Amstrup, S.C., Stirling, I., Smith, T.S., Perham, C., Thiemann, G.W. 2006. Recent observations of intraspecific predation and cannibalism among polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea. Polar Biology 29:997-1002.

Andrade, M. 1996.  Sexual Selection for male sacrifice in the Australian Redback Spider. Science 271:70-72.

Brown, K., Lang, A. 1996. Cannibalism by color-banded ring-billed gulls. Colonial Waterbirds 19:121-123.

Costa, F.E.S., Braga, F.M.S., Arfelli, C.A., Amorim, A.F. 2002. Aspects of the reproductive biology of shortfil mako, Isurus oxyrinchus (Elasmobranchii lamnidae), in the southeastern region of Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology 62:239-248.

Elgar, M.A., Crespi, B.J. (eds) 1992. Cannibalism: Ecology and Evolution among Diverse Taxa. OUP, Oxford.

Elgar, M.A., Nash, D.R. 1988. Sexual cannibalism in the garden spider Araneus-diadematus. Animal Behavior 36:1511-1517.

Glass, G.E., Holt, R.D., Slade, N.A. 1985. Infanticide as an evolutionarily stable strategy. Animal Behavior 33:384-391.

Hoffman, E., Pfennig, D. 1999. Proximate causes of cannibalistic polyphenism in larval tiger salamanders. Ecology 80:1076-1080.

Kusano, T., Kusano, H., Miyashita, K. 1985. Size-related cannibalism among larval Hynobius nebulosus. Copeia 2:472-476.

The Lion Research Center, Available from: Last modified: Aug. 18, 2005. Accessed Nov. 11, 2006.

Manica, A. 2001. Filial cannibalsim in teleost fish. Biological Reviews. 77: 261-277.

Schneider, J.M., Lubin, Y. 1996. Infanticidal Male Eresid Spiders. Nature 381:655-656.

Simpson, S.J., Sword, G. A., Lorch, P. D., Couzin, I. D., 2006. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103:4152-4156.