[1] Ken Lincoln, Native American Renaissance. Berkeley: U. of Calif. P., 1983: 15. See section 19 of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.

[2] One critic whose early work falls into this category would be Paula Gunn Allen: we will be reading part of her book The Sacred Hoop along with Silko's Ceremony for the second week.

[3] Clyde Holler, Black Elk's Religion: The Sun Dance and Lakota Catholicism. Syracuse: Syracuse U.P., 1995: 7.

[4] Graham Taylor quotes Collier, The New Deal and American Indian Tribalism: The Administration of the Indian Reorganization Act, 1934-45. Lincoln: U. of Nebraska P., 1980: 30.

[5] Taylor quotes anthropologists Cylde Kluckholn and Robert Hackenberg , 31.

[6] Raymond DeMallie, ed. The Sixth Grandfather. Lincoln: U. of Nebraska P., 1984: 68-70

[7] Again my source for this information is conversations with Paula Gunn Allen.

[8] You may also find Eric Havelock's The Muse Learns to Write: Reflections on Orality and Literacy to be a useful resource; Havelock's style is less scientific and hence, for some, more accessible.

[9] I am being strategic here when I say that Indians tended not to "value" writing rather than they "lacked" it. Most North American Indians had some form of writing. (The notion that they lacked the "technology for writing"--and hence were more primitive--is a left-over from Renaissance notions of what made people civilized and is generally inaccurate.) If this topic interests you, see Michael Coe's highly entertaining book, Breaking the Maya Code; in addition, Mayan scholar Linda Schele will also be speaking at Reed next fall--I encourage you to attend her talk.

[10] Arnold Krupat, "The Indian Autobiography: Origins, Type, and Function," [1981] Smoothing the Ground, ed. Brian Swann. Berkeley: U. of California P., 1983: 261.

[11]Hertha Wong, Sending My Heart Back Across the Years, NY: Oxford UP, 1992: 6.