Humanities 110

Introduction to Humanities: Greece and the Ancient Mediterranean

Basic Chronology of the Ancient World

Spring Semester
(authors/works studied this semester in bold)

Map for the basic chronology of the ancient world
Click map to enlarge.

Also see the following complementary timeline:

Date Rome Greece Egypt and West Asia
753 BCE Traditional date of founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus    
753-509 Traditional period of kings (described by Livy, Rise of [Rome], bk I)    
509-27 Republic    

4th-Century BCE, Alexandrian Empire

Date Rome Greece Egypt and West Asia
399   Socrates put to death  
c. 380   Plato, Republic  
c. 350   Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics  
c. 340   Aristotle, Politics  
336-323   Alexander the Great rules Macedonia (Alexandrian and Persian Empires)  
334-330     Alexander conquers the Persian Empire and founds Alexandria (Egypt) (Ptolemaic Egypt) (Golvin's Alexandria) (Golvin's Canopic Street)
323     Alexander dies in Babylon

323-30 BCE Hellenistic Era

Date Rome Greece Egypt and West Asia
323-275     Succession struggles among Alexander's "Successors" (Diadochoi). Results in Greek Kingdoms of Antigonids in Macedonia and mainland Greece, Attalids in west Asia, Seleucids in Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Iran and Iraq, and Ptolemies in Egypt, Libya and the Aegean (Map of the Hellenistic kingdoms)
306-168   Antigonid Dynasty in Macedonia and Mainland Greece  
305-30     Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt, Libya and the Aegean
305-63     Seleucid Dynasty in Syria, Palestine, Iran, and Iraq
c. 280s     The Ptolemies establish Library in Alexandria
281-133     Attalid Dynasty in Pergamon and western Asia Minor
270s     Theocritus, Idylls
264-201 First and Second Punic Wars: Rome defeats Carthage and acquires Sicily as the first Roman province.    
c. 200 Plautus, The Swaggering Soldier    
164-141     Revolt of Jews in Jerusalem (Map of Jerusalem in Maccabean period) against the Seleucids. Daniel composed in the early part of this period.
2nd c.     Pergamon altar constructed [Pergamon]
167-150 Polybius, a Greek prisoner in Rome, composes his Histories. (Rome and Asia Minor)    
133 Romans control Greece, Spain, western Asia Minor, northern Africa    
63     Romans conquer Seleucids; Pompey marches on Jerusalem
60 First Triumvirate (Caesar, Pompey and Crassus)    
c. 60-55 Lucretius, On the Nature of Things (De Rerum Natura)    
49-45 Civil war between Caesar and Pompey and their followers    
44-43 Cicero writes the On Duties and†delivers 14 Philippics against Mark Antony    
43 Second Triumvirate (Octavian, Antony and Lepidus); Cicero put to death on Antony's orders    
31 Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra, Battle of Actium [Map of Roman Empire in 31 BCE]    
30     Egypt becomes a Roman province

Roman Empire: 1st century, CE

Date Rome Greece Egypt and West Asia
27 Octavian takes the name Augustus and becomes first Roman emperor    
30-19 Virgil, Aeneid    
9 Ara Pacis dedicated    
c. 2 BCE - 8 CE Ovid, Metamorphoses    
14 Augustus, Res Gestae (Romanization of Western Mediterranean)    
c. 30     Jesus crucified (possibly as late as 33) [Jerusalem]
38 Ethnic conflict between Greeks and Jews in Alexandria. Philo leads an embassy of Alexandrian Jewish leaders to Rome    
49 Seneca made tutor of future emperor Nero    
54-55   Paul, 1 Corinthians [Corinth]  
57 Paul, Letter to the Romans    
c. 61 Petronius, Satyrica    
66-73     Jewish revolt against Rome ("Jewish war") [Jerusalem]
c. 68-69     Gospel of Mark
70     Destruction of Jerusalem temple by Romans
c. 79 Pliny the Elder, Natural History (with reference to the Laocoˆn)