1The Iroquois are another Northeastern nation. They are from a separate language family than the Chippewa (who speak an Algonquian language).

[2]By "gothic" I mean stories which are characterized by the use of desolate settings, and macabre, mysterious, or violent incidents (Websters). "Carnivalesque" is a term made popular by theorist Mikhail Bakhtin. According to Bakhtin the carnival "celebrate[s] temporary liberation from the prevailing truth of the established order; it marks the suspension of all hierarchical rank, privileges, norms, and prohibitions. Carnival was the true feast of time, the feast of becoming, change and renewal. It was hostile to all that was immortalized and complete" (Bakhtin 109). When I use the term, "carnivalesque" I am referring to this "topsy-turvey" world in which :all is mixed, hybrid, ritually degraded and defiled" (Stallybrass and White 8). We will be discussing this term more during week five.

[3]This information on the difference between tricksters and gamblers comes from conversations with Paula Gunn Allen.

[4]This entire section (pan-Indian dances) is from the following web page: "http://www.pride-net.com/native_indians/pow-wow.html#songs & dances."

[5]The grand "meta-narratives" of western culture include "the myths by which we once legitimized knowledge and practice--Christianity, Science, Democracy, Communism, Progress....[These] no longer have the unquestioning support necessary to sustain the projects which were undertaken in their name, resulting in a radical decentering of our cultural sphere" (Keep and McLaughlin).