Index References:
  • Young, M.W. (ed.), (2005), Circadian Rhythms, San Diego: Elsevier Academic Press. 
  • Refinetti, R.; (2000), Circadian Physiology, CRC Press: Boca Raton. 
  • Dunlap, J.C., Molecular Bases for Circadian Clocks, Cell 96: 271 (1999).
Phylogeny References:
  • Ditty JL, Williams SB, Golden SS (2003) A cyanobacterial circadian timing mechanism. Annu. Rev. Genet. 37:513-543.
  • Dvornyk V, Vinogradova ON, Nevo E (2003) Origin and evolution of circadian clock genes in prokaryotes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100: 2495-2500.
  • Kondo, T., Mori, T., Lebedeva, N.V., Aoki, S., Ishiura, M., Golden, S.S.; Circadian Rhythms in Rapidly Dividing Cyanobacteria; Science 275: 224 (1997).
Adaptation References:
  • Klarsfeld, A., and Rouyer, F. (1998). Effects of circadian mutations and LD periodicity on the life span of Drosophila melanogaster. J. Biol. Rhythms  13, 471-478.
  • Paranjpe, D.A.m Anitha, D.m Kumar, S.m Kumar, D., Verkhedkar, K., Chandrashekaran, M.K., Joshi, A., and Sharma, V. K. (2003). Entrainment of eclosion rhuthm in Drosophila melanogaster populations reared for more than 700 generations in constant light environment. Chronobiol. Int. 20, 977-987.
  • Pittendrigh, C. S. (1993). Temporal organization: Reflections of a Darwinian clock-watcher. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 55, 16-54.
  • Hastings MH, Maywood ES, Ebling FJP. The role of cricadian system in photoperiodic time measurement in mammals. NATO Advanced Studeies Institute Series A 1995; 277: 95-106.
  • Arendt J. Melatonin and the mammalian pineal gland. In: London: Chapman and Hall, 1995.
  • Wehr T. The durations of human melatonin secretion and sleep respond to changes in daylength (photoperiod). JClin Endocrinol Metab 1991; 73: 1276-1280.
  • Young, MW. Circadian Rhythms. Methods in Enzymology; Vol. 393; Elsevier Academic Press.
Mechanism References:
  • Pickard GE, Turek FW. The suprachiasmatic nuclei: two circadian clocks? Brain Research, 1983; 268(2): 201-10.
  • Hall JC. Cryptochromes: sensory reception, transduction, and clock functions subserving circadian systems. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 2000; 10(4): 456-66.
  • Plautz JD, Kaneko M, Hall JC, et al. Independent photoreceptive circadian clocks throughout Drosophila. Science, 1997; 278(5343): 1632-5.
  • Konopka RJ, Benzer S. Clock mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 1971; 68(9): 2112-6.
  • Reddy P, Zehring WA, Wheeler DA, et al. Molecular analysis of the period locus in Drosophila melanogaster and identification of a transcript involved in biological rhythms. Cell, 1984; 38(3): 701-10.
  • Bargiello TA, Jackson FR, Young MW. Restoration of circadian behavioural rhythms by gene transfer in Drosophila. Nature, 1984; 312(5996): 752-4.
  • Antoch MP, Song EJ, Chang AM, et al. Functional identification of the mouse circadian Clock gene by transgenic BAC rescue. Cell, 1997; 89(4): 655-67.
  • Liu Y, Heintzen C, Loros J, et al. Regulation of clock genes. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 1999; 55(10): 1195-205.
  • Darlington TK, Wager-Smith K, Ceriani MF, et al. Closing the circadian loop: CLOCK-induced transcription of its own inhibitors per and tim. Science, 1998; 280(5369): 1599-603.
  • Kloss B, Price JL, Saez L, et al. The Drosophila clock gene double-time encodes a protein closely related to human casein kinase Iepsilon. Cell, 1998; 94(1): 97-107.
  • Katzenberg D, Young T, Finn L, et al. A CLOCK polymorphism associated with human diurnal preference. Sleep, 1998; 21(6): 569-76.
  • Wolfson AR, Carskadon MA. Sleep schedules and daytime functioning in adolescents. Child Development, 1998; 69(4): 875-87.
  • Carskadon MA, Wolfson AR, Acebo C, et al. Adolescent sleep patterns, circadian timing, and sleepiness at a transition to early school days. Sleep, 1998; 21(8): 871-81.
Ontogeny References:
  • Sehgal, A., Price, J., Young, M.W., Ontogeny of a Biological Clock in Drosophila melanogaster, PNAS (1992): 89: 1423-1427. 
  • Seron-Ferre, M., Ducsay, C.A., Valenzuela, G.J., Circadian Rhythms during Pregnancy, Endocrine Reviews: 14(5), 594-610 (1993). 
  • McGraw, K., Hoffman, R., Harker, C., Herman, J.H., The development of circadian rhythms in human infant, Sleep, 22(3): 303-310 (1999).
I would like to thank Susan Renn, Assistant Professor of Biology, for her help during this project.