American Indian Literature
THIS PAGE IS NOT BEING UPDATED: SOME LINKS MAY BE BROKEN
Week 3: The Northeast
Readings: Louise Erdrich, The Bingo Palace
Artwork: Ceremonial Dress and Bingo Kitsch, Architecture (on line and slides)
Folklore: Chapter 16 of "The Song of Hiawatha" (available on-line or on reserve).
History: Duane Champagne, Portrait of the Peoples pp. 55-92
Essay: Kathryn Gabriel," Introduction," Gambler Way (on reserve)
Writing Assignment: please bring a one to two page reader response of Louise Erdrich's The Bingo Palace to class. Before you begin the readings for this week, I would like you to free write on your feelings about Indian casinos and gambling in general. The suggested topic for this week's one page paper is to write a second response to the casinos after you have done the readings. As usual you are free to write on other relevant topics if you would like to do so.
Focus: This week we will be analyzing the arguments surrounding American Indian gambling facilities. I'd like you to keep an eye out for articles in the Oregonian this week, but I will also post a variety of perspectives on the course web page. We will pursue our investigation of Narrative Cycles by examining a Chippewa Gambler story. In addition we will continue our discussion of the overlap between American Indian literature and culture and American literature and culture by examining the concept of postmodernism.
1. Erdrich's Chippewa Saga and Characters
Book Title Order Order in Subject Matter Written Series Love Medicine 1 3 Lipsha Morrissey, a "took-in" member of the Kashpaw family (abandoned by his mother June) tries to come to grips with his roots and bring his grandparents back together with a Love Medicine. Beet Queen 2 2 (1930s) Orphans Karl and Mary Odare (whites) arrive by boxcar in Argus North Dakota. The novel traces their 40 year story and their connections to Celestine James (a mixed-blood Chippewa) and her daughter Dot (Lipsha's step-mother). Provides the "white" side of the story of the mixed blood characters in the series Tracks 3 1 (1912-1924) Traces the early history of several Chippewa families (the Morrissey, Nanapush, Pillagers). Gives the family stories of the characters in Love Medicine and The Bingo Palace Bingo Palace 4 4.5 Tales of Burning 5 4.5 Dot remarries. Her new husband Jack Love Mauser stages his death and she meets /finds out about his four other wives. (Jack's first wife was June--Lipsha's mother--but Lipsha is not a major character in this book.) Explains information about the ending of the Bingo Palace (e.g. who the baby is; whose car is stolen).
The family tree on the previous page will help follow you the characters. You will probably find this story to be less linear than Ceremony. What is the connecting thread between chapters? How does Erdrich move from one section or idea to another?
2. Gambler Cycles.
Although Longfellow based the Song of Hiawatha on Iroquois history and mythology, chapter 16 on the gambler Pau-Puk-Keewis is based on the Chippewa oral tradition (as collected by Henry Schoolcraft in the first half of the nineteenth century; Gabriel 53). Although Kathryn Gabriel considers Pau-Puk-Keewis "the nearly perfect archetype of the destructive Native gambler," she notes that he is "derived from Paup-pu-ke-nay, the Ojibwa/Chippewa trickster grasshopper who has the ability to shape-shift" (Gabriel 53). This connection is not completely improbable, as tricksters and gambler figures tend to share some essential attributes. For example, both figures are liminal--that is, they are threshold figures who can do things such as move between the world of the living and the world of the dead.
What is the difference between trickster stories and gambler stories, though? Obviously this will vary from community to community; however, in general, gambler stories tend to involve more characters than trickster stories. In addition, gambler stories tend to be more "gothic" than trickster stories which are usually more carnivalesque. Gamblers preside over the world of the dead, rather than merely visiting it, and they are often associated with the end of the world. In contrast, the transgressive nature of the trickster is often a creative or generative force. Thus Gambler stories often are about an individual or community facing fear or the dreadfulness of annihilation. As we saw in Ceremony, the gambler is often overcome by a cultural hero (see Gabriel page 18). Does this happen in The Bingo Palace? If so, who do you see as the cultural hero and what are his/her attributes? What characters, elements, and themes are present in this Gambler story? How do they compare to the general attributes of Gamblers mentioned by Kathryn Gabriel? Which attributes does Erdrich invoke and why? What is the purpose of Gambler stories according to Kathryn Gabriel? What is the purpose of Erdrich's novel?
