History Course Descriptions

Note: 300-level history courses are ordinarily open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors, and to first-year students only with the consent of the instructor.

History 220 - Late Imperial China

Full course for one semester. This course surveys the history of late imperial China (16th through 19th centuries) by examining several critical issues in the historiography of this period. Weekly discussions will address the following topics: despots, ritualized rulers and the growth of a “bureaucratic monarchy”; global economic crisis, peasant rebellion, and the Ming–Qing cataclysm; ethnicity, violence, and exchange on Chinese frontiers; lineage formation, strategic marriages, and the consolidation of gentry rule; local magistrates and scholars and their popular tales; migration, mobility, and social anxiety in a prosperous age; gender and sexuality in Qing Confucian ideology; exploration, trade, and emigration on the south China coast; and the challenge of sea-born imperialists in the 19th century. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 221 - Modern China

Full course for one semester. This course examines the numerous transformations in 19th- and 20th-century China from the perspective of both Euro-American and Sinified modernities. We will begin by rethinking both “modernity” and “nation,” locating through that process new enigmatic local subjects for historical study, such as nuxing/women, qingnian/youth, nongming/peasants, or renmin/people. Major discussion topics will include imperialist wars, semicolonialism, and anti-imperialist movements; the rise of a new historical consciousness; constructions of Manchu, Chinese, and other ethnic identities; contested nationalisms; peasant rebellions and recurring political revolutions; cultural iconoclasm and cultural revolution; Communist mobilizing in rural and urban settings; and Chinese socialism and socialist China. Conference.

History 275 - Culture and Society in 19th- and 20th-Century America

Full course for one year (History 275-276); semesters may be taken separately. Chronological survey of selected social, cultural, and political developments in the United States, 1820s to 1940s. We will be especially concerned with the interaction of the society (defined here as social, economic, and political institutions) and culture (the values, ideals, and structures of meaning) through which Americans understood and interpreted private and public life.

History 275 covers the 1820s to the 1890s. Topics include evangelical revival and reform; slave labor in the agrarian South and wage labor, industrialization, and urbanization in the North; the Western frontier as place and myth; the coming of civil war and the legacies of Reconstruction; the populist moment and subsequent decline of popular politics; the growth of corporations and labor strife; the significance of the 1893 World’s Fair; urban evangelical crusades; and the commercialization of leisure at the turn of the 20th century.

The course is open to sophomores considering the history major and transfer students; others, including students in their first year, will be admitted as space permits by consent of the instructor. Conference with occasional lectures. Not offered 2008-09.

History 276 - Culture and Society in 19th- and 20th-Century America

Full course for one year (History 275-276); semesters may be taken separately. Chronological survey of selected social, cultural, and political developments in the United States, 1820s to 1940s. We will be especially concerned with the interaction of the society (defined here as social, economic, and political institutions) and culture (the values, ideals, and structures of meaning) through which Americans understood and interpreted private and public life.

History 276 covers the 1890s through the 1940s. Topics include the ideals and reforms of the Progressive era; a comparison of World War I and the influenza pandemic; the 1919 race riot in Chicago; domestic culture in the 1920s; the respective economic and cultural effects of the Great Depression, Dust Bowl, and New Deal; U.S. prosecution of World War II abroad and its effects on the home front; and the global and domestic legacies of the war.

The course is open to sophomores considering the history major and transfer students; others, including students in their first year, will be admitted as space permits by consent of the instructor. Conference with occasional lectures.

History 278 - U.S. Politics and Culture, 1929–1979

Full course for one semester. Examines the immediate and long-term social, cultural, and political effects of the Depression, World War II, and the Cold War, and the changing political landscapes of the 1960s and 1970s. Topics include the rise and fall of organized labor, the emergence of the civil rights movement, suburbanization, the economic and legal status of women, new immigrants after 1965, and the cultural roots of the new American right. The course is open to sophomores considering the history major and transfer students; others, including students in their first year, will be admitted as space permits by consent of the instructor. Conference with occasional lectures. Not offered 2008-09.

History 301 - European Diplomatic History: 1848–1914

Full course for one semester. A study of the development of international relations and the foreign policies of the Great Powers from the mid-19th century to World War I. Topics include the rise of nationalism and its effects on European society and diplomacy, Bismarckian diplomacy, imperialism, the growth of the alliance system, and the coming of the war. Lecture-conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 302 - Origins of the Second World War

Full course for one semester. The course will examine the question of how Europe emerged from one world war only to enter another 20 years later, and how far the outbreak of the second war can be traced to diplomatic, ideological, economic, political, military, and other factors. We will consider the structure of international relations from the Versailles Conference of 1919 through the “appeasement” period of the late 1930s, and the sources of continuity and instability in the European system; how the major powers, both policy-makers and publics, thought about and dealt with the challenges of foreign policy and diplomacy; and the interpretive controversies that have exercised contemporaries and historians—e.g., how the “orthodox” interpretation of the origins of the war has fared in recent historiography. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 303 - The Cold War

