Schedule (Spring 2021)

Weekly readings will be marked by where they can be found: bookstore (see Course Book List); book reserve, ereserve, or online for articles available for downloading from the web. ereserve articles can be accessed via the Course Moodle page (click link at the top for the list).

Note that all "Key Terms" listed for each class session refer to brief (1-2 page) overview chapters in the reference book linked to each week, Key Terms in Language and Culture. These are provided for your reference only; they are NOT required reading for the week unless otherwise noted.

Please let us know as soon as possible if you have any trouble obtaining the readings. Please have all readings and your notes on them ready for each class.

Part I Mediated Lives: Theories and Methods in Linguistic Anthropology

Week One: Key Themes in Linguistic Anthropology

Assignments

Mon Jan 25  Introductions and Goals of the Course

  • WATCH: My introductory video for the class!
  • POST: Audio introduction to yourself, and comments to your assigned intro groups' intros
In class: Community agreement
Share: Moodle Media Use Guidelines

Wed Jan 27 The Language-Culture-Power Nexus

  • READ: Agar: Language Shock, Ch. 1 Culture Blends and Ch. 2 The Circle, and Ch. 3 The Circle and the Field, 1994. (~60 pp) (Bookstore, ereserve).
  • READ: Philips, Susan. "Power," in Alessandro Duranti, ed., Key Terms in Language and Culture. (ereserve).
  • Key Terms: Agency, Power, Relativity, Socialization, Translation, Truth
In class: Sign up to be Moodle Discussants

Further Reading

Further Reading

Agar: Language Shock, Ch. 4 Cultural Signifieds and Ch. 5 Similarities and Differences, and Ch. 6 Situations, 1994. (~60 pp) (Bookstore, book reserve, ereserve).

Ahearn: Living Language ch. 1, 4

Enfield, kockleman, Sidnell. Directions in the anthro of lang, Cambridge Handbook.

Gal, Susan. 2016. “Language and Political Economy: An Afterword.” HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 6 (3): 331–35. (For special section of HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory , titled “Language and Political Economy, Revisited” and based on a symposium timed to celebrate the twenty‐fifth anniversary of the publication of Susan Gal's [1989] influential article, “Language and Political Economy”).

Mooney and Evans. "Introduction," Language, Society, and Power: An Introduction, 2011. (brief intro to lang, multfunctionality, and power, including ideology and interpellation)

Links

Films

Related Films and Videos:

The Dangers of Miscommunication:

Week Two: What is a Sign? Linguistic and Semiotic Mediation

Assignments

Mon Feb 1  Saussure and the Linguistic Sign

  • WATCH: My video introducing our Semester-Long Research Project: Investigating Language Politics in Portland
  • READ: Saussure, Ferdinand de. pg 6-23, pg 65-78, in Course in general linguistics, edited by Saussy and Meisel, Columbia U Press. (c1959). (ereserve); NOTE: Do NOT use the Harris translation, 1986 or the Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye edition of Baskin, the pagination is different!
  • READ: Yaguello, Marina. ch. 4-6, pp. 28-69. Language through the Looking Glass: Exploring Language and Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1998 (1981). (ereserve, bookstore, book reserve).
  • Key Terms: Categories, Codes, Functions, Grammar, Particles, Repetition

In class: Assign research pairs
Share: Project Disclosure Letter, Semester Project Guidelines

Wed Feb 3 Post-Sassurean Semiotics

  • READ: Peirce, Charles Sanders. "What is a Sign?" (1894). in The Essential Peirce, Volume 2: Selected Philosophical Writings, 1893-1913, Indiana University Press, 1998. (ereserve)
  • READ: Manning, Paul. Introduction (p. 1-29), The Semiotics of Drinks and Drinking. New York: Continuum, 2012. (ereserve).
  • Key Terms: Functions, Indexicality, Iconicity, Reflexivity
In class: Peircean Sign Game

Further Reading

Further Reading

Ahearn, Laura. Ch. 1-2, Living Language, 2016.

Culler, Jonathan. Ferdinand de Saussure. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986.

Gershon and Manning, Language and Media, Cambridge handbook of ling anth

Kockleman, Paul. linganth and critical theory [section on mediation]

Mooney and Evans. "Introduction," Language, Society, and Power: An Introduction, 2011. (brief intro to lang, multfunctionality, and power, including ideology and interpellation)

Stasch, Rupert. 2006 Structuralism in Anthropology. The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd edition, vol. 12, pp. 167-170. Oxford: Elsevier.

Yaguello, Marina. Ch. 1 What Language is for and Ch. 10 The House that Jack Built: Competence and Performance, in Language Through the Looking Glass.

Links

Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913)

Films

Related Films and Videos:

Seeking Meaning: Segmenting speech

Hearing Signs, Sensing Differently

The gap between written and spoken language

Phonemes and Accent

The Semiotics of Drinks and Drinking: Beer Commercials

Week Three: Methods and Ethics in Linguistic Anthropological Research

Assigments

WATCH: The Linguists, 65 mins, 2008 (Screen via Moodle) Content Notes: portrays graphic scene of live animal sacrifice during a ritual in Bolivia.

Mon Feb. 8 What is Linguistic Anthropological Research? What is Data?

  • READ: Ahearn, Laura. [focus on p 52-59, 62-68] ch. 3 The Research Process in Linguistic Anthropology, Living Language: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell, 2016. (18 pp). (Bookstore, book reserve, ereserve).
  • READ: Bonvillain, Nancy. Outline of an Ethnography of Communication, Language, Culture and Communication: the Meaning of Messages, 2010(1994). (18 pp) (ereserve).
  • READ: Elliott, Christian. Video conferencing and the limits of representability, Anthro{dendum} Blog, May 9, 2020 (online)
  • READ: Dashiell, Steven. I’m All I Wanna Be” – Video Self Presentation in the Age of COVID-19, The Geek Anthropologist Blog, July 15 2020. (online).
  • Key Terms: Competence, Genre, Gesture, Narrative, Participation, Register, Space, Style, Turn

In-class: AV and Ethics Workshop
Share: Project Disclosure Letter, Fieldnotes Tips, Recording Tips, Fieldwork Proposal Guidelines

Wed Feb 10 Ethical Mediations: Researcher, Witness, Voyeur?

  • READ: Ahearn, Laura. ch. 5 Language, Thought and Culture (focus on pp 87-93, 110-116), Living Language: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell, 2016 (2nd edition). (Bookstore, book reserve, ereserve).
  • READ: Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn. Ch. 1 Introduction. (focus on pp 1-4, pp 10-22) Ethics and Anthropology: Ideas and Practice. Rowman and Littlefield, 2013. (16 pp) (ereserve).
  • Key Terms: Contact, Interview, Power, Reflexivity, Relativity, Truth

In class: Fieldnotes practice with film
Share: Fieldnotes Tips

1-2 page Research proposal due (pairs jointly submit),
Friday Feb 12, 7 pm, Word doc or pdf, upload to Moodle

Further Reading

Further Reading

Agar, Michael. Ch.s 4-6, in Language Shock.

Black, Steven. Anthropological Ethics and the Communicative Affordances of Audio-Video Recorders in Ethnographic Fieldwork: Transduction as Theory. American Anthropologist, 4 January 2017.

Bonvillain, Nancy. (Chapters on Linguistic Anthropological analysis). in The Routledge Handbook of Linguistic Anthropology

Borneman, John and Abdellah Hammoudi, eds. Being There: The Fieldwork Encounter and the Making of Truth. Berkeley : University of California Press, 2009 . viii + 280 pp. [well-reviewed by Lambek in Ling anth journal; articles on power relations in institutions, state, ethnography of; is a critique of anthros fetishism of text and philosophy]

Briggs, Charles. Learning How to Ask.

Cameron, Deborah. Elizabeth Frazer. Penelope Harvey. M.B.H. Rampton. and Kay Richardson, eds. Researching Language: Issues of Power and Method.  London/New York: Routledge, Chapman & Hall, 1992.148 pp.

Eckert, Penelope. "Sociolinguistics: making quantification meaningful." in the Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Anthropology.

Engle Merry, Sally. "Ch. 1 A World of Quantification," (focus on pp. 1 - 8 (ending at "Ethnography of Indicators); AND pages 19-22 (beginning with "The Myth of Objectivity" and ending at "Overview of the Book"), in The Seductions of Quantification: Measuring Human Rights, Gender Violence, and Sex Trafficking. Chicago: UChicago press, 2016.

