions should be called ("neutralize" rather than kill). Carlin says that it is those in power (whom he calls "smug, greedy, well-fed white people") change what language is socially acceptable in order to manipulate the average person and to benefit themselves.

Posted by Mitch Quaney on May 12, 2017

Tags:
Power;
Language Shift;
Politics and Policy

HIP HOP SLANGS

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This is about a Guy who is trying to explain rap slang. Based on the video he is a white male trying to explain the hip hop cultures slang. The thing that I found really interesting about the video is his persona that presents the word. How he tries to explain the word with “appropriate English”. I noticed that this related to our class because we talked about how we appropriate certain styles of language over the other. Even though rap slang is only used by a small group of people it seem to be represented a an inferior way of speak based on the presentation of this video. When they gave examples it was looked at as silly. Just a really interesting video especially when you relate it to this topic.

Posted by Simeon Perkins on May 12, 2017

Tags:
Language Shift;
Hip Hop Nation;
Slang

Icelanders Seek to Keep Their Language Alive and Out of 'the Latin Bin'

Icelanders are becoming concerned that their language is being overridden by the English language. The current official language in Iceland is Old Norse. It has changed in incredible amount over more than a thousand years and is now a unique dialect. Nowadays English is becoming more prominent due to the tourism industry and devices with automated voices in English. Only about 400,000 people speak it now, and with the vast globalization Icelanders as well as linguistic experts are in fear that Old Norse will have the same fate as Latin. [Published on 04-22-2017]

Posted by Eden Hailemariam on May 11, 2017

Tags:
Power;
English;
Change;
Language Shift

Howard Stern on vocal fry

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This video is a voice recording of Howard Stern discussing vocal fry used by a contestant on the show the Bachelor. Stern discusses the use of vocal fry and refers to it as "an epidemic" that women are using where they begin to switch back in forth between a croaking voice and their "feminine voice"

Posted by Katie Vavuris on May 2, 2017

Tags:
Performativity;
Style-shifting;
Language Shift;
Femininity;
Pitch

Substitute Teacher

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This a skit from Key and Peele about language barriers between ethnicities. The teacher pronounces the students name differently and each student is confused. When the teacher is confronted with this knowledge he gets upset that they mock his pronunciation of their names. This relates to linguistic anthropology because it showcases language barriers between different ethnicities.

Posted by Garion Morgan on April 29, 2017

Tags:
Ideology;
African American English;
Style-shifting;
Language Shift;
Stigma

Similarities Between Spanish And Arabic

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This video shows two young women comparing some of the most commonly used words in Arabic and Spanish. Approximately 9% of the Spanish language is thought to have derived from Arabic due to the Islamic invasion of Spain by the Moors in 711. Through this invasion, we have the two languages mixing and creating what is modern day Spanish. You can hear the similarities between the two languages, and visually see how the Romanized spelling of Arabic looks like Spanish. I would also consider this code switching, because the words are first introduced in English, and then a count of 1, 2, 3 is given for each girl to say the word at the same time. It also shows the concept of mutual intelligibility with some words, and a modern-day proof of how the Spanish language was assimilated into what it is now from Arabic, because the Spaniards acquired words and syntax of their captor's language. You see how each girl and speakers of either language can understand what the other is saying without any type of special prior knowledge.

Posted by Ashley Smith on February 25, 2017

Tags:
Code-switching;
Acquisition;
Language Shift

Bailando-Enrique Iglesias Lyrics

These lyrics contain the lyrics from the song Bailando by Enrique Iglesias where he uses Spanish and English throughout the entire song.

Posted by Kayla Springs on February 20, 2017

Tags:
Spanglish;
English;
Spanish;
Code-switching;
Language Shift;
Multilingualism;
Slang

Trevor Noah - American Sports

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Trevor Noah is a South African comedian who jokes about Americans intensive, almost excessive obsession with every thing to do with sports. He goes on to contrast it to how soccer, the worlds most popular sports. The multicultural comparison shows how America is different from the rest of the world. They way he speaks also puts emphasis on the knowledge of the topic.

