Aerne, B. 1996.The hydrozoan life cycle: a small secreted protein is involved in specification of the polyp stage. Dev. Genes Evol., 206: 337-343.

Bavestrello, G., C. Sommer, and M. Sará. 1992. Bi-directional conversion in Turritopsis nutricula. Sci. Mar,. 56(2-3): 137-140.

Boreo, F. & Bouillon, J. 1993. Zoogeography and life cycle patterns of Mediterranean hydromedusae (Cnidaria). Biological Jounral of the Linnean Society, 48: 239-266.

Collas, P. & Håkelien, A. 2003. Teaching cells new tricks. Trends in Biotechnology, 21 (8).

Hongbao Ma. 2010. Turritopsis nutricula. Nature and Science, 8 (2).

Ker, Than. 2009."Immortal" Jellyfish Swarm World's Oceans .National Geographic News. <>

Miglietta, M. & Lessios, H. 2009. A silent invasion. Biol. Invasions, 11: 825-834.

Piraino, S., F. Boero, B, Aeschbach, V. Schmid. 1996. Reversing the life cycle: Medusae transforming into Polyps and cell transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula. Bio. Bull., 190(3): 302-312.

Schmid, V. 1974. Regeneration in Medusa buds and Medusae of Hydrozoa. Amer. Zool., 4: 773-781.

Schuchert, P. 2004. Reveision of the European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Families Oceanidae and Pachycordylidae. Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 111 (2): 315-369.

Stearns, S. C. 1992. The evolution of life histories. Oxford University Press, New York.

Tardent, P. 1978. Coelenterata, Cnidaria. Mophogenese der Tiere.