References & Media Credits


Image courtesy of Islands in the Sea 2002, NOAA/OER.


1. Hastings, J.W. 1983. "Biological diversity, chemical mechanisms, and the evolutionary origins of bioluminescent systems." Journal of Molecular Evolution. v. 19: p.309-321.

2. "The Evolution of Bioluminescence" Chemistry of Bioluminescence. 15 Dec 2006. <>

3. Dubuisson, M., Marchand, C. and J.F. Rees. 2004. "Firefly luciferin as antioxidant and light emitter: the evolution of insect bioluminescence." Luminescence 19: 339-344.

4. Haygood, M.G. & Distel, D.L. 1993. "Bioluminescent symbionts of flashlight fishes and deep-sea anglerfishes form unique lineages related to the genus Vibrio." Nature 363, 154 - 156

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1. Dunlap P.V., Davis K.M., Tomiyama S., Fujino M., Fukui A. 2008."Developmental and microbiological analysis of the inception of bioluminescent symbiosis in the marine fish Nuchequula nuchalis (Perciformes: Leiognathidae)." Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:7471?7481.

2 Claes, J. M. and Mallefet, J. 2008. "Early development of bioluminescence suggests camouflage by counter-illumination in the velvet belly lantern shark Etmopterus spinax (Squaloidea: Etmopteridae)." Journal of Fish Biology, vol. 73:6, p. 1337-1350.

Image courtesy of Nova ScienceNOW, <>


1. "Application of the lux system" Cell-Cell Communication and Autoinduction of the lux operon. <>

2. Kolibachuk, D. & Greenberg, E.P. 1993. "The Vibrio fischeri luminescence gene activator LuxR is a membrane-associated protein." Journal of Bacteriology 175: 7307-7312

3. "Bioluminescence: Biochemical Mechanism" Bioluminescence - Bioluminescence In Nature, Biochemical Mechanism, Bioluminescence As A Research Tool.

Images courtesy of J.W. Hastings 1983 Journal of Molecular Evolution and <>

Adaptive Value

1. Haddock, Moline and Case. 2010. "Bioluminescence in the Sea." Ann. Rev. Mar. Sci. 2:293-343

2. "Interesting Organisms" The Bioluminescence Web Page. 1 Sept 2010. <>

3. "Deep Sea Fish: Description, Food, Reproduction, Adaptations, Facts of Sea Fish" All The Sea. <>

Images courtesy of Edith A. Widder, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution; Debbie Steinberg 2005, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and <>.


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