The Common European adder (left, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons), the Indian cobra (middle, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons), and the Yellow-bellied sea snake (right, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons).

Welcome to my Animal Behavior webpage on snake venom. On your left you will find various links exploring differing aspects of snake venom. The phylogeny section discusses the current debate on how snakes fit into the phylogenetic tree, and various proposed phylogenetic trees. The ontogeny section covers a few studies on how developmental changes in venomous snakes lead to changes in the composition of their venom. The mechanism section delves into theories behind the evolution of the mechanics of snake venom. Finally, the adaptation covers how ground squirrels have adapted to rattlesnake venom.