Henze, Rosemary. "Crossing Over, Back, and Through: Reflections on the Use of Video in Ethnographic Research and in Social Change." Anthropology & Education Quarterly, Volume 47, Issue 3 . Same issue:

Hill, Jane. "Expert Rhetorics" in Advocacy for Endangered Languages: Who Is Listening, and What Do They Hear? Journal of Linguistic Anthropology. Vol. 12, No. 2 (December 2002), pp. 119-133 

Jackson, John. (2010). “On Ethnographic Sincerity.” Current Anthropology 51:2.

Modan, Gabriella. Writing the Relationship: Ethnographer-Informant Interactions in the New Media Era Journal of Linguistic Anthropology Volume 26, Issue 1, May 2016, Pages: 98–107,

Mooney and Evans. "Introduction," in Mooney and Evans, eds., Language, Society and Power: an Introduction, 2011.

Narayan, Kiran (1993). “How Native is the Native Anthropologist?” American Anthropologist. Vol. 95:3, 671-686

Roberts, Celia and Srikant Sarangi. (ethics section of:) "The Dynamics of interactional and institutional orders in work-related settings," in Celia Roberts and Srikant Sarangi, eds., Talk, Work and Institutional Order: Discourse in Medical, Mediation and Management Settings (Language, Power and Social Process). Mouton de Gruyter, 1999

Ruby, Jay (1991). Speaking For, Speaking About, Speaking With, or Speaking Alongside - An Anthropological and Documentary Dilemna. Visual Anthropology Review, 7(2), pp. 50-67.

Sontag, Susan. Ch. 2, Regarding the Pain of Others. New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, 2003. 

Films

Language, Power, and Communicative Competence

Key and Peele: Awkward Conversation (Comedy Central 2015) (conversational implication, keys)

Key and Peele: Substitute Teacher (Comedy Central 2012) (forms of address)

St. Taiwo Comedy: The Way Yoruba People Greet their Parent (Young Nigerian comedian 2016) (Greeting routines)

BBC Two The Mash Report (Comedy): Northerner Terrifies Londoners by Saying "Hello" (2016) (Greeting routines)

Talking Cats? Kitten Filter During a Zoom Court Hearing (Youtube, 2021) (self-curation, formal vs informal event, seriousness)

Week Four: Institutions, Communities, Power: Ling anthro methods

Assignments

WATCH: Sorry to Bother you, Boots Riley, dir., 2 hours, 2018 (Screen via Moodle) **Content notes: fast-moving horror/fantasy film, some scenes edited for sensory shock value (because it is through the eyes of the protagonist), some graphic scenes of beatings, police violence).

Mon Feb 15 Interaction, Institutions and Communities

  • READ: Goffman, Erving. The Interaction Order. in American Sociological Review, (p. 1-17), 1983. (ereserve, scroll to week 4).
  • READ: Morgan, Marcyliena. (Ch. 1, What is a Speech Community), and Ch. 2, Representing Speech Communities) (p. 1-35), in Speech Communities. Cambridge University Press, 2014. (ereserve).
  • Key Terms: Competence, Community, Control, Intentionality, Participation, Style, Variation
Share: Transcription Guidelines, Workshop prep

Wed Feb 17 Inference, Codeswitching and Multilingualism

  • READ: Gumperz. Conversational code switching (focus on pp. 59-84), Discourse strategies, pp. 59-98, Cambridge University Press, 1982. (ereserve).
  • READ: Jacquemet, Marco. Transidioma and Asylum: Gumperz's Legacy in Intercultural Institutional Talk, Journal of Linguistic Anthropology Volume 23, Issue 3, December 2013: 199–212. (ereserve, scroll to week 4)
  • Key Terms: Conflict, Expert, Inference, Heteroglossia, Interview, Crossing, Switching, Voice, Power

In class: Transcription workshop

Extra Credit: Groups' joint practice transcription due Friday Feb 19, 7 pm, upload to Moodle

Further Reading

Further Reading

Ahearn, Laura. Communities of Language Users, in Living Language. [says Communities of practice is an alternative to notion of speech communities]

Briggs, Charles. Learning How to Ask. [on interview genre, a key theme in institutional power relations analyses].

Faircough, N. (2014). Language and Power. Routledge.

Gal, Susan. JLA. John J. Gumperz’s Discourse Strategies http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jola.12023/pdf

Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics (GURT) 2000: Linguistics, Language, and the Professions: Education, Law, Medicine, and Technology. James E. Alatis, Heidi E. Hamilton, and Ai-Hui Tan, eds. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2000. vi + 279 pp. [reviewed well by Wolfgram, J. Ling Anth; focus on applied ling]

Lakoff, Robin Tolmach. Talking Power: The Politics of Language. New York: Basic Books, 1990.

McGill, Kenneth. Political Economy and Language: A Review of Some Recent Literature, Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, Volume 23, Issue 2, August 2013, Pages: E84–E101,  [nice overview of key terms]

Mooney and Evans, eds., Language, Society and Power: an Introduction, 2011.

Morgan, Marcyliena. Community. Key terms in Culture and Language.

Roberts, Celia and Srikant Sarangi. "The Dynamics of interactional and institutional orders in work-related settings," (excerpt), in Celia Roberts and Srikant Sarangi, eds., Talk, Work and Institutional Order: Discourse in Medical, Mediation and Management Settings (Language, Power and Social Process). Mouton de Gruyter, 1999. [40 pgs, but overview of relevant methods, addresses Goffman interaction order, ethics, lists variety of methods and debates] (40 pages; too long and dry; adds instit. order to Goffman's interaction order)

Links

Links

Hodges, Adam. "How Plausibly Deniable is It?" (click view pdf). Anthropology News, 2017. [On Trump's embodied discourse strategies and indexicality]

Films

Related Films and Videos

Hark the Sound of Dialect Diversity at UNC (Youtube, 2017)
Their description: This video was created as part of an initiative supported by Thrive@Carolina that seeks to explore and promote dialect diversity and awareness on UNC’s campus. Carolina's campus is home to a linguistically diverse population of students hailing from various dialect-rich regions of North Carolina, other states within the US, and from foreign countries. Dialects are an important part of each student’s individual identity and should be welcomed rather than discouraged in higher-level education.

The Sound of Diversity Initiative promotes the idea that, while linguistic standards are important, the process of creating those standards and the rationale behind it are often misunderstood or misapplied in ways that lead to unnecessary prejudice against and alienation of speakers of non-standard dialects and, hence, hinder their success.

Find out more at SoundOfDiversity.web.unc.edu.

Code-Switching

Framing

 

Part II Articulations of Power: Race, Gender, Class

Week Five: Language and Race

Assignments

WATCH: The E-Word: Ebonics, Race, and Language Politics, 69 mins, 2015 (Screen via Moodle)

Mon Feb 22: Linguistic Anthropological Approaches to Race

  • READ: Ahearn, Laura: Ch 11, "Language, Race and Ethnicity" Living Language: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell, 2016. (Bookstore, book reserve, ereserve)
  • READ: Hill, Jane. Ch. 2 "Language in White Racism: An Overview, " The Everyday Language of White Racism. Chichester, U.K.; Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. (ereserve).
  • READ: Alim, H. Samy. "Introducing Raciolinguistics" (p. 1-7), in H. Samy Alim, John R. Rickford, and Arnetha F. Ball, eds., Raciolinguistics: How Language Shapes Our Ideas About Race, Oxford University Press, 2016. (Bookstore, book reserve, ereserve).
  • Key Terms: Conflict, Ideology, Identity, Power, Style, Register, Variation
Share: Field Commentary Guidelines

Wed Feb 24: Language and Race in the U.S.

  • READ: Alim, H. Samy and Geneva Smitherman. “A.W.B. (Articulate While Black): Language and Racial Politics in the United States,” Pp. 31-63 (Chapt. 2), 2012. (ereserve).
  • READ: Hodges, Adam. "Hunting for “Racists”: Tape Fetishism and the Intertextual Enactment and Reproduction of the Dominant Understanding of Racism in US Society," Journal of Linguistic Anthropology Volume 26, Issue 1, May 2016: 26–40. (ereserve)
  • Key Terms: Conflict, Ideology, Identity, Intentionality, Media, Power, Register, Style, Truth

First Field Commentary (written by one partner, commented on by the other),
due Friday Feb 26, 7 pm, Moodle Blog post (under "Section xx blogs")
 
Research partner comments due Monday, Mar 1, 7 pm, Moodle Blog post

Further Reading

Further Reading

Alim, H. Samy. 2004. You Know My Steez: An Ethnographic and Sociolinguistic Study of Styleshifting in a Black American Speech Community. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press, 303 pgs.

