Curriculum Vitae

Personal Information

Address Department of Political Science
Reed College
3203 SE Woodstock Blvd
Portland, OR 97202-8199
Citizenship USA
Front Office (503) 777-5075
E-mail Rejali@reed.edu

Academic Appointments

Professor, Political Science, Reed College 2003-present
Associate Professor, 1994-2003; Assistant Professor, 1989-1994
Visiting Assistant Professor, Union College, 1988-1989
Lecturer (1988), Teaching Assistant (1982-1985), McGill University

Recent Honors

Grant Recipient, Torture in War, US Institute of Peace, ($142,000) 2012-2013

Visiting Fellow, Institute for Democracy and Human Rights, University of Sydney (August-October 2012)

Danish Distinguished Chair in Human Rights and International Studies, J. William Fulbright Commission, (Research Fulbright, $34,000) 2009

Human Rights Distinguished Lecture, Harvard University, March 2009

Human Rights Book of the Year for Torture and Democracy, 2008, Human Rights Section, American Political Science Association; Raphael Lemkin Award, Institute for the Study of Genocide, New York; Finalist in General Non-Fiction, Oregon Book Awards

Carnegie Scholar, Carnegie Corporation of New York, ($100,000) 2003-2005

Education

McGill University, Ph.D., Dean's Honor Roll (Political Science), 1987
     M.A. (Political Science), 1983
     Advisers: Profs. Charles Taylor, James Tully, Sam Noumoff, Uner Turgay
Swarthmore College, B.A. (Philosophy), 1981

Administrative Offices

Chair (elected position), Political Science, Reed College,
     2010-2012, 2007-2009, 2005, 1996-2001, 1993-1995
Chair, Off Campus Studies Committee, Reed College, 2014-2016
Chair, Competitive Paid Leave Awards Committee, Reed College,
     1999-2001
Chair, International and Comparative Policy Studies, Reed College,
     2000-2001
Chair (elected position), Division of History and Social Sciences,
     Reed College, 1996-1998
Faculty Representative, Staff Merit Awards, Reed College, 1998
Chair, Ducey Student Summer Internships Committee, 1997-2000
Co-Chair, Hewlett Faculty/Student Grants in International and
     Comparative Policy Studies, 1994-95

Recent Professional Offices

Member, Editorial Board, Human Rights Review, 2000-present

Languages

Read, write and speak French and Persian. Read Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, and German.

Biography

Martha Gies, “The Ustaad: the Professional Life and Political Times of Prof. Rejali,” Reed Magazine (June 2011).

"Darius Rejali," Contemporary Authors, edited by Terrie Rooney and Jennifer Gariepy (Detroit: Gale Research, 1997).

Steve Carter, "A Reed Professor's Life's Work: Scholar studies torture, ancient and modern," The Oregonian (October 6, 2003).

Current Projects

Project: Torture in War. This study evaluates existing torture prevention policies used during war and then considers what might contribute towards evidence-based prevention. It asks first, do existing policies stop the practice of torture and, if not, what effects do they have on torturers, if any? It does this by mapping torture techniques against known prevention policies over time in a given area. The study uses the case of wars in Iraq from 1980 to 2010.

Publications

Book: Torture and Democracy (Princeton, 2007), 880 pages. "Torture and Democracy immediately lays claim to be the most compendious and the most rigorous treatment of the subject yet written. Saul Bellow used to say that we are constantly looking for the book it is necessary to read next. On torture, this is it." (Times Higher Education Supplement, Book of The Week). Is torture compatible with modern democracies and, if so, how? I focus on new techniques designed to leave little evidence of brutality, techniques have an affinity for democracies, rather than dictatorships.  I also assess the arguments about the effectiveness of torture. Reviews in San Francisco Chronicle, Los Angeles Times, Financial Times (UK), Telegraph (UK), The Oregonian, and other sources can be found here:
http://academic.reed.edu/poli_sci/faculty/rejali/td/reviews.html

Book: Torture and Modernity: Self, Society and State in Modern Iran (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994). Paperback, 1994. Selected for Questia E-Book, 2000; See http://www.questia.com. Reviewed by the Times Literary Supplement, Middle East Journal, Journal of Contemporary Asia, The Historian, The American Anthropologist, and Contemporary Sociology. Feature review in the Persian language Irannameh, which is the main intellectual journal in the Iranian diaspora; reprinted in two Persian language magazines with circulations of over 20,000 in Europe, North America, and Australia. Portions translated into Farsi, Portuguese and Spanish, including in the Iranian paper Hamshahri (2006).