3. Maintos and Chippewa Religion
For the Chippewas (or Ojibwas) the ultimate sources of existence were the manitos--extremely powerful beings who might be roughly characterized as "spirits" or gods (Vecsey 4 ). Manitos provided people with food (through hunting) and good health (Vecsey 5). In addition to Pau-Puk-Keewis, the Chippewa Gambler, the following manitos from the Chippewa oral traditional will be useful to keep in mind as you read the Bingo Palace. The descriptions are all taken from Christopher Vecsey's Traditional Ojibwa Religion and Its Historical Changes.
"The Windigo was a giant cannibal made of ice, symbolizing winter and its starving times....These windigos appeared as skeletons of ice, or as people whose insides were ice, and were naturally most common during the winter, when they searched for human flesh to eat. A human could become windigo through possession by the Windigo, by the acquisition of the Windigo as a guardian, by witchcraft, or by winter starvation" (Vecsey 77).
In other books in this series, we learn that members of Lipsha's family (inlcuding Fleur) may have gone "windigo" during starving times long ago.
*Nanabozho (the Chippewa Cultural Hero and Trickster)
"If the Windigo's relation with the Ojibwas was terrifying, their relation with Nanabozho was one of intimate identification. Although he rarely served as an individual's guardian, received few offerings, and seldom appeared in cultic activity, his mythic actions confirmed the Ojibwas as hunters. He secured the right and ability of humans to hunt, he instituted vital cultural elements; he created the present world and formed Ojibwa identity. Without Nanabozho the Ojibwas in their own estimation would not exist" (Vescey 78).
Having said this, it is important to not that Nanabozho was a multivalent character who both helped make the world and yet sometimes "was a witch, a manipulator of his relatives, an example of heinous behavior to avoid" (Vescey 86). It is worth considering what it would mean for a main deity to have both aspects in a culture. Critics have argued that Lipsha's father Gerry is based both on this trickster/cultural hero (hence his supernatural ability to escape) and on Leonard Peltier--the Chippewa hero and activist.
"The Underwater Manito was not a single manito but rather a composite. It consisted of two main beings, the underwater lion and the horned serpent, whose identity and roles were interchangeable....As a composite, the Underwater Manito influenced the abundance and availability of land and sea animals....The Underwater Manito [also] possessed great and dangerous powers. It could cause rapids and stormy weather; it often sank canoes and drowned Indians, especially children....It was not totally evil, however, In some traditions it fed and sheltered those how fell through the winter ice. It offered medicinal powers to those who accepted it as guardian.(Vescey 74).
Death by drowning was one of the worst ways that a Chippewa could die, and it is important that Lipsha has been told that his mother tried to drown him but he was saved (by the underwater manitos?). Fleur has similarly had encounters with the underwater maintos and survived. What powers does this seem to give them?
4. Dancing and Powwows
It is useful to list the main types of powwow dances--both because they are mentioned in this book (Lipsha's girlfriend is a powwow dancer) and because you may see them at the powwow this week.
PAN-INDIAN & PLAINS DANCES
There are many types of war dances. In early times, the ceremonial dance
called "haylushka" was restricted to warriors, and only the best dancers
were chosen to participate. Today, the war dance is a victory dance among
the Plains Indians. It is purely social and is enjoyed by all who chose to
participate. It is a dignified dance, rather than a violent dance as is
This is a social dance. Dancers move in rows of circles clockwise around the
drum in a side-step, with the faster moving line in the middle close to the
drum and the slower toward the outside, away from the drum. The entire line
moves as one body, each in harmony to the rhythm of the drum.