Alim, H. Samy, Awad Ibrahim & Alastair Pennycook. (eds.) 2009. Global Linguistic Flows: Hip Hop Cultures, Youth Identities, and the Politics of Language. London & New York: Routledge.

Alim, H. Samy and John Baugh. (eds.) 2007. Talkin Black Talk: Language, Education and Social Change. New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University. 176 pgs.

Alim, H. Samy. 2006. Roc the Mic Right: The Language of Hip Hop Culture. London & New York: Routledge, 208 pgs.

Alim, H. Samy and Geneva Smitherman. 2012. “A.W.B. (Articulate While Black): Language and and Racial Politics in the United States,” Pp. 31-63 (Chapt. 2), and, “Change the Game: Language, Education, and the Cruel Fallout of Racism” Pp. 167-197 (Chapt. 6). IN Articulate While Black: Barack Obama, Language, and Race in The U.S. Oxford University Press.

Alim, H. Samy, John R. Rickford, and Arnetha F. Ball. Raciolinguistics: How Language Shapes Our Ideas About Race, OUP, 2016.

Auston, Donna. January 16, 2015. “Recalled to Life: On the Meaning and Power of a Die-In Posted.” Anthropology Now.

Auston, Donna. 2016. OTG 3: Finding Black Death on a Quiet Hilltop (On The Ground series). Anthropology News.

Barrett, Rusty. Competing functions of Spanish in an Anglo-owned Mexican restaurant [refers to Hill on Mock Spanish].

Bonilla, Yarimar, and Jonathan Rosa. 2015.  #Ferguson: Digital protest, hashtag ethnography, and the racial politics of social media in the United States. American Ethnologist. (includes links to supplemental materials)

Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 2003. Racism without Racists: Color-blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States. Rowman & Littlefield.

Bucholtz, M. (2011). White kids: Language, race, and styles of youth identities. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Chun, Ellen. The Meaning of Ching Chong. in Raciolinguistics: How Language Shapes Our Ideas About Race, OUP, 2016.

Chun, article on uses of AAVE by Korean American males

Fanon in Black Skin, White Masks, ch. on the black man and language

Harris, R., & Rampton, B. (Eds.). (2003). The language, ethnicity, and race reader. New York, NY: Taylor Francis Routledge. (includes Sapir and Whorf, Rickord, Eckert, etc., pretty dated)

Faye V. Harrison, American Anthropologist 1998, “Expanding the Discourse on Race”

Hodges, Adam. 2015. Ideologies of Language and Race in US Media Discourse about the Trayvon Martin Shooting. Language in Society 44 (3): 401–423.

Lo, Adrienne. Suddenly Faced with a Chinese Village: The Linguistic Racialization of Asian Americans, in Raciolinguistics: How Language Shapes Our Ideas About Race, OUP, 2016.

Makoni, Sinfree. Black Linguistics: Language, Society, and Politics in Africa and the Americas, 2003. (ch. by John Baugh, Linguistic profiling)

McElhinny, Bonnie. 2001. See No Evil, Speak No Evil: White Police Officers’ Arguments Around Race and Affirmative Action. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 11(1): 65-78.

Mendoza-Denton, N. (2008). Homegirls: Language and cultural practices among Latina youth gangs. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

Morgan, Marcyliena. The African-American Speech Community, in Speech Communities

Reyes, Angela and Adrienne Lo (eds.). (2009). Beyond Yellow English: Toward a Linguistic Anthropology of Asian Pacific America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Slobe, Tyanna. 2016. Creepy-Ass Cracker in post-racial America: Don West’s examination of Rachel Jeantel in the George Zimmerman murder trial. Text & Talk 36(5): 613-635.

Smitherman, Geneva. (2000). Talkin That Talk: Language, Culture, and Education in African  America. New York, NY: Taylor Francis Routledge.

Spady, James G., H. Samy Alim and Samir Meghelli. 2006. Tha Global Cipha: Hip Hop Culture and Consciousness. Philadelphia, PA: Black History Museum, 704 pgs.

Urciuoli, “Language Diversity in the United States”

Wiley and Lukes, “English-Only and Standard English Language Ideologies in the U.S.”

Zentella, “Returned migration, language, and identity: Puerto Rican bilinguals in dos worlds/two mundos

Links

Links

Resources on African American Language

Linguistic Profiling: John Baugh's Research on AAL and Phone Profiling

Linguistic Ideologies and Race: Trump's Feb 2017 Press Conference and Black Woman Reporter April Ryan

The Shooting Death of Trayvon Martin and the Trial of George Zimmerman (2012)

Black Lives Matter Resources

Films

Related Films and Videos

Do You Speak American?" 2005 PBS documentary [Episode 1, 39:32  John baugh on ling profiling, Episode 3 clip on LA schools and issue of AAL and multilingualism.

African American Language in North Carolina [segment of a film from the Language and Life project], 2008.

Portraying African American Language in Disney's 1941 Dumbo: the Crows (Youtube); and The Crows, lead by Jim Crow, sing about Dumbo (Jim Crow voiced by white actor Cliff Edwards, other actors and singers were Black; Youtube)

Chris Rock stand up on Colin Powell [mentioned by Alim and Smitherman]

Biden's comments on Obama as "articulate" and "clean" [Jesse Jackson calls it an unintentional "gaffe", NBC 2008]

Jamila Lyiscott – 3 Ways to Speak English (Ted Talk, Feb 2014)
Jamila Lyiscott is a “tri-tongued orator;” in her powerful spoken-word essay “Broken English,” she celebrates — and challenges — the three distinct flavors of English she speaks with her friends, in the classroom and with her parents. As she explores the complicated history and present-day identity that each language represents, she unpacks what it means to be “articulate.”

Rickford, John. 2016. Linguistic Society of America 2016 Annual Meeting Presidential Address (video). Language and Linguistics on Trial: Hearing Vernacular Speakers in Courtrooms and Beyond [on Trayvon Martin trial, race]

Week Six: Language and Gender/Sexuality

Assignments

WATCH: The Codes of Gender (72 mins), Sut Jhally, 2010 (Screen via Moodle)
Content Notes: mainstream commercial image and filmic representations and suggestions of gender and sexual violence

Mon Mar 1  Linguistic Anthropological Approaches to Sex/Gender/Sexuality

  • READ: Ahearn, Laura: Ch 10, "Language and Gender" Living Language: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell, 2016. (Bookstore, book reserve, ereserve).
  • READ: Milani, Tommaso M. "Theorizing Language and Masculinities", Language and Masculinities: Performances, Intersections, Dislocations, 2014. (ereserve).
  • Key Terms: Act, Body, Brain, Evolution, Gender, Identity, Indexicality, Performativity, Power, Socialization, Voice

Share: Fieldnotes description workshop prep

Wed Mar 3 Intersectionalities: Language, Gender/Sexuality and Power

  • READ: Morgan, Marcyliena. "When and where we enter: Social context and desire in women’s discourse," Gender & Language . 2007, Vol. 1 Issue 1, p119-129. (ereserve) (10 pp).
  • READ: Slobe, Tyana. Style, stance, and social meaning in mock white girl. Language in Society 47, 541–567. (ereserve).
  • Key Terms: Agency, Conflict, Control, Inference, Power

In class: Fieldnotes description workshop

 

Extra Credit/OPTIONAL: Research pairs' joint Fieldnotes Description due Sunday Mar 7, 7 pm, upload to Moodle

Further Reading

Further Reading

Ahearn, Laura. "Language and Agency", Annual Review of Anthropology, 2001. Online EPNET: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=6533582&db=aph&tg=AN

Armstrong, James D. "Homophobic Slang as Coercive Discourse Among College Students," pp.326-334, in Livia, Anna and Kira Hall, (Eds.), Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Bassett, Caroline. "Virtually Gendered: Life in an on-line World [1995]", in Gelder and Thornton, (Eds.), The Subcultures Reader. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Cameron, Deborah. 1997. Performing gender identity: Young men’s talk and the construction of heterosexual masculinity. In Language and Masculinity, eds. S. Johnson and U. Meinhof. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 47-64, 1997.