Article: "Is There Truth in Pain?" in Representations (Forthcoming in Issue 142 (Spring 2018)). To some, this title suggests the question: Does coerced interrogation work to get the truth to stop imminent violence? But my goal is different. Instead, I identify various hidden registers that lead us to believe there is truth in pain, even when we doubt whether torture works. I consider how we look to pain and trauma for the truth of our manliness, of our justness, of our holiness, of our wisdom, and of our intelligence. It continues a line of inquiry begun in "Torture Makes the Man".

Chapter in Book: "Wittgenstein's Hut" in A Companion to Wittgenstein on Education: Pedagogical Investigations ed. Michael Peters and Jeff Stickney (forthcoming Springer 2016). This is a reflection on Wittgenstein's life by way of a journey to find Wittgenstein's hut in Norway in 2004. The journey weaves together Wittgenstein's notebooks, his biographical relationships with others, and the journey towards, across and away from the physical terrain around the hut. I try to recover the connection between the two central injunctions of a philosophical life: the Delphic maxim that we should know ourselves, and the Socratic advice that we should take care of ourselves.  I consider implicitly how these two philosophical injunctions played out in Wittgenstein's life, the ways he tried to answer them, the ways in which he failed, succeeded and above all learned about this relationship, and what can be recovered from this experience for us today.

Chapter in Book: "Torture and Public Opinion: The Partisan Dimension," with Peter Miller and Paul Gronke, in Examining Torture: Empirical Studies of State Repression, ed. Tracy Lightcap and James P. Pfiffner (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014): 11-41.  [For much of the past decade, many claimed a majority of Americans supported torture if it prevented a terrorist attack. They posited a pro-torture American majority. This article reviews public opinion data from 1942 to 2012. It shows that an American majority in support of torture emerged only in 2008. When examining torture approval by partisan affiliation, we show that Republicans have become steadily more in favor of torture since the Abu Ghrabi scandals became public knowledge. Furthermore in accord with other research on public opinion during wartime, torture approval tracks with Presidential approval, except for Republicans under the Bush Administration. Finally we take this opportunity to engage qualitative literature on torture, investigating ways our data confirms, disconfirms or redirected recent qualitative research on torture, particularly claims about media effects.]

Article: Why Social Scientists Should Care How Jesus Died,” in Histories of Victimhood, ed. S. Jensen and H. Ronsbo, University of Pennsylvania, 2014. [Explores the concept of humane violence and how we came to have a notion of humanity in violence. Reconstructs the concept in three steps: how it was used among Greeks and Romans; the post-Hellenic discussion Muslims and Christians; and contemporary usage. Shows how the practice of crucifixion constitutes a hermeneutic horizon for this concept.]

Article: "U.S Public Opinion on Torture, 2001-2009," with Paul Gronke, in PS Symposium: "Torture and the War on Terror" ed. Jim Piazza and Jim Walsh (July 2010): 437-444). [Offers a comprehensive evaluation of American public opinion on torture; observes that there never was a pro-torture majority during the Bush Administration; and, using a poll we sponsored, identifies a false consensus effect in which people mistakenly believed there was a pro-torture majority.]

Links discussing the Gronke and Rejali findings on US Public Opinion and Torture:
http://www.themonkeycage.org/2010/07/a_false_consensus_about_public.html
http://andrewsullivan.theatlantic.com/the_daily_dish/2010/07/greenwald-bait.html
http://openleft.com/diary/19395/the-tortured-logic-of-embracing-torture
http://onespot.wsj.com/politics/2010/07/10/a/659184370-the-tortured-logic-of-embracing/
http://www.stat.columbia.edu/~cook/movabletype/archives/2010/07/a_false_consens.html

Chapter in Book: "Movies of Modern Torture as Convenient Truths" in Screening Torture, ed. Michael Flynn and Fabiola Fernandez Salek (Columbia University Press, Forthcoming) [Examines the sociological phenomenon of forging convenient truths (mesconnaissance) to forget the uncomfortable facts of torture, using movies from the French and American torture crises]

Chapter in Book: "Torture and Democracy: What Now?" in Torture, Democracy, and the Human Body ed. Zahi Zalloua and Shampa Biswas (University of Washington Press, 2010) [Considers the prospects of torture prevention focusing on the Obama administration; identifies a continuing process by which we are forgetting political and social facts about the American torture crisis]

Chapter in Book: "Coerced Information as Truth and Memory," in Folter: Politik und Technik des Schmerzes, ed. Wolf Burkhardt, Karin Harrasser and Thomas Macho (Wilhelm Fink Verlag, Fall 2007).

