References & Research

Works referenced on this site

Arnason, U., Gullberg, A., Janke, A., Kullberg, M., Lehman, N., Petrov, E.A., and Vainola, R. (2006). Pinniped phylogeny and a new hypothesis for their origin and dispersal. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41, 345-354.

Bartholomew, G.A. (1970). A model for the evolution of pinniped polygyny. Evolution 24, 546-559.

Flatz, R., Gonzalez-Suarez, M., Young, J.K., Hernandez-Camacho, C.J., Immel, A.J., and Gerber, L.R. (2012). Weak polygyny in California sea lions and the potential for alternative mating tactics. Plos One 7, 9.

Kruger, O., Wolf, J.B.W., Jonker, R.M., Hoffman, J.I., and Trillmich, F. (2014). Disentangling the contribution of sexual selection and ecology to the evolution of size dimorphism in pinnipeds. Evolution 68, 1485-1496.

Kunc, H.P., and Wolf, J.B.W. (2008). Seasonal changes of vocal rates and their relation to territorial status in male Galápagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki). Ethology 114, 381-388.

Meise, K., Piedrahita, P., Kruger, O., and Trillmich, F. (2014). Being on time: size-dependent attendance patterns affect male reproductive success. Animal Behaviour 93, 77-86.

Porschmann, U., Trillmich, F., Mueller, B., and Wolf, J.B.W. (2010). Male reproductive success and its behavioural correlates in a polygynous mammal, the Galápagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki). Molecular Ecology19, 2574-2586.

Riedman, M. (1990) The pinnipeds: seals, sea lions, and walruses. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Robertson, K.L., Runcorn, C.W., Young, J.K., and Gerber, L.R. (2008). Spatial and temporal patterns of territory use of male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Canadian Journal of Zoology 86, 237-244.

Wolf, J.B.W., Kauermann, G., and Trillmich, F. (2005). Males in the shade: habitat use and sexual segregation in the Galápagos sea lion (Zalophus californianus wollebaeki). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 59, 293-302.

Young, J.K., Gonzalez-Suarez, M., and Gerber, L.R. (2008). Determinants of agonistic interactions in California sea lions. Behaviour 145, 1797-1810.


Labs studying California and Galápagos sea lion behavior and evolution

Gerber Lab at Arizona State University, USA

Wolf Lab at Uppsala University, Sweden

Relevant Wikipedia Pages

alternate mating strategy
California sea lion 
Galápagos sea lion 
phylogenetic trees
sexual dimorphism
sexual selection