Cameron, Deborah (2000) Styling the Worker: Gender and the Commodification of Language in the Globalized Service Economy (lots of method on style, and women's lang, control)

Eckert, Penelope and Sally McConnell-Ginet. "Think Practically and Look Locally: Language and Gender as Community-based Practice," Annual Review of Anthropology 21, 1994: 461-90.

Erhlich, Susan. ch. 1 and 2 on court trials. Representing Rape: Language and Sexual Consent (2001)

Gal, Susan. "Language, Gender and Power: An Anthropological Review" in Hall and Bulcholtz, (Eds.), Gender Articulated: Language and the Socially Constructed Self. New York: Routledge, 1995.

Goffman, Erving. Gender Advertisements. 1979. [the film Gender Codes is based on Goffman's groundbreaking analysis of gendered/heterosexualized style-shifting].

Hall, Kira. "Lip Service on the Fantasy Lines," in Hall and Bulcholtz, (Eds.), Gender Articulated: Language and the Socially Constructed Self. New York: Routledge, 1995. (26 pp.).
Hall, Kira. "Intertextual Sexuality: Parodies of Class, Identity, and Desire in Liminal Delhi," Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, Vol. 15, Issue 1, pp. 125–144, 2005. (ereserve, scroll to week 6).

Inoue, Miyako. 2006. Vicarious Language: Gender and Linguistic Modernity in Japan. University of California Press.

Herring, Susan, Deborah Johnson and Tamra DiBenedetto. "This Discussion is Going Too Far": Male Resistance to Female Participation on the Internet," in Hall and Bulcholtz, (Eds.), Gender Articulated: Language and the Socially Constructed Self. New York: Routledge, 1995. (25 pp.).

Keenan, Elinor. "Norm-makers, Norm-breakers: Uses of Speech by Women and Men in a Malagasy Community." In Bauman, R. and J. Sherzer, (Eds.), Explorations in the Ethnography of Speaking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974. (18 pg).

Kiesling, Scott Fabius. Power and the Language of Men. Blum volume.

Kulick, Don. "Speaking as a Woman: Structure and Gender in Domestic Arguments in a New Guinea Village," Cultural Anthropology 8(4), Nov. 1993: 510-541. Available online JSTOR.

Kulick, Don. "Transgender and Language," in GlQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 5(4), 1999: 605-622. Kulick Online:http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9360885&db=aph&tg=AN

Kulick, Don and Deborah Cameron. Language and Sexuality. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003.

Kulick, Don and Deborah Cameron, eds. The Language and Sexuality Reader. London, Routledge, 2006.
Leap, William. Language, Sexuality, Heteroglossia, and Intersectionality. In Bonvillain, ed, Routledge Handbook of Linguistic Anthropology.

Maltz, Daniel and Ruth Borker. "A Cultural Approach to Male-Female Miscommunication," Gumperz, ed., Language and Social Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

McElhinny, Bonnie. 1998. “‘I Don’t Smile Much Anymore’: Affect, Gender and the Discourse of Pittsburgh Police Officers.” In Jennifer Coates ed. Language and Gender: A Reader. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 309-327.

McElhinny, Bonnie. 1995. “Challenging Hegemonic Masculinities: Female and Male Police Officers Handling Domestic Violence.” In Kira Hall and Mary Bucholtz eds. Gender Articulated. NY: Routledge. 217-243.

McElhinny, Bonnie. 1994 “An Economy of Affect: Objectivity, Masculinity and the Gendering of Police Work.”  In Andrea Cornwall and Nancy  Lindisfarne eds. Dislocating Masculinity: Comparative Ethnographies. NY: Routledge. 159-171.

McElhinny, Bonnie. 2003. Fearful, Forceful Agents of the Law: Ideologies about Language and Gender in Police Officers’ Narratives about the Use of Physical Force. Pragmatics 13(2):253-284.

Milani, Tommaso, ed. Language and Masculinities: Performances, Intersections, Dislocations, 2014.
Introduction: Language and Masculinities… 20 Years Later Tommaso M. Milani 1. Theorizing Language and Masculinities Tommaso M. Milani 2. Two Hundred Years of the American Man Paul Baker 3. Fight Narratives, Covert Prestige, and Performances of ‘Tough’ Masculinity: Some Insights from an Urban Center Robert Lawson 4. Emceeing Toughness, Toughing Up the Emcee: Language and Masculine Ideology in Freestyle Rap Performances Quentin E. Williams 5. Construing the New Oppressed: Masculinity in Crisis and the Backlash against Feminism Michelle M. Lazar 6. Diminutives and Masculinity in Brazilian Portuguese Ronald Beline Mendes 7. ‘The Ideal Gay Man’: Narrating Masculinity and National Identity in Israel Erez Levon 8. No Ordinary Boy: Language, Masculinities, and Queer Pornography Veronika Koller 9. Masculinity in Lesbian Discourse: The Case of Butch and Femme Lucy Jones 10. Transmasculinity and the Voice: Gender Assignment, Identity, and Presentation Lal Zimman 11. Reclaiming Masculinity in an Account of Lived Intersex Experience: Language, Desire, and Embodied Knowledge Brian W. King

Moonwomon, Birch.  "The Writing on the Wall: A Border Case of Race and Gender," in Hall and Bulcholtz, (Eds.), Gender Articulated: Language and the Socially Constructed Self.  New York: Routledge, 1995. (18 pp.).

Mooney and Evans. eds. Language and Gender section
Morgan, Marcyliena. "Ch. 6 Voice and Empowerment in Gender and Sexuality." Speech Communities." New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Ochs, E. 1992. "Indexing gender" in Rethinking context: language as an interactive phenomenon, ed. by A. Duranti & C. Goodwin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.335-358. 

Pichler, Pia. Language, Gender, and Identity, In Bonvillain, ed, Routledge Handbook of Linguistic Anthropology. 

Silverstein, Michael. 1985. Language and the culture of gender: At the intersection of structure, usage, and ideology. In eds. E. Mertz and R. Partmentier, Semiotic Meditation: Sociocultural and Psychological Perspectives. Orlando: Academic Press. 219-259.

Tannen, Deborah. You Just Don't Understand: Women and Men in Conversation. New York: William Morrow, Co., 1990.

------------------. Gender and Discourse. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1994.

Katrina Daly Thompson. Zanzibari women’s discursive and sexual agency: Violating gendered speech prohibitions through talk about supernatural sex. Discourse Society 2011;22 3-20.

Zimman, Lal. The Other Kind of Coming Out: Transgender People and the Coming Out Narrative," in Gender and Language 3.1, 2009: 53-80.

Zimman, Lal and Kira Hall. 2012. "Language, Embodiment, and the 'Third Sex'," in Watt and Llamas, eds., Language and Identities. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. (ereserve, In bookstore and on book reserve.)

Links

Links

Theory

  • Igala: Language, Gender, and Sexuality Website of the International Gender and Language Association
  • Bibliography of Gender and Language:
    Part of Professor Harold S. Schiffman’s website at U Penn, the Bibliography of Gender and Language provides a sizable list of books and journal articles from a wide variety of sources.[note that this extensive bibliography seems to indicate an overwhelming focus on English language and U.S. and European contexts].
  • Bibliography on LGBTQ Language:
    Compiled by Gregory Ward, professor of linguistics at Northwestern University, this bibliography provides resources for the study of language use by and about gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender people. [note that this extensive bibliography seems to indicate an overwhelming focus on English language and U.S. and European contexts].

Social Media Debates about Gendered? Language and "Mock White Girl" persona (eg, "upspeak" or "uptalk" and "vocal fry" or tag questions)

Gender Pronouns

Transgender Voicing [the majority of top hits on Youtube for "transgender and voice" are white transwomen]

 

Films

  • https://languageandlife.org/documentaries/talking-black-in-america/

Gender and Communication: Male-Female differences in language and nonverbal behavior, 42 min, 2001.
This video explores the impact that gender has on both verbal messages including speech, language, and vocabulary, as well as on nonverbal channels of communication such as touch, movement, and gesture.

The Codes of Gender
Written and directed by Media Education Foundation Executive Director Sut Jhally, The Codes of Gender applies the late sociologist Erving Goffman's groundbreaking analysis of advertising to the contemporary commercial landscape, showing how one of American popular culture's most influential forms communicates normative ideas about masculinity and femininity.

