In addition to the
specific advertisements symbolizing the intersections
of masculinity and sexuality in sport that we chose to analyze,
Weiden+Kennedy and Nike posted numerous
for their 2008
campaign, many of which contain homophobic and racial messages that are
just as relevant to analyze as are those we selected for our webpage.
There were also three
filmic supplements that
Nike made for the 2008
Hyperdunk campaign, and these three 'commercials,' which were posted
primarily on the internet but later removed due to complaints.
When discussing polemics such as those we have
throughout this entire webpage, there is always a vast amount of
uncovered empirical, virtual, ethnographic, micropolitical, global, and
nationalized examples and evidences of intersubjective contexts
containing battles for powers and cultural captital. That past sentence
being a mouthful is symbolic of how the internet offers endless
details and facets of culturally saturated struggles for power dealing
with race, sexuality, and masculinity. Our
analysis has revealed a contextualized example of masculinity,
homophobia, and racism in advertising that we have hoped to relate to
broader, macropolitical discourses, but there are many
and relevant cultural examples that dig further into the cultural
battle scenes we have discussed:
After ending a 6-game
losing streak on April 3, 2011, Toronto Raptors teammates Leandro
Barbosa and Reggie Evans left the court holding hands, and the internet
world responded with hateful and homophobic messages for these two
players, their team, and the basketball world at large. The video of
the two players exiting the court is below:
report of retired basketball
player John Amaechi's struggle with the public's reaction to his
homosexuality. Even the most open-mided and sympathetic reactions of
current basketball players seem shrouded in homophobic bias: Shavlik
Randolph said he would not mind having a gay teammate as long as he
"did not bring his “gayness” on him."
One University of
Arizona student's attempt to call for an inversion of tranditional
homophobia by calling for an approach to embrace
homoeroticism in sport in his
school's public newspaper.
The premise of this entire webpage is thanks to the course material and
assignments of Charlene Makley's Sex and Gender class at Reed College.
Our research and analyses were supported and backed by many sources,
those whose work we cited are listed below:
Veena. "Violence, Gender, and
Subjectivity," Annual Review of
Anthropology, Vol. 37: 283-299, October 2008.
bell. "Black Looks: Race and
Representation." New York: South
End Press. 1992.
"Image-Based Culture: Advertising and Popular Culture," in
Gail Dines and Jean M. Humez, (eds.) Gender, Race and Class in Media.
London: Sage, 1995.
Michael. "Masculinity as
Homophobia: Fear, Shame, and Silence
in the Construction of Gender Identity," in Harry Brod and Michael
Kaufman, (eds.), Theorizing Masculinities. London: Sage Publications,
An Ghaill, Máirtín.
"The Making of Black English Masculinities," in
Harry Brod and Michael Kaufman, (eds.), Theorizing Masculinities.
London: Sage Publications, 1994.
Kath. "Families We Choose:
Lesbians, Gays, Kinship." New York:
Columbia University Press, 1991.
All photos from Nike's 2008 Hyperdunk campaign are copyrighted by Nike,
Inc. and were thought up by the following Wieden+Kennedy creative team:
AD: Sasha Swetchinski
CW: Edward Harrison
CD: Jeff Williams
SA: Brian Troyer, Rob Mumford and Rehanah Spence
SM: Sarah Starr
PM: Jason Schwartz
AE: Alyssa Ramsey
AB: Krystle Mortimore
Media: Tenny Park & Christy Ruiz PHOTO: Dewey Nicks
COLOR: Frazer Goodbody and Sef Mccullough