Article: "Torture Makes the Man," South Central Review 24.1 (Spring 2007). [Explores the perception implicit in much torture apology that "democracy makes us weak" and torture is the cure for such weakness.]

Chapter in Book: "Whom Do You Trust? What Do You Count On?" in Nineteen Eighty-Four: Orwell and Our Future (Princeton University Press, Forthcoming 2004) [Orwell and How to Resist Torture.]

Article: "Friend and Enemy, East or West: Political Realism in the work of Usama bin Ladin, Carl Schmitt, Niccolo Machiavelli and Kai Ka'us ibn Iskandar." Historical Reflections 3 (2004). [How does one choose one's friends and identify enemies? A critique of modern realists using classical realist thinkers.]

Article: "Torture as a Civic Marker: Solving a Global Anxiety with a New Political Technology." Journal of Human Rights 2:2 (June 2003): 153-171.

Article: "Electric Torture: A Global History of a Torture Technology," Connect: art.politics.theory.practice (June 2001): 101-109

Article: "Studying a Practice: An Inquiry into Lapidation" Critique: Journal of Middle Eastern Studies (Spring 2001): 67-100 [Critical study of legal, cultural, and religious explanations of stoning, offering an alternative explanation for its origins and persistence today.]

Article: "Ordinary Betrayals: Conceptualizing Refugees Who Have Been Tortured in the Global Village" Human Rights Review (July-September 2000): 8-25. [Critical study of ways in which lawyers, psychologists, states and the United Nations conceptualize torture victims.]

Article and Book Chapter: "After Feminist Analyses of Bosnian Violence" Peace Review (September, 1997). Republished in The Women and War Reader. Edited by Lois Ann Lorentzen and Jennifer Turpin. New York: New York University Press, 1998. (Paperback 1998) [Critically examines explanations of ethnic rape.]

Chapter in Book: "How Not To Talk About Torture: Violence, Theory, and Problems of Explanation" in Vigilantism and the State in Modern Latin America: Essays in Extralegal Violence, ed. Martha K. Huggins (New York: Praeger: 1991), pp. 127-144.

Book Reviews, Short Articles and Entries

Religion and Politics in Modern Iran: A Reader, ed. Lloyd Ridgeon, Iranian Studies (Fall 2008).

Major Review Article: "American Torture Debates," Human Rights Review (September 2008).

Ron, James, "Frontiers and Ghettos," Journal of Palestine Studies (2005).

Farzin Vahdat, "God and Juggernaut," Iranian Studies (2005).

Martha Huggins, Mika Haritos-Fatouros, and Philip Zimbardo, "Violence Workers," Contemporary Psychology (2004).

Olivier Razac, "Barbed Wire," 2:3 Journal of Human Rights (2003).

Tara Bahrampour, "To See and See Again," 33:3/4 Iranian Studies (2000).

Ervand Abrahamian, "Tortured Confessions," 33:1/2 Iranian Studies (2000).

Abbas Milani, "Tale of Two Cities," 30:3/4 Iranian Studies (1997).

Mehrzad Borujerdi, "Iranian Intellectuals and the West," Center for Iranian Research Analysis Review (1997).

 "Define Your Terms: Dictionaries, Medievals and Thinking about Concepts," PS: Political Science and Politics (September 1995).

"The Birth of Modern Torture," Social Science Forum 1 (March 1983).

Press

"Waterboarding Works, US Senate Candidate (and former CIA officer) Todd Wilcox says" Politifact  Florida (Joshua GIllin) (May 24, 2016).

"TORTURE" Australian Broadcasting interview (May 21, 2016).

"Evidence backs Hillary Clinton claim that torture is counterproductive for counterterrorism" Politifact (C. Eugene Emery Jr.) (March 30, 2016).