Full course for one semester. A survey of the diplomatic, strategic, and ideological conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union, from the last years of the Second World War through the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. The course will emphasize the early years of the Cold War and the sources of Soviet–American antagonism; other topics will include the atomic bomb in 1945 and the subsequent nuclear arms race; the Cold War in American society and politics; the Cuban missile crisis of 1962; the Vietnam war; and in general the role of ideology, public opinion, military strategy, and domestic politics in American and Soviet policy-making. There will be discussion throughout of the controversies among historians. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 306 - Theology and the European Imagination between the World Wars

Full course for one semester. This seminar explores the theological dimension of European intellectual life between the world wars. It will address innovations in theological thinking, but also their resonance in political, legal, aesthetic, philosophical, historical, anthropological, and natural-scientific discourses. The aims are several: to understand how notions of the divine underwrote some of the major cultural undertakings of the early 20th century, and to reconsider the problem of secularization. What do we mean when we say we live in a secular (worldly) world? When did we (or the Western intellectual tradition) begin to make this claim, and why? What does it mean that talk of God has not only endured but flourished in this worldly world of ours? To get at these questions, we will read selections from a spectrum of interwar thinkers: from Protestants (Adolf von Harnack, Rudolf Otto, Friedrich Gogarten, Karl Barth), from Jews (Gershom Scholem, Hannah Arendt, Franz Rosenzweig, Sigmund Freud, Walter Benjamin), and from figures who creatively transformed the Catholic tradition (Carl Schmitt, Martin Heidegger, Georges Bataille, Hugo Ball)—all with an eye to the transconfessional and interdisciplinary character of their parallel efforts. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 308 - Special Topics: War and Society in the 20th Century

Full course for one semester. Each semester will cover a different specific topic within 20th-century history to examine how modern Western societies have experienced war, hot and cold, and the interrelationships between armed forces and the states and societies from which they have emerged. Questions will include: civil-military relations in a period of mass democracy and totalitarianism; the effect of advanced industrialization and technological change on war-preparation and war-fighting; the role of institutions, values, and ideologies in civilian and military policy-making; and how far one can speak of the militarization of modern society. Conference.

Fall 2008: The Vietnam War
An examination of different aspects of “America’s longest war”: its historical and diplomatic background; its connection to the Cold War and to indigenous political and social factors in southeast Asia; the battlefield experience for Americans and Vietnamese; the course and dynamics of American policy-making; and the traumatic interaction between the war and American society and politics.

Spring 2009: The First World War
An examination of World War I in Europe and the United States as the first experience of “total war”: how major societies dealt with modern industrialized warfare and war economies, the militarization of mass society, civil-military relations, and the cultural climate of modern warfare.

History 314 - Medicine and Society in Europe, 1300–1700

Full course for one semester. This course examines ways that Europeans understood health and illness from the later Middle Ages through the Scientific Revolution, focusing primarily on two themes: the changing intellectual formation and social status of the learned physician, and the changing systems of public health care that developed in response to new epidemic diseases, religious and political upheaval, and the conquest of the New World. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 315 - Science and Religion in Medieval and Renaissance Europe

Full course for one semester. What were the relationships between views about the natural world and religious ideas and practices in the Middle Ages, and how did they change over the course of the Scientific Revolution? By examining a variety of contemporary sources and recent scholarly literature, this course explores science in the context of the broader religious culture in medieval and Renaissance Europe, paying attention not only to ideas, but also to practices and institutions. In particular, the course will treat such topics as the role of the sciences in the medieval university, conflicts over the scope of the “natural” and the “divine,” ecclesiastical patronage of science and its practitioners, interest in and concern about “natural” and “demonic” magic, and the role of the Reformation in the development of the “new science,” including the religious and scientific significance of Paracelsian alchemy, Galileo’s conflicts with religious authorities, and changing views about “natural theology.” The course aims at a critical understanding of the historical transformations in the meanings of both “science” and “religion” through these centuries. Conference.

History 318 - Modern Jewish History

Full course for one semester. This course serves as an introduction to the major themes of modern Jewish life in Europe from the middle of the 17th century to its postmodern present: among them marranism and the Sabbatian controversies, Enlightenment and emancipation, the advent of reform, conservative, neo-orthodox, and hasidic modes of religious expression, anti-Semitism and the Holocaust, Zionism and other forms of Jewish nationalism, the establishment of Israel and postwar Jewish life in the diaspora. The course adopts an avowedly pluralistic tack, and asks what is to be learned by setting Jewish experience in Western, Eastern, and Southern Europe in comparison, before turning to the events of the late 19th and 20th centuries that transformed them all. Reading consists of primary sources—rabbinic responsa, poems, literature, diaries, pamphlets—complemented by secondary source material, music, and film. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 322 - 19th-Century Treaty Port Communities