Posted by Jesus Leos on October 16, 2016

Tags:
Ideology;
Language Shift;
Multilingualism

Plan Now to Avoid Post - Brexit Languages Crisis

There is a focus right now on the education system of the UK, with areas most at risk being language performance. If a crisis was to emerge in language performance from the UK split areas of official practice; such as trade, could be jeopardized. There are plans as of right now to push and ensure the emphasis on particularly language skills to ensure the enhancement post Brexit. This plan includes residency and a national plan to better primary education to even the post graduate level. With the quality of education slipping in the UK as it is, and a nation wide crisis within the linguistics field, the Brexit could only worsen the matter with children potentially receiving a lacking education. The goal of these reforms and education plan is to ensure a quality education to students at all levels, and hopefully encourage the emergence of language skill teachers and even linguistics majors. [Published on 10-16-2016]

Stunning animated game helps teach endangered Aboriginal language

In recent times there has been a resurgence for Australians to get in touch with their families native languages, possibly noticing that once their family members die off, there is no one left to speak it. With this game being released, it's hopes are to draw enough attention to Merra, by interactively engaging players with words, and icons to keep the language alive. There are only a handful of people in the world that speak Merra, and the creator related with his own native Indigenous language being almost lost within his family as well. Hopefully this game takes off and is successful enough to spur other similar games that bring attention to Indigenous Australian languages globally. [Published on 10-06-2016]

Why I love living in a multilingual town

This article is about a young woman who studied abroad in South Tyrol, a German speaking province in Northern Italy. She speaks about her experiences living in a town that speaks both German and Italian. She says that using both languages every day while she was there gave her confidence.

Posted by Chrissy McLeod on October 14, 2016

Tags:
German;
Accommodation;
Language Shift;
Multilingualism

He is Mi and I am Yu

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This is a clip from the movie Rush Hour 3 where Agent Carter is confused because of translations between Chinese and English. This clip touches issues on multilinguistic practices, translation, communication barriers, and so on. Because of the differences Agent Carter was getting frustrated making the situation worse.

Burger King - World Literacy Month

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This video was used by Burger King to raise awareness for World Literacy Month. The video shows a variety of people in a Burger King drive thru line. As the customers get up to the menu they realize that all of the food items are written in gibberish. They cannot understand what is written and are told to go to the window where they are told that 1 out of 5 people in the world cannot read. This call to awareness shows how difficult it is for people with not only language barriers but people who cannot read. It demonstraits the difficulties to get through the day for many people facing this problem.

Posted by Danielle Wismer on October 2, 2016

Tags:
Power;
Language Shift;
Education;
Globalization

The Differences Between Latin American Spanish and Spanish in Spain

This article, by Alex Hammond, gives a historical background on how Spanish came to be different all throughout South America, Central America, and Spain through segregated colonialism and practices of differing phrases and words. [Published on 02-06-2012]

Posted by Sarah Patton on September 29, 2016

Tags:
Spanish;
Language Shift;
Variation;
Communities of Practice

Why Linguists are Fascinated by the American Jewish Accent

In this article, the various features of what is commonly thought of as the American Jewish accent are detailed. This accent is most commonly associated with comedians such as Mel Brooks, Larry David, and Don Rickles. The accent, while not as common as it used to be, is still recognizable to listeners by the word order and intonation it borrows from Yiddish, as well as its "sing-songy" quality. [Published on 09-26-2016]

New Slanf Added to Australian Dictionary

This article covers the addition of modern Australian slang to their national dictionary. The content added includes modern words and phrases commonly used by the various Australian native dialects and their definitions. As a lot of Australian saying and slang are uncommon and foreign to other English speakers, this addition to the Australian dictionary can provide definitions for their otherwise unfamiliar sayings. [Published on 08-24-2016]

Posted by Missy Mirenzi on September 22, 2016

Tags:
Indexicality;
Language Shift;
Communities of Practice

Barack Obama: Your Children Should Learn To Speak Spanish

This is a short clip of a speech by Obama. The speech is a clear example of hispandering as he is placing power into the hands of non-Spanish speaking people and charging them with being wrong and that Spanish speakers are in the right. [Published on 07-08-2008]

Posted by Henry Olivarez on July 29, 2016

Tags:
Standard Language Ideology;
Language Shift;
Youth

Pidgin English from Nigeria

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A video of two Nigerian Men who explain and give example of language divergence and Pidgin English.

