Paper References

Achenbach, A. and Foitzik, S. (2009) First evidence for slave rebellion: Enslaved ants systematically kill the brood of their social parasite Protomognathus americanus. Evolution, 63, 1068-1074.

Beibl, J., Stuart, R.J., Heinze, J. and Foitzik, S. (2005). Six origins of slavery in formicoxenine ants. Insectes Sociaux 52: 291-297.

Franks, NR. Scovell, E. (1983) Dominance and reproductive success among slave making worker ants. Nature, 304: 724-725

Herbers, J.M. and Foitzik, S. (2002) The ecology of slavemaking ants and their hosts in north temperate forests. Ecology, 83, 148-163.

Herbers, J.M. and Stuart, R.J. (1998) Patterns of reproduction in slave-making ants. The Royal Society,265: 875-887.

Hölldobler, B. and Wilson, E.O. (1990) The Ants. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Lenoir, A. D’Ettorre, P. and Errand, C. (2001) Chemical Ecology and Social Parasitism in Ants. Annual Review of Entomology, 46: 537-599

Preston-Mafham, R. and Preston-Mafham, K. (1993) The Encyclopedia of  Land Invertebrate Behaviour. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Topoff, H. (1990) Slave-making Ants. American Scientist, 78: 520-528

Visicchio R., Tamarri V., Castracani C., Grasso D.A., Le Moli F., Mori A. (2009). Glandular sources of the alarm pheromones in the ant Formica rufibarbis (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Ethology, Ecology & Evolution, 21:111-125

Picture References

1. Darlyne A. Murawski. “Black Ants (Protomognathus Americanus) Enslave Red Ants (Leptothorax Curvispinosus).” Photograph. AllPosters. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.

2. Ben Coulter. “Protomagnathus americanus – female.” Photograph., 22 Sept. 2013. Web, 21 Nov. 2014.

3. Suzy Renn PPT. “Tinbergen’s 4 Questions Diagram.” Diagram Picture. Reed College files server. Web, 9 Sept. 2012.

1. angelfire. “General hydrocarbon chain – basis for pheromone organic compounds.” Drawing. Web, 19 Nov. 2014.

2. Joe MacGown. “Temnothorax americanus full-face worker.” Photograph. Web, 24, Nov. 2014.

1. meddic. “P. americanus and T. Longispinosus ants.” Picture. Web, 29 Nov. 2014.

1. See Topoff Paper for phylogenetic tree diagram.

2. Korz, Etnolodia, Zivotnih. “Fig.10.8.” Picture/Drawing. gua.convodocs. Web, 200-2014. Web, 23 Nov. 2014.

Survival Value
1. Mark Moffett. “Slave-maker Ant (Protomognathus americanus) being bitten by slave-made ant(Temnothorax sp).” Photograph. Corbis. Web, 1 Dec. 2014.

2. Alexandra Achenbach. “A slave-maker pupae is killed by enslaved host workers of the species LT. Longispinosus.” World Science. Web, 1 Dec. 2014.