"Unreal: Trump Says Geneva Conventions are a 'Problem'" (Ben Armbruster) (March 30, 2016).

Oliver Laughland, James Lartey, Ciara McCarthy, "Bolts from the Blue" Guardian (November 5, 2015).

 "The Reluctant Philosopher: Prof. Darius Rejali Take to the Airwaves." REED Magazine (April 29, 2015).

When Democracies Torture - Philosophy Talk (April 22, 2015).
The full conversation is available through SoundCloud and through the philosophy talk homepage.

Jane Mayer "Torture and the Truth" (December 22, 104)

"No, Americans aren't 'fine with torture.'" (December 12, 2014)

"Darius Rejali: Reed College Professor and Torture Expert Talks about the Trauma to Interrogators." (December 26, 2014).

"Who Made That Stun Gun?" New York Times Magazine (May 9, 2014).

"The Bizarre Failed Weapons that Led to the Stun Gun," Gizmodo (May 12, 2014).

"La Medusa," Capitalism Nature Socialism (April 14, 2014).

"One," A Poem by Darius Rejali, Street Roots (August 16, 2013).

One Plus One Interview, with Philip Williams, Australian Broadcasting Corporation (March 16, 2012).

The Dirty Secret about "Clean" Torture, Amnesty International Human Rights Now Blog (June 14, 2011).

Las lapidanciones resurgén in Iran,” El Pais (July 18, 2010) (in Spanish)

"Too Ready to Use Torture," Chicago Tribune (June 13, 2010), 25.

No, we don't support torture” (with Paul Gronke) The Oregonian (May 9, 2009).

Accepting Torture?” (with Paul Gronke) Huffington Post (May 1, 2009).

Ice Water and SweatboxesThe long and sadistic history behind the CIA's torture techniques,” Rejali, Slate Magazine (March 17, 2009).

Speaking of Faith: The Long Shadow of Torture NPR (June 11 2009)

A Painful History: Why have modern democracies been such important innovators of torture?The Chronicle of Higher Education (January 25, 2008).

Torture, American style. The surprising force behind torture: democracies,” The Boston Globe (December 16, 2007).

5 Myths About Torture and Truth," Washington Post (December 16, 2007).

Torture's Dark Allure,” “Does Torture Work?” and “On Human Bondage,” Salon.com (June 18, 2004 and June 21, 2004).

The Real Shame of Abu GhraibTime.com (May 20, 2004)

Articles in The Seattle Times, The Oregonian, The Miami Herald, Slate.com, The Huffington Post, Interviews on ABC News, BBC Newshour, CNN, David Frost, Talk of the Nation (NPR), All Things Considered (NPR), No Comment (Harpers), Democracy Now, WNYC, and Court TV, as well as commentary on torture in the New York Times and the Washington Post.  For recent editorials, interviews, media appearances and magazine articles, see the Press page.

Courses

Syllabi on major articles, courses, and occasional pieces are available at the following URL: http://academic.reed.edu/poli_sci/faculty/rejali.html

Recent Scholarly Activity

Conference Paper: "Torture in War: A Provisional Evaluation of Data from Iraq" Presented at "The Strategic Consequences of the US Use of Torture," A Joint Conference of The Carr Center for Human Rights Policy At the Harvard Kennedy School The West Point Center for the Rule of Law (October 7-8, 2016).

Conference Paper: "US Public Opinion at Torture: An Overview 1945-2016" Presented at "The Strategic Consequences of the US Use of Torture," A Joint Conference of The Carr Center for Human Rights Policy At the Harvard Kennedy School The West Point Center for the Rule of Law (October 7-8, 2016).

Plenary Speaker: "Is There Truth in Pain?" at "Pain: An Interdisciplinary Conference," Buffalo Humanities Institute, University at Buffalo, SUNY (October 16-17, 2015).

Conference Paper: "Three Generations of Efforts to Prevent Improper Use of Force: An Assessment," Enhancing Human Rights and Security in the Asia Pacific International Conference, Bangkok, Thailand (September 14-17, 2014).

Plenary Speaker (Forthcoming): "Is There Truth in Pain?" at "Pain: An Interdisciplinary Conference," Buffalo Humanities Institute, University at Buffalo, SUNY (October 16-17, 2015).