Code switching

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In this video Key and Peele explain why they use code switching in their daily lives and in their comedy, i think this applies well with what we're learning but if you watch some of their other videos and look for the code switching it makes it a little more interesting and funny at the same time. you can actually see how code switching is integrated into other people's lives more deeply than others, or even compare it to your own life for example. you can also apply this to what we learned in the other chapter just a couple days ago, the one that detailed the bay city high school teens interaction with someone of the opposite color and how they changed their tone of pitch and the way they talked while explaining the situation to another person.

Modern Educayshun

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This short video written and directed by Neel Kolhatkar is very satirical, but also very effective in proving his point. This video suggests that the political correctness and hypersensitivity of today’s society actually might have some harmful effects. This video shows how the dangers of this type of language may occur in a very exaggerated way.

Posted by Matt McLaughlin on March 11, 2016

Tags:
Grammaticalization;
Language Shift;
Education;
Linguistic Relativity

A Remote Amazonian tribe could fundamentally change our understanding of language

This article talks about the recent discovery of the language of a remote tribe in the Amazon that may be drastically different from any other known languages. A researcher from MIT teamed up with one of the few non-native Piraha speakers in the world to try to analyze the differences. This research may change our understanding of how language works and how it developed.

Don't Stop the Party - Pitbull lyrics

These lyrics contain the lyrics from the song Don't Stop the Party by artist Pitbull, where he uses Spanish and English throughout the song.

Speaking "Mexican" and the use of "Mock Spanish" in Children's Books

This article explains how underrepresented African American and Latino's are in the world of children's literature. The author focuses on the book Skippyjon Jones, which exemplifies the problem the author is describing. The main character speaks English and his alter-ego speaks Mock-Spanish. There is code switching back and forth in this book as the characters move from English to Mock Spanish in the context on a single conversation. Also, the main character in this book (speaking English) is a white Siamese cat and the alter-ego is a brown Chihuahua. The color of each animal can be seen as symbolizing the color of the skin. [Published on 05-05-2014]

Hooked on Ebonics

The article dives into several important concepts as they relate to the understanding of Ebonics. The author explains that there are rules and variety within Ebonics that demonstrate its value as a variety of English. The author also addresses that Ebonics is not just "a black thing" and that many whites, Hispanics and Asian Americans all engage in AAVE.

Code-switching

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This video explains some of the main reasons why people engage in code switching. Code switching can be used in many different ways, but the primary function of this practice is to switch between two languages in a single conversation.

Luis Von Ahn- Massive Online Scale

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This video explains how one company plans to make learning a second language free. By setting a goal of translating the web into every major language for free, these researchers created the website Duolingo. Students are presented with sentences that vary in difficulty depending on their level of understanding. This program has found that students translating material are as proficient as paid translators. This could be a glance into the future of affordable bilingual education.

Does Not Speaking Spanish Make You Less Latino? Pero Like Ep.4

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This article discusses speech communities and how the language you speak does or does not define your culture. In this example, the video is discussing if not speaking Spanish makes you less Latino.

Posted by Courtney Dickerson on March 7, 2016

Tags:
Change;
Language Shift;
Youth;
Race,Ethnicity;
Communities of Practice;
Education;
Stigma

10 Surprising Ways to Offend People in Other Countries

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The video explores how the use of body language can mean one thing to a culture and a completely different thing to another. It provides good evidence to show that language can be communicated in other ways than verbal cues. It also shows the importance of the environment and the socialization process.