In striking visual detail, The Codes of Gender explores Goffman's central claim that gender ideals are the result of ritualized cultural performance, uncovering a remarkable pattern of masculine and feminine displays and poses.

It looks beyond advertising as a medium that simply sells products, and beyond analyses of gender that focus on biological difference or issues of objectification and beauty, to provide a clear-eyed view of the two-tiered terrain of identity and power relations.

Week Seven: Language and Class

Assignments

Mon Mar 8 Language and Class in Communities of Practice

  • READ: Eckert, Penelope. "Communities of Practice," Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Elsevier, 2006. (ereserve, scroll to week 7).
  • READ: Shankar, Shalini. Introduction and ch. 4 "Fashions of Speaking," Desi Land: Teen Culture, Class and Success in Silicon Valley. Duke University Press, 2008. (book reserve, bookstore, ereserve)
  • Key Terms: Control, Expert, Literacy, Power, Register, Socialization, Style

In class: Assign discussion facilitator groups

Wed Mar 12 Break day (rest! attend a meeting, or work on your commentaries)


Second Field Commentary (written by one partner, commented on by the other),
due Friday Mar 14, 7 pm, Moodle Blog post (under "Section xx blogs")
 
Research partner comments due Monday, Mar 17, 7 pm, Moodle Blog post

Further Reading

Further Reading

- Ohmann (1982) “Reflections on Class and Language” (I have pdf)

-Cameron, Deborah (2000) Styling the Worker: Gender and the Commodification of Language in the Globalized Service Economy.  Journal of Sociolinguistics 4(3):323-347.

            -Language Gap forum/educ/class (ling anth journal 2015, I have pdf)

            -In Blum volume: Benjamin Bailey, Communication of Respect in Interethnic Service Encounters

 Mooney and Evans. "Language, Class, and Social Capital," in Language, Society and Power: an Introduction, 2015.

Language and Class in Minority Education
James Collins

Anthro and Education Quarterly

    First published: December 1988Full publication history
    DOI: 10.1525/aeq.1988.19.4.05x0914d

 

 

 

    Thoroughly Mixed Yet Thoroughly Ethnic: Indexing Class with Ethnonyms

    Authors:
        Andrea L. Smith, Anna Eisenstein
        Journal of Linguistic Anthropology
    First Published:
        August 2013

        Full Text (HTML) PDF (191K)    References    
    A Place to Stand: Politics and Persuasion in a Working‐Class Bar.

    Authors:
        AARON A. FOX
        Journal of Linguistic Anthropology
    First Published:
        December 2004



    Authors:
        KITANA ANANDA
        Journal of Linguistic Anthropology
    First Published:
        15 April 2011

        Full Text (HTML) PDF (151K)    
    Youth Language, Gaul Sociability, and the New Indonesian Middle Class

    Authors:
        Nancy J. Smith‐Hefner
        Journal of Linguistic Anthropology
    First Published:
        December 2007

        PDF (129K)    References    
    Book Review
    Hindi Is Our Ground, English Is Our Sky: Education, Language, and Social Class in Contemporary India – By Chaise LaDousa

    Authors:
        Constantine V. Nakassis
        Journal of Linguistic Anthropology
    First Published:
        11 December 2015

        Full Text (HTML) PDF (197K)    
    Exposing Prejudice: Puerto Rican Experiences of Language, Race, and Class.

    Authors:
        Richard J. Parmentier
        Journal of Linguistic Anthropology
    First Published:
        June 1998

        PDF (311K)    
    Rules Versus Relationships: The Ethnography of Legal Discourse and Getting Justice and Getting Even: Legal Consciousness Among Working‐Class Americans

    Authors:
        Andrew Arno
        Journal of Linguistic Anthropology
    First Published:
        December 1992

        PDF (357K)    

Links

Related Links

Class Matters (2005 NYT special section on class in the U.S.)

How Class Works (2005 NYT graphic based on U.S. data, including nationwide polls. Allows you to visualize where you are positioned economically and in terms of prestige). NOTE: income inequality in the U.S. and elsewhere has increased in the past decade.

U.S. inequality keeps getting uglier. (CNN 2016, short film, plus text and graphics). Note: this is an account from the perspective of U.S. economists, not progressive activists.

Inequality.org on U.S. growing income inequality (up to 2014, many charts)

Films

Related Films and Videos

Class and Prestige Varieties

Codeswitching and Social Class (Video made by Georgetown students) (Youtube 2013)

Social Class with Charlie Higson--Language of Comedy (Open University 2014)

Kevin Skinner on America's Got Talent (2009) (Skinner grew up just west of Mayfield, KY and speaks a version of "mountain talk")

Mountain Talk (a film by the North Caroline Language and Life Project, on Southern Appalachia; has excerpts on these varieties of English)

Appalachian Mountain Music – Ballad-keeper Mary Jane Queen and her family carry on the traditions and traditional music of Southern Appalachia (a film by the North Caroline Language and Life Project, on Southern Appalachia; has excerpts on these varieties of English)

My Fair Lady: Why Can't the English

My Fair Lady: The Rain in Spain

The Simpson's Apu Character (Voiced by white actor Hank Azaria) and Related Debates about Portrayals of Indian Accents

Best of Apu Nahasapapeemapetilon (Youtube)

The Problem with Apu (Documentary trailer, by Hari Kondabolu, July 2017)

Comedian Hari Kondabolu on his Documentary "The Problem with Apu" (PBS Newshour, 2017)

Hank Azaria: The Right Thing to do with Apu (Stephen Colbert, 2018)

Russell Peters on Indian Accent (Indian-Canadian comedian, 2008)

American Desi (2001 Feature film about California "Desi's" mentioned and critiqued in Shankar)

Linguistic ideologies in action: Accent Neutralization for Indian Speakers (ad for a company, 2014)

Part III Institutionalizing Language, Culture, and Power

Week Eight: Language Policy, Multilingualism and Education

Asssignments

Mon Mar 15 Language, Multilingualism and Education in the U.S.

  • READ: Bucholz. On Being Called Out of One's Name: Indexical bleaching as a Technique of Deracialization. In Alim et al, eds. Raciolinguistics, 2016. (Bookstore, book reserve, ereserve).
  • READ: Reyes, Angela. The Voicing of Asian-American Figures. In Alim et al, eds. Raciolinguistics, 2016. (Bookstore, book reserve, ereserve).
  • Key Terms: Control, Expert, Indexicality, Literacy, Socialization, Style, Switching

Wed Mar 17 Research Partner meetings (using breakout rooms)

  • We will use this time for research partners to meet, discuss their research schedule, make plans for next steps, brainstorm about avenues for analysis, consult with me.


Research pairs should have attended at least one meeting by now.
        

Research pairs upload at least one audio or video clip (up to 5 min) or detailed description from their meeting(s) to their Google Drive Project Folder (Section 03 here) (Section 04 here), by Friday Mar 19, 7 pm.

Further Reading

Further Reading

Alim and Baugh, selections from Talkin Black Talk (on education).

Alim, H. Samy and Geneva Smitherman. “Change the Game: Language, Education, and the Cruel Fallout of Racism” Pp. 167-197 (Chapt. 6). In Articulate While Black: Barack Obama, Language, and Race in The U.S. Oxford University Press. 2012.

Alim, Samy et al. Raciolinguistics section on language, race, education in the US, 2016.

  • Paris, It Was a Black City, . In Alim et al, eds. Raciolinguistics, 2016.

Avineri et al. Invited Forum: Bridging the “Language Gap,” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology. Vol. 25, Issue 1, pp. 66–86, 2015.

Davis, Christina P. “Is Jaffna Tamil the Best?” Producing “Legitimate” Language in a Multilingual Sri Lankan School. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, Volume 22, Issue 2, August 2012, Pages: E61–E82,

Diaz Soto, Lourdes. Language, Culture, and Power: Bilingual Families and the Struggle for Quality Education, SUNY 1996.

Edelsky 1981,

Heath 1983

Hill, Jane. "Expert Rhetorics" in Advocacy for Endangered Languages: Who Is Listening, and What Do They Hear? Journal of Linguistic Anthropology. Vol. 12, No. 2 (December 2002), pp. 119-133 

Johnson, Eric (one of the group doing language and social justice volume)

Chaise LaDousa, On Mother and Other Tongues: Sociolinguistics, Schools, and Language Ideology in Northern India. in Blum volume.