Full course for one semester. The treaty ports of China and Japan (such as Shanghai or Yokohama) were critical nodes in the complex web of commercial, political, and cultural networks that enabled multilateral exchange across East Asia in the 19th century. Yet these cities were also colonized and ghettoized spaces, governed by disparate legal frameworks, and built with a range of native and foreign architectural styles. This course will examine the multiethnic, multinational communities that emerged from this new environment. Central topics will include: tribute-trade legacies, mixed courts and extraterritoriality; coastal ghettos and hybrid architecture; business and taxation by proxy; civilizing missions and reform agendas; commercial photography and tourism; sex and interracial intimacy; treaty port journalism; and scientific collaboration in multinational entrepots. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 323 - Japanese Modernities

Full course for one semester. A historical investigation of Japan’s competing modernities, 1870–1960. Major topics will include Meiji Westernization and its critics, statist narrations of modern Japanese subjectivity, hierarchy and individualism in modernist reform ideologies, territorial and ethnic displacements within the Japanese empire, cosmopolitan literariness and nostalgia for cultural and spiritual homelands, ethnic nationalism in the cultural sciences, and transcendence of the past in Japanese painting and films. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 324 - Turning Chinese Farmers into Peasants?

Full course for one semester. This course examines the complexities of Chinese rural society and culture during the 19th and 20th centuries, focusing on the interactions between farm households and the state—relationships that were mediated by rural elites, market forces, political brokers, and Maoist activists, among others. Major topics include: dissemination and domestication of popular deities, commercialized agriculture before its time; antimodern/anti-Christian rural protests; intellectual apprehensions of rural communities; the gendering of rural industrialization; central state penetration and rural defenses; and farmer narratives of bygone eras. This course assumes some familiarity with at least one of the following subjects: Chinese history, popular culture, village society, or peasant studies. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 325 - The Family in China and Japan

Full course for one semester. This course explores the visions and myths, manifestations and transformations of the family in China and Japan from the 17th century to the present. Major topics will include: classical statements on filiality, ancestors, and the family as paradigm for social and political theory; demographic change and family "life cycles"; household and lineage interactions; marriage and adoption practices; familial authority, inheritance regulations and household management strategies; domestic rituals; child rearing and child-parent relations; gender and generational conflicts; social impact of population control; the effect of modern revolutions on the family and its manifestations. Conference.

History 326 - Imperialism and Colonialism in East Asia

Full course for one semester. This course will introduce some of the theoretical literature on imperialism and colonialism before examining East Asian experiences with such exploitation and control in the 19th and 20th centuries. Major topics will include imperialist policies; economic imperialism; colonialism as a system of values and social relations; the relationship of culture and power in the colony; colonial elites and nationalist movements; gender, race, and class in both colonial and nationalist agendas; colonial writers and their literature; and the promises of decolonization and postcoloniality. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 327 - Meiji Restoration/Revolution

Full course for one semester. Few events in Japanese history receive more attention than the Meiji Restoration (or Revolution). A critical marker in Japanese political history, the restoration is also perceived as a major watershed in economic, social, and cultural developments. This course will examine the specific drama of imperial restoration, the modernizing revolution initiated from above thereafter, and the historical contexts that help to explain both. Major topics will include agrarian uprisings, new religious movements, and ee ja nai ka dancing; nativism and world rectification thought; the “opening” of Japan and the effect of international trade and diplomacy on internal Japanese conflicts; bakafu attempts at political reform and the avoidance of foreign invasion; the military rebellion of “loyalist” samurai; and the transformative changes initiated by the Meiji oligarchy after 1868. Readings will include both participant observations and post-Meiji assessments. Conference.

History 328 - Chinese Frontiers

Full course for one semester. After 1400 Chinese explorers and traders increasingly extended the limits of the “known world” in their search for profit, knowledge, tribute, and exotica; large-scale Chinese emigration followed in their footsteps. Conceptual and physical boundaries were also challenged by Manchu troops from the north and European traders and diplomats from the south. This course will explore the nature of this geographical and epistemological boundary transgression from 1400 to 1800. After a brief examination of Zheng He’s great explorations in the early 15th century, we will discuss Chinese practices of charting and mapping physical frontiers. Official and private attempts to represent and domesticate cultures and societies on China’s periphery will be the focus of our second exploration, and the effect of this conceptual and physical “travel” upon accepted notions of ethnicity, gender, and self-identity will make up the final leg of our voyage. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 331 - Violence in Early Modern Europe

Full course for one semester. From the outbreak of religious violence in the 16th century to the terror of the French Revolution, the early modern period in Europe gave rise to dramatic violence that brought tensions between cultures, classes, and faiths to the fore. This course will examine the issue of violence in early modern Europe, with a particular focus on how histories of violence have been written. We will consider various forms of violence including popular violence, symbolic violence, execution, and war, in an effort to investigate the relationship between violence and authority, legitimacy, and society in this period. Conference.

