Boris and Natasha - Russian StereotypesPlay video
This youtube clip from a news report on Russian intelligence officers who were arrested in New York peppers in lines from Boris and Natasha of the '60s cartoon Rocky and Bullwinkle. Boris and Natasha were the main villains throughout this show that took place during the Red Scare and are very clearly used as anti-Russian propaganda, similar to what we read about with Disney bad guys. This clip shows that even today Boris and Natasha are still used to illustrate the US's fear of Russian spies. One commenter writes: "Boris and Natasha were NOT Russian. They were from Pottsylvania." Had this commenter read Lippi-Green's paper, they might understand that Pottsylvania is simply a cover-up for the writers' anti-Russian intentions. Citation: Lippi-Green, Rosina. 1977. Teaching children how to discriminate.
Disney DialectsPlay video
short video including comparative examples of the speaking styles of good and evil Disney characters.
I remember seeing this on tumblr a couple years ago and found it cause it's basically Chris Rock showing he's noticed how black actors can only get roles as nonhuman animals. [Published on 12-31-1969]
This article discusses a study similar to Lippi-Green's paper, along with work done by Calvin Gidney and Julie Dubrow, in which the trend of villains in children's media being voiced with non-American accents is analyzed. Isabel Fattal mainly focuses on British, German, and Slavic accented English. [Published on 01-04-2018]
Photo of a rejection letter sent by Disney in 1938, stating that: "women do not do any of the creative work in connection with preparing the cartoons for the screen, as that work is performed entirely by young men. For this reason girls are not considered for the training school." This aligns with Lippi-Green's (2012) findings that Disney presents a clear, firm division between genders in lifestyle and life choices, and is a salient example of this ideology of division found in the real world.
Why are Disney villains gay/queer?Play video
This video addresses a problem in Disney films not addressed in Lippi-Green's 2012 paper: queer-coding of Disney villains. Disney commonly gives its villains stereotypically gay features, teaching children to associate homosexuality and immorality. While the video does not provide audio, I've provided some further links to queer-coded villains: King Candy (from Wreck-It Ralph): https://youtu.be/MVVeugPVD2Q Scar (from The Lion King: https://youtu.be/-8wgXRNYcPM
Sh*t People From Hawaii SayPlay video
Popular Youtuber and Hawaii local, Ryan Higa, exemplifies what Hawaiian Creole (known more commonly in Hawaii as 'pidgin') sounds like. Rosina Lippi-Green briefly discusses Hawaiian creole in her article, "Accent, standard language ideology, and discriminatory pretext in the courts," and Ryan demonstrates what locals sound like (albeit in a slightly dramatized manner) when speaking the language.
The Crows in DumboPlay video
Childhood is an extremely critical time for socialization into a given culture. Children learn from parents, teachers, and friends about the norms and beliefs of their community. Language is an important category to be socialized into as language and ideologies surrounding language are intertwined with race, class, and status. Although there is no official language of America, English is pushed as the official language so much so that historically non-English speakers were forced by violence to shed their culture’s identity and language and subscribe to the “English-only” agenda. While the use of corporal punishment is not prevalent in modern society as a means of restricting non-English languages, the general attitude towards anyone who speaks something other than Standardized American English is unfavorable. The crows in Disney’s Dumbo show the ways in which language is used to stereotype a group of people which also acts to socialize young children to stigmatize people either directly or indirectly. In Jane Hill’s study on the use of Mock Spanish, she concluded that mock Spanish is directly linked to ideas of racism by saying, “racism is largely produced in and through everyday talk, not through the obvious racist slurs that most people today condemn but through unintentional, indirect uses of language that reinforce racist stereotypes” (Hill, 2008). Furthermore, Rankin and Karn’s study on Ebonics led them to the conclusion that “anti-Ebonics ideology is transmitted by a simple set of strategies which suggest one can ‘speak’ Ebonics by simply pejorating standard English” which then “produces a racialized language stereotype of a subordinate group” (Rankin & Karn, 1999). Disney’s portrayal of an animal who is colored black and speaking in a stereotypical manner of African Americans would further push the ideology that this is how all African Americans speak. This portrayal would then be normalized and viewed as acceptable based on the influence and power of media especially on children.
British Villains -Tom Hiddleston en Jaguar F-Type CoupéPlay video
This Jaguar car commercial adds to an ideology that an English accent sounds villainous. Indexically and through performativity the actor, Tom Hiddleston, describing how to successfully sound "villainous". This commercial is a part of a series featuring other British actors describing how to sound "villainous".
Senate Debate over "Ebonics" in SchoolsPlay video
This is a fairly processed montage of the hype mentioned in Labov's article and analyzed in Lippi-Green, Rosina. (2012).