McCarty, T. L. "Entry into Conversation: Introducing Ethnography and Language Policy," in McCarty, ed., Ethnography and language policy. New York: Routledge, 2011. (15 pp). (book reserve, ereserve)

Muehlman, Shaylah. “Spread your ass cheeks”: And other things that should not be said in indigenous languages, in AMERICAN ETHNOLOGIST, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 34–48, 2008. (ereserve). (10 pg) (ereserve).

Mehan. The Construction of an LD Student: A Case Study in the Politics of Representation. in Natural Histories of Discourse [nice discussion of representations of persons and subjects]

Mendoza-Denton on latino youth?

Moore, Leslie C. (2008) Body, text, and talk in Maroua Fulbe Qur’anic schooling.  Text & Talk 28(5): 643–665.

Nicholas, Sheilah. "How Are You Hopi if You Can't Speak It?" An Ethnographic Study of Language as Cultural Practice among Contemporary Hopi Youth, in in McCarty, ed., Ethnography and language policy. New York: Routledge, 2011. (p. 54-73) (ereserve).

Philips, Susan. Participant structures: Warm Springs children in community/classroom, in Duranti, ed. Linguistic Anthropology Reader.

Rampton on crossing

Smitherman, Geneva. Talkin That Talk: Language, Culture, and Education in African America. New York, NY: Taylor Francis Routledge, 2000.

Stocker K. 2003. “Ellos se comen las eses/heces: Perceived Language differences of Matambu.” Wortham S, Rymes B, eds. 2003. Linguistic Anthropology of Education.Westport, CT: Praeger, pp. 185–211.

Wortham, Stanton. Linguistic Anthropology of Education. Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 37, Issue 1, 2008, pages 37-51. (ereserve)

Wortham S, Rymes B, eds. 2003. Linguistic Anthropology of Education. Westport, CT: Praeger

Links

Links

Language Policy Archives (James Crawford's website devoted to archiving language policy issues In the U.S)

-State Standards for Language Education (various)

Films

Related Films and Videos

Film: Our Spirits Don’t Speak English http://www.richheape.com/boarding-school.htm

“Our Spirits Don't Speak English: Indian Boarding School" is a Native American perspective on Indian Boarding Schools. This DVD produced by Rich-Heape Films, Inc. uncovers the dark history of U.S. Government policy which took Indian children from their homes, forced them into boarding schools and enacted a policy of educating them in the ways of Western Society. This DVD gives a voice to the countless Indian children forced through a system designed to strip them of their Native American culture, heritage and traditions.

Do You Speak American?" 2005 PBS documentary [youtube clips from it of John baugh on ling profiling, clip on California schools and issue of AAE and multilingualism]

21 Accents (by the actor Amy Walker)

People Around the World Try and American Accent (Buzzfeed, 2015).

Jamila Lyiscott – 3 Ways to Speak English (Ted Talk, Feb 2014)
Jamila Lyiscott is a “tri-tongued orator;” in her powerful spoken-word essay “Broken English,” she celebrates — and challenges — the three distinct flavors of English she speaks with her friends, in the classroom and with her parents. As she explores the complicated history and present-day identity that each language represents, she unpacks what it means to be “articulate.”

The English Only Movement in the U.S. (Youtube playlist, mid-2000s on)

Language Policy.net: U.S. English and English First, two national groups spearheading this legislation, started small in the mid-1980s. Drawing support mainly from direct-mail contributions, they have grown steadily in budgets, staffs, and influence. H.R. 123, the leading "Language of Government" bill in the 104th Congress, boasted nearly 200 cosponsors. Public support has exceeded 85 percent in some opinion polls. English Only is no longer a fringe movement. 

Jon Stewart and Stephen Colbert on Obama's nomination of Judge Sonia Sotomayor for the Supreme Court and mainstream media efforts to (mis)pronounce her name and discredit her qualifications (Huffington Post, 2009)

Substitute Teacher, Key and Peele (Comedy Central 2012, skit discussed by Bucholtz)

"Just Try Saying my Name Right!" (Decoded, MTV)

When Someone Mispronounces Your Name (Buzzfeed)

Week Nine: Political language and Electoral politics

Asssignments

Mon Mar 22 Oratory, Power, Publics

  • READ: Kuipers, Joel. Oratory, Key Terms in Language and Culture. (Bookstore, book reserve, ereserve)
  • READ: Jackson, Jennifer. Building Publics, Shaping Public Opinion: Interanimating Registers in Malagasy Kabary Oratory and Political Cartooning. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, Vol. 18, Issue 2, pp. 214–235. (ereserve, scroll to week 9).
  • Key Terms: Control, Media, Oratory, Performativity, Vision, Voice

Wed Mar 24 Oratory and Media in U.S. Electoral Politics

  • READ: Silverstein, Michael. "Getting it Ju...st Right," in Silverstein and Lempert, ed.s., Creatures of Politics: Media, Message, and the American Presidency. Indiana Univ Press, 2012. (ereserve).
  • READ: Alim and Smitherman. “ch. 3 Making a Way Outta No Way: The Race Speech and Obama's Rhetorical Remix,” Articulate while Black, 2008 (ereserve).
  • Key Terms: Control, Media, Oratory, Performativity, Vision, Voice
Third Field Commentary (written by one partner, commented on by the other),
due Friday, Mar 26, 7 pm, Moodle Blog post (under "Section xx blogs")
 
Research partner comments due Monday, Mar 29, 7 pm, Moodle Blog post

Further Reading

Further Reading

Bate, Bernard. Oratory, Rhetoric, Politics.The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Anthropology (ereserve).

Brenneis and Myers. Introduction, in Dangerous Words. 1986.

Duranti, Alessandro. From Grammar to Politics.

Duranti, Alessandro. "Narrating the Political Self in a Campaign for th US Congress," in Alessandro Duranti, The Linguistic Anthropology Reader.

Fairclough “Ideology and identity change in political television”

Goffman, Erving. The Lecture, in Forms of Talk, 1983.

Hill. Jane. “‘Read My Article’: Ideological Complexity and the Overdetermination of Promising in American Presidential Politics,” [analysis of the elder Bush’s infamous pledge on taxes at the 1988 Republican National Convention]

Hodges, Adam. When the Discourse of Theater Trumps Truth. Anthropology News, March 2017.

Hodges, Adam. "How Plausibly Deniable is It?" Anthropology News, 2017. [On Trump's embodied discourse strategies and indexicality]

Hodges, Adam. Playing Telephone with the Power of the Presidency. Anthropology News, 2017. [on the intertextual nature of Trump's alternative facts]

Irvine, Judith. formality

Irvine talk insn't cheap, lang and polit econ

Jackson 2013 book

"Oratory, Rhetoric, Politics," The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Anthropology.

Paine 1981 politically speaking

Parkin, David. Political Language, Annual Review of Anthropology, 1984. 

Peters, John Durham. Speaking into Air, ch. 5 Quest for Authentic Connection (discusses radio broadcasting, etc; could be interesting for political communication)

Rosaldo  I have nothing but talk, 1973.

Rasinarison, Elie. 2003. Poetry and Politics

Silverstein, Michael. The Substance of Style, 2003.

Stasch, Rupert. Ritual and Oratory Revisited: The Semiotics of Effective Action. Annual Review of Anthropology 40, 2011.

Kira Hall, Donna Meryl Goldstein, Matthew Bruce Ingram, The hands of Donald Trump: Entertainment, gesture, spectacle. Hau 2 (2016).

Velasquez-Mannoff, Moises. "Trump Ruins Irony too" (NYT op-ed, March 2017) [on Trump administration strategic efforts to destabilize reality/facts through use of air quotes]

 

Sloganization and the Political Pragmatics of Interdiscursivity: The Social Life of a Haitian Political Critique,"

Journal of Linguistic Anthropology

Volume 25, Issue 3, December 2015, Pages: 303–321, Alison C. Joersz

The Limits of Legitimacy: Language Ideology and Shift in Contemporary Senegal

Journal of Linguistic Anthropology

Volume 10, Issue 1, June 2000, Pages: 90–130, Leigh Swigart [analysis of a public speech]

Political Oratory and Cartooning: Ethnography of Democratic Processes in Madagascar by Jennifer Jackson. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013. pp. viii + 257 pp.