*Rabbit Dance / Two Step
These are two of the few dances where men and women dance as partners. The
"Rabbit Dance" comes from the northern tribes such as the Sioux. The "Two
Step" is an addition to the "Rabbit Dance". Women choose their partners.
Couples, holding hands, circle the drum, stepping off with the left foot and
dragging the right up with it in time to loud-soft drum beats. In early
days, if a man refused to dance, he had to "pay" (money or craft gift) to
A social dance - the "Snake Dance" is just what the name implies. Dancers
follow each other in a single line, moving in and out in a snake like
manner. The line of dancers describes the journey of a large snake through
the forest and up the mountains, coiling up for a rest - uncoiling and
traveling on. The "snake" comes to a river - section after section he
crosses, down to the last, smallest tail dancer.
In recent years, nearly every tribe has composed a flag song, dedicated to
the men and women who have served in the armed forces in various wars. The
flag songs are the Indian equivalent of the National Anthem; all stand as
the song is sung. There is no dancing to this song, but all stand in
respect. (Certain women whose father, brother or son is a combat veteran may
traditionally dance in peace.) The Flag Song is sung at the beginning of
most Indian activities.
Honor songs are special songs sung to honor a particular person or persons.
It is customary to stand in silence to show respect when an honor song is
sung. Honor songs are always announced before they are sung at pow-wows.
Includes all dance styles in any "everyone dance" situation, all ages and
genders. The announcer will usually say, "Let's everyone dance, all you
dancers get out there!"
DANCES COMMON IN OREGON & WASHINGTON
Women dance as if "walking forward with a heel-tap, toe-tap sequence with the leading foot." (Similar to a round dance song. ) The traditional dress is a beaded buckskin dress. For men characteristic dress includes "deer fur and eagle feather roaches (headdresses) and an eagle feather bustle attached to the lower back" (Anderson 23-25).
*Jingle ("Jingle Dress")
"The jingle-dress is aptly named, for it is a belted calico dress with two skirts, the outside of which is covered in rows of Red Wing chewing tobacco lids which have been rolled into cones, attached to short ribbons and sewn close together. These 'jingles' make a distinct, tinny crunch when the dancers move" (Anderson 25).
Men "dance to a faster beat [than in the traditional dance] and tend to crouch slightly as they stamp their feet. In addition, the fancy dancers wear two bustles, one on the lower back and one between the shoulder blades. Their feathers are of a downier sort than those of the traditional dancers, and the puffy feathers of their bundles are dyed bright colors." For women, the fancy dancers wear "a dress of bright cloth with contrasting ribbons and fluttering from the shoulders. She invariably wears a fringed shawls which she drapes over her shoulders and holds the edges in her hands as she dances. The fancy footwork is the most athletic of the female categories" (Anderson 25).
*Wannabe Dance (as in "want-to-be Indian")
All of the "want-to-be Indians" are invited to come down and dance. In the past at Warm Springs there are three songs moving from slowest to fastest (traditional, jingle, fancy--Anderson 62).
THE WARM SPRINGS POW WOW AREA (1996--From Anderson p. 60)
5. Postmodernism and Nontraditional Narratives
Louise Erdrich's characters are often mixed breeds struggling in a bi-cultural (or multi-cultural) world. To what extent are her narrative strategies "Indian" or "oral" and to what extent are they just "American" or "postmodern"? To answer (or discuss) this question, it is helpful to know what is meant by the term "postmodern" and what are common narrative strategies in general American literature today.