History 332 - Early Modern British Social History: Villages, Towns, and Cities, 1500–1700

Full course for one semester. This course centers its attention on the history of rural and urban communities in the context of the great religious, political, social, and cultural upheavals of the 16th and 17th centuries: the Reformation, the political revolutions of the 17th century, and the development of commercial society and empire. Drawing on a wide range of historical and literary sources, special attention will be given to examining the processes of social, political, and cultural change that helped the British Isles emerge from the 17th century with a powerful state and a modernizing economy, both centered in England. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 333 - Europe and the Americas in the “Age of Discovery,” 1400–1700

Full course for one semester. This course focuses on the history of the Atlantic peoples, nations, and states from the earliest period of contact, conquest, and colonial settlement to the growth of settled commercial networks and systems of communication, the establishment of formal and informal imperial regimes, and the emergence of new societies with their own regional and cultural identities. Topics examined will include the impulses behind early European voyages of “discovery,” the sociopolitical and cultural characteristics of native peoples living in the Americas, the history of first encounters and the development of social and cultural relations between indigenous peoples and Europeans, the place of slavery as a system and the development of new patterns of enterprise in the Atlantic world, and the effects of contact on the social, political, and culture life of Europe and the Americas. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 334 - The English Renaissance

Full course for one semester. Did the English experience a "renaissance" in the Tudor and Stuart age? Through examination of a variety of 16th- and 17th-century writings and artifacts, the course explores the cultural history of England and the English from the time of King Henry VIII to King Charles II. Particular attention will be paid to works concerned with the representation of authority, community, gender, social rank, and personal identity. The course will analyze the role of the literary and visual arts in the shaping of culture, the relationship between elite and popular cultural forms, and the development of new religious ideas and practices and new ideologies and mentalities. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 335 - The Development of Britain, c. 1680–1830

Full course for one semester. This course focuses on British sociocultural and political history, and to a lesser extent on British religious and intellectual history, as Britain changed from an agrarian and preindustrial society in the 17th century to a commercial and industrial society in the early 19th century. It analyzes the development of the British state and British empire during the “long 18th century,” focusing especially on the formation of political hierarchies and social classes and the growth of characteristic political, economic, and cultural institutions from the Revolution of 1688 to the Napoleonic wars and the beginnings of Reform. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 336 - The Enlightenment in Context

Full course for one semester. This course will introduce students to the 18th-century enlightenment(s) and counterenlightenment in Europe, focusing especially on Britain and France. Integrating both primary and secondary sources, the class will engage with debates about what the Enlightenment was, and what its legacies continue to be. We will consider the ideas, practices, and social spaces of the Enlightenment, and integrate scientific inquiry, aesthetics, and literature into our discussion of the 18th-century public sphere. Conference.

History 337 - Community, Authority, and Culture in Europe’s “Wars of Religion”

Full course for one semester. Concentrating on the history and culture of northern Europe (especially the British Isles, France, the Netherlands, and Germany) between 1500 and 1700, this course focuses on the formation of the characteristic ideologies and mentalities regarding society, politics, religion, culture, and the person in the era of Europe’s “Wars of Religion.” Using documents, texts, and visual sources from the period as well as modern historical interpretations, the course will introduce students to the major developments and the historical interpretations and controversies they have generated. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 339 - Late Imperial Russian Society, 1861–1917

Full course for one semester. In the last decades of their rule, Russia's Tsars attempted to modernize aspects of their predominantly agricultural, multiethnic empire, while avoiding the social, political, and cultural upheaval which had accompanied modernization elsewhere. This course examines the results of these efforts, looking at the ensuing processes of social fragmentation and development of new social identities, and how these led to social instability and, eventually, revolution. Topics include class, gender, nationality, religion, individual rights, colonialism, and what it means to be "modern." Assignments include primary and secondary sources. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 342 - Special Topics in European Historiography: Historical Practice in Britain from the 16th to the 20th Century

Full course for one semester. In each semester a different topic will be used to examine the traditions, practices, and methods of historical study and historical writing in Europe since ca. 1500. A central aim of the course will be to study the evolving characteristics of history as a discipline, the development of its distinctive methods and interpretative schools, and its relationships to neighboring disciplines in the humanities and social sciences. Prerequisite: at least one semester of Humanities 210, 220, or 230 and at least one history course. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 344 - Germany: 1918–1945

Full course for one semester. This course introduces students to some of the major themes and problems posed by the historical study of Germany between the World Wars and beyond, among them the Weimar Republic and its attendant crises, interwar cultural and intellectual activity, and the rise and consolidation of National Socialism. The course also broaches issues of more global concern: what does it mean to live in a time of political and existential crisis? what does it mean to come to terms with a morally troublesome past? how do interpretations of this period of German history continue to underwrite claims about the nature of modernity itself? Reading includes both primary sources and secondary accounts, supplemented by music and film. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 346 - Technology and Social Thought in 20th-Century Europe

Full course for one semester. “The fully enlightened Earth radiates disaster triumphant.” So the German philosophers Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer argued in 1944, just before Hiroshima provided an eerily literal proof. Their unease was shared by many. Something about man’s attempt to master the world by technological means had gone seriously awry. This course will examine how European intellectuals of the 20th century revisited notions of culture, nature, politics, economics, and religion as part of a wide-ranging reassessment of the modern age prompted by the rise of technocracy. Conference.