Conference Paper (Forthcoming): "Three Generations of Efforts to Prevent Improper Use of Force: An Assessment," Enhancing Human Rights and Security in the Asia Pacific International Conference, Bangkok, Thailand (September 14-17, 2014).

Keynote Speaker: “Misanthropy and the Art of Self-Care in Research on Violence,” Conference on “The Loose Ends of Fieldwork: Emotional Care of the Self in the Ethnography of Violence, University of Copenhagen and DIGNITY (formerly Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT) (March 1-2, 2013).

Keynote Speaker: "Torture, Crucifixion and Citizenship: Why Social Scientists Should Care How Jesus Died,” Conference on “Torture and Sovereignty," University of Western Sydney (September 7-8, 2012)

Scholar in Residence: Practicum on “Improving Human Rights Documentation on Torture,” University of Sydney (August 9-10, 2011)

Conference Paper: “Understanding American Public Support for the Use of Torture” International Society for Political Psychology, Istanbul (July 11, 2011)

Conference Presentation: “Security with Human Rights,” 50th Anniversary General Meeting, Amnesty International, San Francisco (March 19, 2011)

Seminar: Continuing Legal Education Class on Interrogation, Oregon Federal Public Defender, Portland, Oregon, (February 12, 2011)

Conference Paper: “None of Us Were Like This Before,” Open Society Institute (September 13, 2010)

Conference Paper: “In Search of the Moderate Muslim: John Locke, Liberalism, and Its Enemies,” Conference on “Islam, Europe and the Secular-Religious Divide,” Amsterdam (December 21-22, 2009).

Seminar: “Patterns of Torture amongst the Gestapo and Japanese Kempeitai,” Genocide Section, Danish Institute for International Studies (November 19, 2009).

Seminar: “The Researcher as Bystander to Violence: Is there an Ethics of Care for this?” Danish Institute for Human Rights (November 18, 2009).

Named Lecture: Peter C. Schaehrer Inaugural Memorial Lecture, Colgate University (October 22, 2009).

Seminar: “Torture and Democracy: Implications for Prevention,” Rehabilitation and Research Center for Torture Victims, Copenhagen (September 23, 2009).

Named Lecture: Kathleen Fitzpatrick Lecture/MacGeorge Visiting Speaker Award, University of Melbourne, Australia (May 29, 2009).

Named Lecture: Sydney Ideas International Public Lecture, University of Sydney, Australia (June 2, 2009).

Lecture: “Speak Frankly about Torture: Exercising International Citizenship,” Harvard Law School (March 12, 2009).

Named Lecture: Henry M. Jackson Lecture, Whitman College, Walla Walla, WA (February 28, 2009).

Scholar in Residence: Peace and Justice Scholar in Residence, Moravian College, Bethlehem, PA (January 18-23, 2009).

Lecture: “Conversation about Torture and Democracy: What Now?,” British Institute of International and Comparative Law, London (November 27, 2008).

Named Lecture: Branigin Lecturer, Institute for Advanced Study, Indiana University (October 21, 2008).  Also led faculty workshop on counterterrorism and security.

Keynote Participant, Colloquium on The Constitution and the Imagining of America, “American in Decline?” Amherst College (September 26-27, 2008).

Named Lecture Steven D. Neuwirth Annual Arts and Sciences Lecture, Western Connecticut State University (September 25, 2008).

Lecture Torture and Democracy (with Philippe Sands, QC), Royal Society of Arts, London (May 22, 2008).

Lectures on Torture and Democracy, delivered at UC Santa Barbara (May 18, 2007); Seton Hall (September 17, 2007); Northwestern (February 27, 2008); NYU School of Law (cosponsored with Human Rights Watch) (March 12, 2008); John Jay Criminal College (March 13, 2008); Carnegie Council of Ethics (March 13, 2008); University of Washington (April 11, 2008), University of Oregon, Eugene (June 4, 2008); University of Pennsylvania (October 23, 2008),UC Santa Cruz (November 13, 2008); St. Andrews University, St. Andrews, Scotland (November 25, 2008), De Balie, Amsterdam (June 11, 2009), Danish Institute for Human Rights, Copenhagen (December 15, 2009); American University of Beirut (October 21, 2010); Lund University (May 13, 2010), University of Denver (May 19, 2011); University of Edmonton (October 19, 2011); Stonehill College (March 5, 2012); Creighton College (March 15, 2012).