Michael Fegan provides the following useful definition of Postmodernism (the period from 1965-present). Postmodernism is
A cluster of theories most often associated with a group of 20th century French philosophers including Jacques Lacan, Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Julia Kristeva, Lyotard, Jean Baudrillard, et al. Postmodernism focuses on four basic critiques of western philosophic thought: (1) Critique of the human subject; (2) Critique of history; (3) Critique of meaning; (4) Critique of philosophy. Postmodernism is suspicious of subject-centered reason or philosophies of consciousness. It has no faith in the progressivist and speculative discourses of modernity and the assumptions of the Enlightenment. Postmodernism abandons all metanarratives which could legitimate foundations of truth, and claims metanarratives are not needed nor are they desirable (Sarup). According to Brenda K. Marshall in Teaching the Postmodern, "Postmodernism is about how we are defined within specific historical, social, and cultural matrices. It's about race, class gender, erotic identity and practice, nationality, age, and ethnicity. It's about power and powerlessness, and about empowerment. It's about threads we trace, and trace, and trace. But not to a conclusion. To increase knowledge, yes. But never to innocent knowledge. To better understanding, yes. But never to pure insight. Postmodernism is about history. But no the kind of 'History' that lets us think we can know the past. History in the postmodern moment becomes histories and questions. It asks: Whose history gets told? In whose name? For what purpose? Postmodernism is about histories not told, retold, untold. Histories forgotten , hidden, invisible, considered unimportant, changed, eradicated. It's about the refusal to see history as linear, as leading straight up to today in some recognizable pattern - all set for us to make sense of...The postmodern moment is not something that is to be defined chronologically; rather, it is a rupture in our consciousness"(4-5)
To what extent do the questions we have raised so far in this class overlap with these concerns? It is worth considering the ways in which contemporary writers have expressed their distrust of truths, metanarratives, and power relations so we might compare them to the "oral innovations" of writers such as Erdrich and Silko. (An excellent example of a postmodern film/narrative would be Pulp Fiction: if you aren't familiar with postmodern literature, you may want to keep this movie in mind as you read the list below.) Postmodern narrative strategies include
*GENRE: exploration of different styles and forms
*STYLE: fond of complexity and ornamentation derives meaning from relationship
with other elements and context in which it is set
*ORIGINALITY: the rejection of the cult of originality in recognition of the inevitable loss of origin in the age of mass production
*TIME: confusions over time and space: breaking of past/present boundaries
*CULTURE: breakdown of the distinction between culture and society; the breakdown of the distinction between high art and popular culture
*PLOT the rejection of plot and character as meaningful artistic conventions: non-linear/rational narrative structures (e.g. stream-of-consciousness)
*THE REAL: the rejection of mimetic representation in favor of a self-referential "playing"
with the forms, conventions and icons of "high art" and literature; and the rejection of meaning itself as delusory (Fagen and Keep).
Which of these narrative innovations does Erdrich employ, and does she use them for the same reasons? Postmodernism has been accused of "having giving up the world of social and political engagement for the solipsistic pleasures of word play"(Keep and McLaughlin). Would anyone ever argue this about Erdrich or Silko?
6. Chippewa Culture Today
Please don't forget to check out information about contemporary Chippewa culture and American Indian gambling on line at "http://academic.reed.edu/english/courses/English558/
bingopalace.html." The page will be posted by Friday June 27th.
Bibliography & Useful Resources
Anderson, Michelle, An Examination of Cultural Objectification and Pan-Indianism in Contemporary Oregon Pow Wows. (Reed Thesis May 1996).
Bakhtin, Mikhail, Rabelais and his World. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1968.
Michael Fegan, "Postmodernism," http://atl46.atl.msu.edu/atl/reh/ams/post.html
Gabriel, Kathryn. Gambler Way: Indian Gaming in Mythology, History and Archeology in North America. Boulder: Johnson Books, 1996.
Keep, Christopher Keep and Tim McLaughlin, "Postmodernism and the Postmodern Novel," http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/elab/hfl0256.html
Stallybrass, Peter and Allon White. The Politics and Poetics of Transgression. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1986.
"Welcome" (Indian Powwows), http://www.pride-net.com/native_indians/pow-wow.html#songs & dances.