History 347 - Interpreting the Scientific Revolution

Full course for one semester. This course examines the concept of the “Scientific Revolution” and its usefulness as an interpretive framework for understanding the innovations in natural science during the 16th and 17th centuries, the era of Copernicus, Galileo, Harvey, and Newton. The course will consider classic texts by historians who constructed the concept, as well as more recent studies that have challenged it from a variety of methodological and interpretive standpoints, such as sociological and cultural perspectives. Conference.

History 348 - Sex, Crime, and the State in Modern Europe

Full course for one semester. What about sex is criminal and what about crime is sexy? The answers to these questions have changed drastically through the ages, because the place where sex and crime intersect is a battleground of religion, law, politics, and science. This course will explore not only the varied interpretations of the sexual body and its functions but also how they have affected social organization on the broadest level. Beginning with an intensive reading of Foucault’s History of Sexuality, we will examine the interplay of power and the body in the areas of Enlightenment models of anatomy, pornography and politics, degeneration and national health, prostitution, sexual violence, psychological definitions of deviance, and the emergence of homosexual identities. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 349 - From Liberalism to Liberation: Social Action in the 20th Century

Full course for one semester. This course considers competing notions of freedom articulated by movements for social change as they evolved over the course of the 20th century (in Europe above all). It proceeds from the crisis of liberalism and the advent of revolutionary and counterrevolutionary alternatives, to the midcentury rise of the welfare state, to decolonization and liberation movements in the postwar period fueled by concerns with gender, race, and the nonhuman, and finally to some attempts to rearticulate the liberal project for the 21st century. Readings include texts from John Dewey, Lenin, Luxemburg, Trotsky, Giovanni Gentile, Carl Schmitt, Fanon, Marcuse, Foucault, Peter Singer, and Richard Rorty. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 350 - Renaissance Italy: State, Culture, and Society

Full course for one semester. This course will examine the social, political, and cultural developments associated with the rise of the Northern Italian communes and the gradual development of the territorial city-state system during the trecento and quattrocento. Drawing on a wide range of historical sources and current scholarship, we will examine the interplay between family and social relations, political theory and practice (in both republics and signories), economic expansion, and the flourishing artistic and literary production of the “Renaissance.” Particular attention will be devoted to the rise of humanist culture in both Republican and courtly settings. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 353 - The French Revolution, 1775–1800

Full course for one semester. Within a generally chronological framework, the course will focus on the social and cultural history of the French Revolution. Particular attention will be given to the ideological origins of the Revolution, the question of class, the popular movement, revolutionary culture, gender and citizenship, the role of terror, and the nature of counterrevolution. Another focus of the course will be the historiography of the French Revolution. Works from both traditional historiography and contemporary revisionist historiography will be included on the syllabus. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 354 - The Soviet Union, 1917–1953

Full course for one semester. This course examines Soviet history from the 1917 Revolution to Joseph Stalin's death in 1953. It gives special attention to post-1990 scholarship, looking at how the end of the Cold War altered our understanding of the Soviet past. Subjects examined include the role of ideology in the Soviet state, the nature of Stalinism, the thorny question of Soviet subjectivity, and the ways in which the Soviet experience reflected broader European trends. Assignments include primary and secondary sources, including film and other media. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 356 - The Revolutionary Tradition in France from 1789 to 1871

Full course for one semester. An examination of the uneven development of a revolutionary tradition in France. We will follow the attempts to define, deny, foreclose, and revive the Revolution from its inception in 1789 through the final stabilization of a republican government in the mid-1870s. A strong historiographic focus will direct our attention to the gendered nature of the revolutionary project; the tension between liberty and equality that runs throughout French revolutionary history; and the plausibility of competing social, political, and cultural interpretations of the Revolution. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 357 - France and the French Colonial World, 1500–1750

Full course for one semester. This course will explore the social, political, and cultural processes that established France as a preeminent European power, fostered the growth of the royal state, and transformed French culture and society from the Renaissance through the first half of the reign of Louis XV. We will also examine the development of the French overseas empire in New France, Louisiana, and the Caribbean during this period. Among the topics we will address are: the impact of the Reformation and the Wars of Religion; the growth of the “absolute monarchy” and its social, political, and cultural consequences; the changing nature of elite and popular cultures; and the cultural, economic, and political relationships between France and its disparate colonial societies. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 358 - Propaganda and Mass Mobilization in Modern Europe

Full course for one semester. The 20th-century saw the emergence of mass propaganda on a wide scale. This course looks at the ways in which modern states and movements used different propaganda techniques to achieve their ends. It follows all stages of this process, from conceptualization and creation through dissemination and reception. The course focuses on Germany, Britain, and the Soviet Union between the First World War and early Cold War, with some material from other states and periods. Assignments include primary and secondary sources from a variety of media. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 360 - Politics and Culture in Fin-de-Siècle Paris and Vienna