Journal of Linguistic Anthropology

Volume 24, Issue 3, December 2014, Pages: 370–372, Aurora Donzelli

Links

Trump and Political Oratory

Trump oratory examples

  • Trump announces presidential campaign 2015
    Recall Jackson on Western development register: simple, agent-centered words, classic short simple sentences, main market terms at end of sentences, 1-2 syllable words, cites himself; shifts register to business speak: the brand of America

  • Trump honors Andrew Jackson at heritage museum 2017
    Recall Jackson: similar to Malagasy politicians' use of proverbs: tries to link himself to Jackson as 'great president', populist message: confronts/defies 'arrogant elite', joking frame links himself directly: Trump and Jackson, Jackson and Trump, rejected authority that looked down on the common people

  • Trump's '2 Corinthians' blunder at Liberty College speech 2016
    Recall Jackson: Similar to Madagascar president's use of citation from Gospel; Trump tries to cite the bible but makes a metapragmatic mistake: mispronounces the citation, shows he doesn't read the bible, loses his audience temporarily (they chuckle), opens himself to widespread parody. This in contrast with politicians' attempts at seamless interanimation by voicing God, switches to baldly instrumental Dev/marketing register: isn't that what you like?

Analyses

Films

Related Films and Videos

Youtube video of Obama at Ben's Chili Bowl style-shifting, 2009 (discussed in Alim and Smitherman).

Jamila Lyiscott – 3 Ways to Speak English (Ted Talk, Feb 2014)
Jamila Lyiscott is a “tri-tongued orator;” in her powerful spoken-word essay “Broken English,” she celebrates — and challenges — the three distinct flavors of English she speaks with her friends, in the classroom and with her parents. As she explores the complicated history and present-day identity that each language represents, she unpacks what it means to be “articulate.”

Obama, Rhetorical Registers, and Messaging

Jon Stewart on Hillary Clinton on Obama (March 2008)

Hillary Clinton anti-Obama ad (2008)

John McCain's anti-Obama ad, drawing on Clinton's (W. Post, 2008)

Hillary Clinton anti-Obama ad (2008)

Hillary Clinton vs Obama Debate (S. Carolina Jan 2008)

The 10 Nastiest Moments of the Obama-Hillary Primary (W. Post, 2013)

Barack Obama "A More Perfect Union" (The Race Speech) (March 18, 2008)

"A More Perfect Union" (Digital Exhibit on Obama's speech, National Constitution Center)

Week Ten: Language, Culture and Power in Policing

Assignments

WATCH: 13th, Ava Duvernay, dir, 2016, 100 min (Screen via Moodle), Content Notes: Depictions of police brutality, prison torture, crackdowns on protests, portrayals of 1980s-90s criminalization of Black people.

Mon Mar 29 Ethics and Discourses of Policing

  • READ: Jauregui, Beatrice. Ch. 5 Dirty Anthropology: Epistemologies of Violence and Ethical Entanglements in Police Ethnography, in William Garriott, ed., Policing and Contemporary Governance: The Anthropology of Police in Practice, Palgrave, 2013. (ereserve). Content Notes: description of police beatings and torture.
  • READ: McElhinny, Bonnie. 2003. Fearful, Forceful Agents of the Law: Ideologies about Language and Gender in Police Officers’ Narratives about the Use of Physical Force. Pragmatics 13(2):253-284. (ereserve).
  • Key Terms: Conflict, Identity, Ideology, Power

Wed Mar 31 Contested Visions of Policing

  • READ: Goodwin, Charles. 1994. Professional Vision. American Anthropologist 96(3): 606-633. (ereserve, scroll to week 10). Content Notes: descriptions of Rodney King's beating at the hands of police.
  • Key Terms: Control, Gesture, Media, Power, Space, Vision

Further Reading

Further Reading

Alexander, Michelle. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: The New Press, 2010.

Baugh, work on linguistic profiling

Carter, Elisabeth. Analysing Police Interviews: Laughter, Confessions and the Tape.

Garriott, William, ed., Policing and Contemporary Governance: The Anthropology of Police in Practice, Palgrave, 2013.

McElhinny, Bonnie. 2001. See No Evil, Speak No Evil: White Police Officers’ Arguments Around Race and Affirmative Action. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 11(1): 65-78.

McElhinny, Bonnie. 1998. “‘I Don’t Smile Much Anymore’: Affect, Gender and the Discourse of Pittsburgh Police Officers.” In Jennifer Coates ed. Language and Gender: A Reader. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 309-327.

McElhinny, Bonnie. 1995. “Challenging Hegemonic Masculinities: Female and Male Police Officers Handling Domestic Violence.” In Kira Hall and Mary Bucholtz eds. Gender Articulated. NY: Routledge. 217-243.

McElhinny, Bonnie. 1994 “An Economy of Affect: Objectivity, Masculinity and the Gendering of Police Work.”  In Andrea Cornwall and Nancy  Lindisfarne eds. Dislocating Masculinity: Comparative Ethnographies. NY: Routledge. 159-171.

Meacham, Sarah Suttner. Getting Schooled: Rehabilitative Practices in a Los Angeles Court School Journal of Linguistic Anthropology Volume 11, Issue 2, December 2001, Pages: 274–292.

O'Connor, Patricia E. Speaking of Crime: Narratives of Prisoners.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000. 206 pp. [reviewed well in J. Ling Anth; about prisoners' own narratives and life story as method]

Wilson, John and Karyn Stapleton. The Discourse of Resistance: Social Change and Policing in Northern Ireland, Language in Society, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Jun., 2007), pp. 393-425. (ereserve).

Links

Rodney King and the L.A. Uprisings (1992-)

Black Lives Matter Resources

Films

Related Films and Videos

13th
New documentary (2016, Netflix) by director Ava DuVerny (director of Selma), explores the history of race, mass incarceration, and the criminal justice system in the United States. The film's title refers to the 13th Amendment, which freed the slaves and prohibited slavery (unless as punishment for a crime).

Week Eleven: Language, Culture and Power in the Courts

Assignments

Mon Apr 5 The Politics of Multilingualism in the Courts

  • READ: Thetela, Pulie. Discourse, Culture, Law: The analysis of crosstalk in the Southern African bilingual courtroom, AILA Review 16 (2003), 78–88. (ereserve). Content notes: discussion and analysis of rape trials, brief explicit narratives of rape.
  • READ: Lippi-Green, Rosina. "Accent, Standard Language Ideology, and Discriminatory Pretext in the Courts." Language in Society, 1999. (ereserve, scroll to week 11).
  • Key Terms: Conflict, Competence, Control, Heteroglossia, Power, Switching, Voice
Share: Final Paper Guidelines, Guidelines for Writing in Anthropology, Final Paper Template, Paper Criteria

Wed Apr 7 Testifying While Black in U.S. Criminal Court Trials

  • READ: Jones, Taylor. 2019. "Testifying While Black," Language Jones Blog.
  • READ: Slobe, Tyanna. 2016. Creepy-Ass Cracker in post-racial America: Don West’s examination of Rachel Jeantel in the George Zimmerman murder trial. Text & Talk 36(5): 613-635. (ereserve).
  • Key Terms: Expert, Interview, Power

In-class: Workshop on Rachel Jeantel trial footage

Fourth Field Commentary (written by one partner, commented on by the other),
due Friday Apr. 16, 7 pm, Moodle Blog post (under "Section xx blogs")
 
Research partner comments due Monday, Apr 19, 7 pm, Moodle Blog post
 

Spring Break April 10-18 (students leave campus)
[try to finish up any final meetings]

Further Reading

Further Reading

Conley, Robin. Confronting the Death Penalty, published by Oxford University Press (2015), explores how jurors use language to counter moments of empathy they share with defendants, thereby justifying their decisions for death.

Conley, R. (2016). Executing Language: Discourses of rationality and empathy in jurors’ death penalty decisions. Oxford University Press.

Conley, R. (2013). Living with the Decision that Someone Will Die: Linguistic distance and empathy in jurors’ death penalty decisions. Language in Society.

Conley, R. & J.M. Conley (2009). Stories from the Jury Room: How jurors use narrative to process evidence. Studies in Law, Politics, and Society 49(2).

Conley, R. (2008). “At the time she was a man”: The temporal dimension of identity construction. Political and Legal Anthropology Review 31(1):28-47.

