1. Langbauer Jr, William R. "Elephant Communication". Zoo Biology; Vol 19, No 5; Nov 2000; pp. 425–445.

2. Garstang, Michael. "Long-Distance, Low-Frequency Elephant Communication". Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology;  Vol 190, No 10; Oct 2004; pp. 791-805. 

3. Garstang, Michael. "Atmospheric Controls on Elephant Communication". Journal of Experimental Biology; Vol 198; No 4; 1995; pp. 939-951.

4.  O'Connell-Rodwell, C.E., L. A. Hart, and B. T. Arnason, 2001.  "Exploring the Potential Use of Seismic Waves as a Communication Channel by Elephants and Other Large Animals".  American Zoology; 41:1157-1170 (2001).

5. "Elephant Voices". Nov 28, 2006.

6.  O'Connell-Rodwell, C.E., J.D. Wood, T.C. Rodwell, S. Puria, S.R. Partan, R. Keefe, D. Shriver, B.T. Arnason, and L. A. Hart. "Wild Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Breeding Herds Respond to Artficially Simulated Seismic Stimuli". Behavior Ecology and Sociobiology; Vol 59; No 6, Apr 2006; pp. 842-850.

7.   Hill, Peggy S. M., 2001.  "Vibration and Animal Communication: A Review".  American Zoologist;

8.  Shoshani, J., Marchant, G. H., 2001.  "Hyoid apparatus: a little known complex of bones and its "contribution" to proboscidean evolution".  The World of Elephants - International Congress, Rome.

Picture Sources

P1. Shannon Petticrew, on her African safari with Georgia in the summer of 2006.

P2. "South African National Parks"

P3. "South African National Parks"