Full course for one semester. The final years of the 19th century were lived as a continual crisis in Europe. The pressures of nationalism, the struggle between secular states and the Church, the rise of modern anti-Semitism, the challenge of a radical artistic avant-garde, and a pervasive revolt against reason threatened to tear apart the fabric of European societies. This combination of centrifugal forces and innovative responses was most evident in the two great capitals of 19th-century Europe: Paris and Vienna. This course will examine the similar trajectories of these two cities struggling to retain their identities in the twilight of the European century. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 361 - Colonial America

Full course for one semester. This course will examine the cultural conflicts and creative adaptations that occurred as Indians, Europeans, and Africans encountered each other on the North American continent. While exploring patterns of cultural interaction, we will pay particular attention to the social construction of race and gender. We will also investigate the changing nature of religious belief and the relationship between politics, economy, and society. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 362 - Revolutionary America

Full course for one semester. In the late 18th century, 13 North American colonies severed their colonial ties to Britain and constituted a new nation. This course will assess the causes of these changes, as well as the extent to which they altered the political, economic, social, and cultural landscape of North America. We will address major conflicts of the period from 1763 to 1815, including the tensions between libertarian ideology and institutionalized slavery, household dependence and national independence, centralized authority and local control, enlightenment rationalism and evangelical religion, private property and communal interests, and Indian sovereignty and American expansionism. Conference.

History 363 - American Social Reform from Revolution to Reconstruction

Full course for one semester. Countless 19th-century Americans participated in movements for social reform. What made it possible for ordinary people to believe that they should and could change their world? What were the boundaries of their reformist visions? How did reformers balance radical and conservative impulses within their movements? This course considers these questions with reference to temperance, abolitionism, women’s rights, health reform, and other reform agendas. In contextualizing these movements, the course will consider the transnational dimensions of American reform, as well as connections between social reform and the rise of market capitalism, evangelical Christianity, and democratic politics in the early republic. Conference.

History 364 - Civil War and Reconstruction

Full course for one semester. This course will examine the causes, conduct, and consequences of the Civil War. We will first compare social and ideological developments in the North and South and analyze the sectional and constitutional debates leading to the secession crisis and the outbreak of war. We will then study the Civil War itself, examining not only Union and Confederate wartime politics and military strategy but the social history of the conflict as well, paying close attention to the experience of common soldiers and fugitive slaves. Finally, we will explore the tremendous challenges involved in attempting to build an interracial political democracy after the destruction of slavery and the defeat of the Confederacy. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 365 - Consumer Cultures in Historical Perspective

Full course for one semester. We will examine the ways in which historians have employed various theories about the economic, social, and culture meanings of consumption and commodities to describe the material worlds and mentalities of the past. Historians’ debates about when identifiable consumer cultures emerged will be explored, with emphasis on how these debates illuminate our understanding of the development of Western capitalism. We will consider changes in production as well as consumption, and how such developments altered peoples’ understandings of self, class, and community. Readings focus on cases in the United States in the 19th and 20th centuries, with some comparative material from earlier periods and Britain. The course is open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors, with preference given to majors in history and the social sciences. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 368 - Race and Region in American History

Full course for one semester. This course will consider how notions of racial and ethnic difference in the United States have changed over time and place. Through primary and secondary readings and films, we will explore the experiences of Indian, Anglo, Irish, African American, Asian American, and Latino peoples in the North, South, Midwest, Pacific Northwest, Far West, and places in between. We will ask how regional variation has changed the lived experience of race and ethnicity in the United States from the colonial period to the civil rights movements and culture wars of the 1960s and 1970s. We will also ask how an attention to region has changed the historical scholarship on race and ethnicity. Conference.

History 369 - American Slavery

Full course for one semester. This course is organized around a series of key questions that have driven the historical scholarship on slavery over the last several decades and which continue to spark historiographical debate: What was slavery and how did it differ from other forms of exploitation? What role did slavery play in the making of the modern world? What was new about New World slavery, particularly in the American South? Why did Europeans turn to African slave labor to develop the Americas? What role did Africans play in the slave trade and what impact did the trade have upon Africa? What was the nature of the master-slave relationship and how did it change over time? How did slavery shape the political economy of the American South and the United States as a whole? To what extent did enslaved Africans and their descendants lose, maintain, or transform elements of their African cultural past in the Americas? In what ways did slaves resist their enslavement? Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 370 - The Problem of Western Prosperity: Political Economy in History and Theory

Full course for one semester. Why is prosperity a problem? This course surveys the development of modern political economy in search of an answer: from its beginnings in 18th-century liberal thought to the radical permutations prompted by the industrial revolution and finally to some of its 20th-century, postindustrial incarnations. The bulk of the course considers in historical context the work of Adam Smith, Karl Marx, Max Weber, and Emile Durkheim. We will also explore their contemporary relevance by considering more recent debates about neoliberal globalization, labor rights and practices, capitalism and religion, and the relationship between wealth and democracy. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 371 - Environmental History of the American West

Full course for one semester. With its majestic beauty, strange landscapes, and abundant natural resources, the American West has inspired wonderment, desire, and fear in many who traveled there. This course will examine concepts and representations of Western nature and Western peoples in the late 19th and 20th centuries. We will ask how the Western landscape, environment, and economy have been shared and shaped by a diverse array of individuals, communities, and institutions. Topics will include land rights, wilderness and frontiers, urbanization, conservation, extractive economies, disease and the body, and the rise of green politics in the postwar West. We will ask how environmental history contributes to our understanding of the political, social, and cultural history of the American West, and how, in turn, the history of the West contributes to our understanding of the environment. Conference.

