Chemical and Physical Fecal Defense Mechanisms in Insects
Biology 342 Fall 08
The larvae of many Nymphalid butterflies exhibit this behavior, especially in the genuses Eurytelinae and Charaxinae (Freitas and Oliveira 1992).
Fig. 3. Phylogenetic tree of the Nymphylidae family.
The larvae of the beetle Plagiometriona clavata in the Chrysomelidae family create fecal shields as defense (Vencl et al. 1999). Also in this family, the larvae of the Blepharida thois create fecal shields (Vencl and Morton 1998). The fecal shield has developed convergently in the Lema trilinea, a beetle with a similar ecological niche as P. clavata that is in the Criocerinae family (Vencl et al. 1999).
Fig. 4. Phylogenetic tree of the Chrysomeloidea family.