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2. Graham, K., Boulanger, J., Duval, J. and Stenhouse, G. (2010) Spatial and temporal use of roads by grizzly bears in west-central Alberta. Ursus, 21(1):43-56

3. Gunther, K. A. and Biel, M. J. (1998) Reducing human-caused black and grizzly bear mortality along roadside corridors in Yellowstone National Park. Bear Management Office: Yellowstone National Park, WY

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7. Libal, N.S., Belant, J.L.,Leopold, B.D., Wang, G. and Owen, P.A. (2011) Despotism and risk of infanticide influence grizzly bear den site selection. PlosOne, 6(9)

8. McLellan, B.  (2005) Sexually selected infanticide in grizzly bears: the effects of hunting on cub survival. Ursus, 16(2):141-156

9. National Park Service.  Bears and Food Storage.  Retrieved on 11/2/2014 from:

10. National Park Service. Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Retrieved on 11/2/2014 from

11. Steyaert, S. M., Kindberg, J., Swenson, J. E., and Zedrosser, A.(2013) Male reproductive strategy explains spatiotemporal segregation in brown bears.  J. Anim Ecol, 82(4): 836-845

12. Tree of Life Web Project: Spencer Heffernan.  Ursus arctos horribilis – the Grizzly Bear.  Retrieved on 11/10/2014 from

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17. Wolff, J.O. and Macdonald, D.W. (2004) Promiscuous females protect their offspring.  Trends Evol Ecol, 19(3):127-34

18. Yellowstone Volunteer Ranger, name unknown (personal communication during a bear-jam, May 30, 2012)


Image Credits

a: Retrieved on 11/6/2014 from

b: Retrieved on 11/6/2014 from

c: Retrieved on 12/4/2014 from

d: Retrieved on 11/1/2014 from

e:Retrieved on 11/1/2014 from

f: Retrieved on 12/5/2014 from

g: Retrieved on 12/5/2014 from