History 372 - U.S. Women’s History, 1890–1990

Full course for one semester. This course examines transformations in women’s economic status, political participation, educational opportunities, and familial and reproductive lives from the late 19th to the late 20th century in the United States. We consider how structural changes and political movements involved and affected women of different classes, races, and ethnic groups. Major topics will include: women’s increased participation in the paid labor force, especially wage work by married women with children; political struggles for equal rights (e.g., woman suffrage, pay equity); the separation of sexuality and reproduction; and the intellectual origins and development of feminism, as well as the arguments of those opposed to it. Conference.

History 374 - Gender and Sex

Full course for one semester. Examination of the changing ideas about gender and sex roles in the context of key transformations from the late 19th through the late 20th centuries in America. These include the second industrial revolution, which enabled women and men to live on their own outside of household economies, the emergence of modern consumer culture, service in same-sex militaries during two world wars, the rise of social scientific and psychological experts who named and quantified “deviant” and “normal” sexual practice, and the so-called sexual revolutions of the 1960s and beyond. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or consent of the instructor. Conference.

History 375 - 1968: Origins, Actions, Afterlives

Full course for one semester. A global revolution or an interpretation in need of an event? The year 1968 has been characterized as both and much in between. This course situates the tumultuous events of the late 1960s in a broader story about the evolution and transformation of movements for social change in Europe and the U.S. following the Second World War. We will trace its intellectual roots in debates about decolonization, civil rights, the welfare state and the cold war. We will also pursue some of its legacies: left-wing terrorism, the global environmental movement, the neoconservative reaction, and the myth of the 1960s itself. Reading includes memoirs, manifestos, political philosophy, and social thought, complemented by classic secondary accounts, music, and film. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 378 - Gender and Family

Full course for one semester. The course begins with the rise and spread of waged labor, with emphasis on how new economic structures altered household and familial life. Families under slavery will be considered, especially African Americans under slavery and in transition to freedom. Migration and resettlement in the West shaped families on the frontier and workers in male-dominated mining towns. The legal and political meanings of marriage also changed; we will examine arguments for and against married women's ownership of property, and Mormon polygamy, to see how 19th-century Americans understood the relationship between patriarchy (legal rights of fathers and husbands over children and wives) and democracy. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or consent of the instructor. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 381 - Rebellion, Revolution, and Independence in Latin America

Full course for one semester. This class examines the breakdown of colonial rule in Latin America from the 1750s through independence in the 1820s. Starting with a brief examination of the late colonial societies and economies of Latin America and the Caribbean, and their relations to European powers, the course focuses on violent opposition and resistance to the colonial order by different sectors of society. We will study in detail indigenous and peasant rebellions in central Mexico and highland Peru, the slave rebellion and struggle for independence in Haiti, and the wars of independence in Spanish America. The course pays particular attention to the different social, economic, and political objectives of the various movements, the different manners in which they articulated their grievances and demands, and the complex interplay between racial and class dynamics within Latin American societies and tensions in the metropolis-colony relationship. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 382 - 16th-Century Peru and Mexico: Conquest and Cultural Synthesis

Full course for one semester. Few moments have so radically altered the course of history as Spain’s encounter with the Americas. The first century of contact changed Europe’s economy, agriculture, and diet; it altered the balance of power between European empires, and upset European ideas about history, geography, and nature. The effects on the Americas were even more profound: European diseases decimated indigenous populations while Spain’s people, language, and religion spread throughout the western hemisphere. Spain built its American empire on a foundation of Inca and Aztec civilizations, making Peru and Mexico its new-world capitals and co-opting native leaders into the colonial hierarchy. Missionaries spread literacy among indigenous elites, initiating an exchange of ideas still accessible to historians. This course will study early Spanish and indigenous writings about the conquest, and the conditions of life in the hybrid society that emerged thereafter. Conference.

History 384 - The Mexican Revolution

Full course for one semester. This course examines the roots, development, and effect of the Mexican Revolution (1910–17), from the Porfiriato through the institutionalization of PRI rule and the “miracle” of the 1940s and 1950s. Principal themes include regionalism and tensions caused by centralization; industrialization, economic development and dependency; class conflict; gender, citizenship, and political participation; and the production of a modern Mexican identity. Lecture-conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 385 - Catholicism and Counterreform in the Spanish World

Full course for one semester. This course examines the development and maturation of counterreform Catholicism in the Spanish world during the 16th and 17th centuries. Topics to be explored include the collapse of religious pluralism in medieval Iberia and the emergence of militant intolerance, the intellectual and theological challenges provoked by the conquest of the Americas, the varieties and gendering of elite religiosity, church-state relations, and popular religion in both Spain and the Americas. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 386 - Andean Civilization and the Spanish Conquest