Cunningham, Clark and Bonnie McElhinny. 1995. Taking it to the Streets: Putting Discourse Analysis to the Service of a Public Defender’s Office. Clinical Law Review 2(1):285-314.

Eades (e.g. 1994) [on Aboriginal witnesses in Australian courts, and how their communicative style disempowers them before the law]

Eades, Diana . "I Don't Think It's an Answer to the Question: Silencing Aboriginal Witnesses in Court." Language in Society, Vol. 29, No. 2 (Jun., 2000), pp. 161-195

Ehrlich, Susan. Representing Rape (chapter 2), 2001,

Ehrlich, Susan and Jack Sidnell. "I Think That's Not an Assumption You Ought to Make": Challenging Presuppositions in Inquiry Testimony." Language in Society, Vol. 35, No. 5 (Nov., 2006), pp. 655-676.

Philip Gaines. Presupposition as investigator certainty in a police interrogation: The case of Lorenzo Montoya’s false confession. Discourse & Society, Jan 24, 2018.

Labov, “Objectivity and Commitment in Linguistic Science” (article on linguists as expert witnesses in Ann Arbor case)

Philips, Susan U. Ideology in the Language of Judges: How Judges Practice Law, Politics, and
Courtroom Control. New York:Oxford University Press, 1998. 205 pp. [reviewed well by Merry]

Richland, Justin B. 2008. Arguing with Tradition the Language of Law in Hopi Tribal Court. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Rickford and King. Language and linguistics on trial: Hearing Rachel Jeantel (and other vernacular
speakers) in the courtroom and beyond. Language, Volume 92, Number 4, December 2016, pp. 948-988.

Yanrong Chang, "Courtroom Questioning as a Culturally Situated Persuasive Genre of Talk" [theory/method thin, but is Chinese context, downplays chin lang though (all in translation), does give good ex. of analysing types of stances in forms of questioning]

Verschueren, Jef. Ethnography of Communication and History: A Case Study of Diplomatic Intertextuality and Ideology Journal of Linguistic Anthropology Volume 23, Issue 3, December 2013, Pages: 142–159,  [int'l legal hearings on warfare]

Links

Related Links

The Shooting Death of Trayvon Martin and the Trial of George Zimmerman (2012-3)

Black Lives Matter Resources

Films

Related Films and Videos

Rachel Jeantel and the George Zimmerman Trial (2013)

Week Twelve: Language, Culture and Power in Immigration

Assignments

Mon Apr 19 Language, Immigration and Nation-state

  • READ: Blommaert, Jan. Language, Asylum and the National Order (p. 415-425) PLUS comments from Eades, Jacquement (p. 427-429), and Stroud (p. 434-435) PLUS Blommaert response (p. 436-438). Current Anthropology volume 50, Number 4, August 2009. (ereserve, scroll to week 12). Content Notes: Description of political violence, torture and child rape in an account of a Rwandan refugee's life.
  • Key Terms: Contact, Control, Crossing, Expert, Identity, Interview, Heteroglossia, Power, Switching

Wed Apr 21 Discursive practices and immigrants in the United States

  • READ: Parsons Dick, Hilary. Making Immigrants Illegal in Small-Town USA. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, Vol. 21, Issue S1, pp. E35–E55. (ereserve, scroll to week 12)
  • READ: Perez et al. Zapotec, Mixtec and Purapacha Youth: Multilingualism and the Marginalisation of Indigenous Immigrants in the United States. In Alim et al, eds. Raciolinguistics, 2016. (Bookstore, book reserve, ereserve).
  • Key Terms: Community, Control, Crossing, Expert, Literacy, Heteroglossia, Power, Switching

Further Reading

Further Reading

Ahearn, Laura. Ch. 6 Multilingualism and Globalization, in Living Language.

Bailey, Benjamin (2000) Communicative Behavior and Conflict between African-American Customers and Korean Immigrant Retailers in Los Angeles.  Discourse and Society 11(1):86-108

Battistella, “Bad Language, Bad Citizens,” pp. 125-36-Contesting Representations of Immigration” by Jonathan Rosa, originally published October 2013 in Anthropology News.  [PDF article]

Blommaert, Jan, James Collins & Stef Slem brouck (2005) Spaces of multilingualism. Language and Communication 25/3: 197-216

Blommaert, Jan, Helen Kelly-Holmes, Sirpa Leppänen, Mairead Moriarty, Sari Pietikainen & Arja Piirainen-Marsh (2008) Media, multilingualism, language policing. Special issue of Language Policy

Chávez, Alex E. So ¿te fuiste a Dallas? (So you went to Dallas?/So you got screwed?): Language, Migration, and the Poetics of Transgression. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 28 August 2015

Park, Joseh Sung-yul. 2019. Linguistic Anthropology in 2018: Signifying Movement. American Anthropologist.

Pujolar, Joan. Language, Immigration, and the Nation-State. In Bonvillain, ed, Routledge Handbook of Linguistic Anthropology.

Reyes on Korean immigrants in US In Alim et al, eds. Raciolinguistics, 2016.

Rosa, Jonathan. Contesting Representations of Immigration. Anthropology News, 2012.

Santa Ana: ‘Like an Animal I was Treated’: Anti-Immigrant Metaphor in US Public Discourse (Goodwin uses, I have pdf)

Schiffman, H. 2006. “Language Policy and Linguistic Culture”. In An Introduction to Language Policy: Theory and Method

Shankar, Shalini (2011) Style and Language Use among Youth of the New Immigration: Formations of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class in Everyday Practice. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power 18(6):646-671.

Links

Immigration Politics in the U.S.

Denvir, Dan. Op-Ed: "The Case Against 'Border Security," New York Times, Feb. 2019

Week Thirteen: Implications and Futures

Assignments

WATCH: Arrival, Paramount Pictures, 2016 (film based on Ted Chiang's short story, A Story of Your Life). (Screen via Moodle)

Mon Apr 26 Implications and Futures: Language, Time, and Worldview

  • READ: Cameron, Deborah. "Linguistic Relativity: Benjamin Lee Whorf and the Return of the Repressed,” Critical Quarterly 41(2), 1999. (4 pgs) (ereserve, scroll to week 13).
  • READ: Chiang, Ted. "A Story of Your Life," in Stories of Your Life and Others, Vintage Press, 2016 (1998). (ereserve). [Short story on which the 2016 Paramount pictures film "Arrival" was based]
  • Key Terms: Relativity, Socialization, Truth

Wed Apr 28 Final paper workshop and review: final paper draft/outline due in class for peer review

  • How are language, culture and power intertwined? What is power or agency in practice? How do we demonstrate that ethnographically?

 Share: Final Paper Guidelines, Guidelines for Writing in Anthropology, Final Paper Template, Paper Criteria, Anth 201 Course Research Guide

 

7-10 page Individual Final analyses due, Monday May 10, 7 pm,
Word or pdf, upload to Moodle
 
Upload to Google drive project folder at least one more (up to 5 min long) audio or video file or detailed description (per pair). Your papers should link to and analyze interactions in at least one of your uploaded descriptions or audio/video clips.

 

Further Reading

Further Reading

Park, Joseh Sung-yul. 2019. Linguistic Anthropology in 2018: Signifying Movement. American Anthropologist.

Shankar, Shalini. Ling Anthro in 2016: now what? American Anthro. June 2017. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/aman.12865/full

The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: Linguistic Relativity and Worldview

Ahearn, Laura. Conclusion: Language, Power and Agency. in Living Language: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell, 2016.

Duranti, Alessandro. Relativity. in Duranti, ed., Key Terms in Language and Culture. 2001.

Irvine, Judith and Bruce Mannheim. Language and World View, Annual Review of Anthropology,
Vol. 21 (1992), pp. 381-406.

Woolard, Kathryn. Linguistic Relativity, Whorf, Linguistic Anthropology. (the author was President of the Society for Linguistic Anthropology, responding to a popular NYT article, provides bibliography of alternative sources in Ling anthro), 2010.

Wikipedia. Linguistic Relativity.

Does the Linguistic Theory at the Center of the Film ‘Arrival’ Have Any Merit? Smithsonian.com, 2016.

 

Links

Related Links

Ted Chiang's Science Fiction Linguistics and Arrival

Films

Related Films and Videos

Arrival (Paramount Pictures, 2016) trailer (film based on Ted Chiang's short story, A Story of Your Life).

Arrival trailer two (Youtube)