Internet Language

This article goes over the beginning unique language on the Internet. It also goes over grammar that is unique the Internet. [Published on 01-22-2015]

Posted by Brian Pener on March 5, 2016

Tags:
Grammaticalization;
Language Shift;
Internet Language;
Slang

Language Could Diagnose Parkinson's, ALS and Schizophrenia before Lab Tests

A recent study shows the use, or lack of, certain words by patients could be diagnostic indicators of a future disease or ailment. [Published on 02-01-2016]

Posted by Jamie Schnee on March 4, 2016

Tags:
Performativity;
Change;
Language Shift;
Variation;
Contact

code-switching and hispandering

This site has a good audio clip that really delves into the hispandering issue and the code-switching.

Posted by Kelley Lane on February 28, 2016

Tags:
Code-switching;
Language Shift;
Multilingualism;
Politics and Policy

Hongkongers mix English and Cantonese into new language, Kongish

This articles talks about the introduction of the new language, "Kongish." Kongish is the mixture of the Cantonese and English languages. This new language is a form of code-mixing the two languages. You will find people speaking this language in Hong Kong; they are using it to create a new identity for themselves. This new identity classifies them as individuals who speak both Cantonese and English, and not someone who is from China. [Published on 01-21-2016]

Posted by Meaghan Kuhlmann on February 21, 2016

Tags:
Code-switching;
Language Shift;
Merger

Pera Code Mixing

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A little girl explains why she combines the Turkish and English language in her speech. She explains that she combines the two languages because she uses both languages, but at times it is hard for her to think of the words in English so she reverts to the Turkish term. It gives great examples of specific terms that she tends to revert to the Turkish term and the reason why she does.

Posted by Meaghan Kuhlmann on February 21, 2016

Tags:
Code-switching;
Crossing;
Language Shift;
Merger;
Multilingualism

How Code-Switching Explains The World

This NPR article addresses the linguistic practices of code switching and how prevalent it is in today's society. NPR's approach is not as true to the linguistic anthropologist term because it looks at different linguistic practices and behaviors of individuals when interacting with different groups or in different settings. It looks at at broader range than just the mixture of two different languages.

Posted by Meaghan Kuhlmann on February 21, 2016

Tags:
American English;
Code-switching;
Language Shift;
Communities of Practice

SNL

In this SNL skit, people are over exaggerating the hispanic theme within this skit. Trying to make themselves act like they know what they are talking about by making everything sound hispanic. Even though these colleagues are trying to justify what they are talking about by knowing the facts, it comes off as inappropriate when trying to have this conversation. Even though it is for a comical effect.

Posted by Tori Miller on February 18, 2016

Tags:
Spanglish;
Spanish;
Language Shift;
Race,Ethnicity;
whiteness

LANGUAGE CHALLENGE ITALIAN VS POLISH WITH MY GIRLFRIEND

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A boyfriend and girlfriend challenge each other in translating English works in to either Italian or Polish words.

Posted by Meaghan Kuhlmann on January 30, 2016

Tags:
Standard Language Ideology;
English;
Language Shift

Why are schools punishing children for speaking African languages?

This article reminds me of our discussions about prestige and how in multilingual societies, different languages are associated with different social registers. [Published on 09-17-2014]

Posted by Gregor McGee on February 25, 2015

Tags:
Standard Language Ideology;
English;
Language Shift

Language Crisis: The American Indian Reality

Walt Wolfram's article in the Huffington Post profiling language revitalization efforts for the Cherokee language in North Carolina. [Published on 11-14-2014]

Posted by Kara Becker on November 19, 2014

Tags:
Language Shift;
Education

Speaking up for Cantonese, a tongue in peril

A story in the South China Morning post discussing the potential for shift away from Cantonese in Hong Kong, where Mandarin Chinese is increasingly taught in schools. [Published on 10-03-2014]

Posted by Kara Becker on October 8, 2014

Tags:
Mandarin Chinese;
Language Shift

Who speaks Wukchumni?

A short documentary profiling the last fluent speaker of Wukchumni, a Native American language spoken in Central California, and her efforts to document the language through the creation of a dictionary. [Published on 08-18-2014]

Posted by Kara Becker on September 29, 2014

Tags:
Wukchumni;
Language Shift;
American Indian