Full course for one semester. This course focuses on Andean society from the rise of the Inka Empire in the 14th century through the Spanish conquest and the establishment of the colonial order in the 1500s. Topics include the political and material organization of the Inka Empire, ideology and religious practice, and the impact of conquest and disease on the indigenous societies of the Andes. We then examine the effects of Spanish attempts to “re-form” indigenous societies by the forcible introduction of Catholicism and Spanish understandings of property and exchange, the imposition of Spanish imperial government, and the dismemberment and reorganization of indigenous polities. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 388 - Borderlands in the Spanish World

Full course for one semester. The term “borderlands” usually describes the southern frontier of Anglo-America and the northern frontier of Mexico—a crossroads for indigenous and European cultures. This course seeks a broader understanding of Spain’s many borderlands, taking into account colonial experience in North America, South America, and Asia. We will study Spain’s encounters with Comanches and Apaches, but also with Mapuches and Filipinos. Chile’s Bío-Bío river was the dividing line between Spanish colonial governance and the lands of the Mapuche—a place of violence but also of cultural and economic exchange. The Philippines was a frontier for Spain and later for the United States—a vast archipelago whose complex population included Chinese merchants, Muslim princes, farmers, fishermen, and small bands of hunter-gatherers. We will consider these and other “borderlands” raising comparative questions about war, trade, and colonization on the unstable periphery of empire. Conference.

History 389 - Golden Age Spain

Full course for one semester. A study of Spain from its meteoric rise as a global power in the 16th century to the catastrophic crises of the 1640s, this course examines central issues in early modern European history, such as the rise of the absolutist state, the economic and political effects of transatlantic imperialism, growing religious orthodoxy and intolerance, and the intellectual and aesthetic complexity of the Baroque. Specific topics will include Iberian regionalism and its political effects; the political, economic, and intellectual impact of colonialism on Castilian society; the Spanish economy; Spanish Catholicism; the role of Spain in European politics and diplomacy; and Golden Age Spanish culture. Conference. Not offered 2008-09.

History 391 - Ancient History: Greece

See Classics 371 for description. Not offered 2008-09.
Classics 371 Description

History 393 - Ancient History: Rome

See Classics 373 for description.
Classics 373 Description

History 395 - Special Topics in Greek and Roman History

See Classics 375 for description. Not offered 2008-09.
Classics 375 Description

History 398 - Animals: An Intellectual and Cultural History

Full course for one semester. This class traces the history of the relation between man and animal, principally as it has emerged in Western thought and culture. What does it mean to be an animal? How have our answers to this question figured in the development of our moral, political, and religious traditions? How have we made recourse to the notion of animality to make sense of what it means to be human? What could it possibly mean for an animal to be free? What is the historical and conceptual relation between animal liberation and human liberation? How have these issues played out in practices such as zookeeping, husbandry, slaughter, sex, consumption, companionship, ritual, jurisprudence, or dressing your dog in silly little sweaters? These are some of the foremost questions broached by the burgeoning academic field of “animal studies,” and we will address them by means of primary source readings (complemented by secondary readings and the occasional film) that span time from the ancients to our day. Conference.

History 411 - Junior Seminar: The U.S. in the Fifties

Full course for one semester. This seminar will focus on changes and continuities in U.S. political and social institutions in the decade that followed the upheavals of Depression and World War II. Topics include the Cold War and domestic anti-Communism, postwar demographic shifts (including the growth of suburbia and the rise in the birth rate), labor prosperity, and the civil rights movement. We will also examine media (including television) and culture (highbrow and lowbrow) in this epoch. This course is designed for junior history majors, and is limited to those who have completed two courses in history at Reed. Conference.

History 412 - Frontiers and Border Crossings

Full course for one semester. After 1400, Chinese explorers and traders increasingly extended the limits of the "known world" in their search for tribute and exotica, profit and knowledge; large-scale Chinese emigration followed in their footsteps, thereby expanding the territorial borders of the Chinese empire. Conceptual and physical boundaries were also challenged by Manchu troops from the north and European traders and diplomats from the south. This course will explore the nature of this geographical and epistemological boundary transgression from 1400 to 1800. Major topics will include: Zheng He's maritime explorations; merchants without empire; travelers, emigrants, and illegal crossings; Chinese cartographic technologies; Confucian governors and native chieftains; the Sino-Dutch colony of Taiwan, Qing conquest of central Eurasia; and the construction of textual landscapes and ethnographic portraits. Participants will discuss recent historiography on Ming and Qing frontiers and design and write an extended research paper. This course is designed for junior history majors, and is limited to those who have completed two courses in history at Reed. Conference.

History 470 - Thesis

Full course for one year.

History 481 - Individual Study

One-half or full course for one semester. Individual study in fields either more specialized than the regular courses or not covered by them. Individual reading also may be done in connection with a regular course for one or two units additional to the course. Prerequisites: junior or senior standing and approval of instructor and division.




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