Conference Paper:  “Torture Law and War,” University of Chicago Law School Conference (February 28-March 1, 2008).

Named Lecture: Roy Ray Annual Lecture on Government (Convocation) Lecture, “Torture, Democracy and Our Future,” Centre College, Danville, KY (February 25, 2008).

Conference Paper, “The Phenomenon of Torture,” for 30th Anniversary Conference of the Research Center for the Rehabilitation of Torture Victims, October 30, 2007.

Keynote Address: “Approaching Violence,” Conference on Education for Teachers and Non-Profits (“Hope in a Time of Violence”), Lewis and Clark School of Education, November 16, 2007.

Named Lecture: Charles E. Gilbert Lecture, "Torture and Democracy: What Americans Learned and Then Forgot During the War on Terror," Swarthmore College (March 29, 2007).

President’s Panel on “Torture,” American Sociological Association, Montreal, Canada (August 11-14, 2006).

Conference Paper: , Carnegie Scholar’s Colloquium on “Violence Terrorism and Social Upheaval,” New York, NY (June 5-6, 2006).

Conference Paper: , “Torture for Truth and Memory,” Conference on “Codes of Violence in Medial Transformation,” Humboldt University, Berlin (April 29, 2006).

Conference Paper:  “A Question of Torture,” New York Public Library and Carnegie Council of Ethics (June 1, 2005).

Keynote Lecture: “Torture and Democracy,” Presented at the Workshop on “Studies of Order, Violence and Exclusion,” Danish Institute for International Studies, Research Network on Crime and Violence (Tisvilde, Denmark; September 23, 2004).

Conference Paper:  “Torture, Democracy and War,” Presented at the Workshop on “Techniques of Violence in Civil War,” Peace Research Institute of Oslo (PRIO, Oslo, Norway, August 21, 2004).

Recent Expert Review and Testimony

Expert Presentation, "Torture in War: An Update on a Long Term Project," at DIGNITY, Copenhagen, Denmark (May 27, 2016).

Expert Presentation, "The Iraq Wars Database: A Preliminary Presentation," at DIGNITY, Copenhagen, Denmark (May 27, 2014).

Expert Presentation, EHRP (Enhancing Human Rights Protections) Stakeholder Meeting, Nepal, Katmandu (June 10-13, 2013).

Expert Review of Legal Testimony in the following cases: Al Shimari v. CACI et al. (2013) Abdul Rahim al Janko "al Ginco," Guantanamo detainee (2007, 2008); Judge Richard Leon ordered his release June 2009.

Expert Panelist, "Workshop on Identifying Key Needs and Developing Training Best Practices," UN Counter Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF) Working Group, Amman, Jordan, 15-16 April 2013.

Expert Advisory Committee and Consultant, “Addressing the Root Causes of Torture” Actions to Reduce and Prevent Torture in Police and Military Settings in the Asia Pacific Region (European Commission Grant administered by University of Sydney, EIDHR/2009/272 (2012-2015).

External Evaluator for Tenure: New School for Social Research, New York(Political Science, 2013); Pacific University, OR (Political Science, 2008); York University, Canada (Islamic Studies, 2000); Sarah Lawrence College, NY (Religion, 1997); University of California, San Diego (Sociology, 1995).

Recent Ph.D. Evaluations: Ph.D. Examination. Jens Borrebye Bjering "Working the Dark Side; On the United States Torture Regime after 9/11." (May 2016). Australian National University (July 2013) Budi Hernawan, "From Theater of Torture to Theater of Peace: The Politics of torture and Re-imagining Peacebuilding in Papua, Indonesia,"; "Ph.D. Soutenance, Sciences-Po, Paris (October 1011): Emilie Combaz"Négocier l'atrocité: La torture comme question multilatérale, 1945-2009."

Manuscript Reviewer for Presses: Harvard University Press (2002, 2013), Elsevier (2013), Oxford University Press (2004), Princeton University Press (2003),

Manuscript Reviewer for Journals (most recent): Mind (2013), Journal of Conflict Resolutions (2013), Human Rights Review (2012, 2010, 2008 thrice, 2006, 2005, 2003), Law and Society  (2011) Journal of Human Rights (2010), (Political Theory (2007), Contemporary Psychology (2004).

Contributor, 2008 National Election Survey, Ann Arbor, Michigan.