History Course Descriptions

Note: 300-level history courses are ordinarily open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors, and to freshmen only with the consent of the instructor.

History 220 - Late Imperial China

Full course for one semester. This course surveys the history of late imperial China (sixteenth through nineteenth centuries) by examining several critical issues in the historiography of this period. Weekly discussions will address the following topics: despots, ritualized rulers and the growth of a “bureaucratic monarchy”; global economic crisis, peasant rebellion, and the Ming–Qing cataclysm; ethnicity, violence, and exchange on Chinese frontiers; lineage formation, strategic marriages, and the consolidation of gentry rule; local magistrates and scholars and their popular tales; migration, mobility, and social anxiety in a prosperous age; gender and sexuality in Qing Confucian ideology; exploration, trade, and emigration on the south China coast; and the challenge of sea-born imperialists in the nineteenth century. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 221 - Modern China

Full course for one semester. This course examines the numerous transformations in nineteenth- and twentieth-century China from the perspective of both Euro-American and Sinified modernities. We will begin by rethinking both “modernity” and “nation,” locating through that process new enigmatic local subjects for historical study, such as nuxing/women, qingnian/youth, nongming/peasants, or renmin/people. Major discussion topics will include imperialist wars, semi-colonialism, and anti-imperialist movements; the rise of a new historical consciousness; constructions of Manchu, Chinese, and other ethnic identities; contested nationalisms; peasant rebellions and recurring political revolutions; cultural iconoclasm and cultural revolution; Communist mobilizing in rural and urban settings; and Chinese socialism and socialist China. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 275 - Culture and Society in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century America

Full course for one year (History 275-276); semesters may be taken separately. Chronological survey of selected social, cultural, and political developments in the United States, 1820s to the 1940s. We will be especially concerned with the interaction of the society (defined here as social, economic, and political institutions) and culture (the values, ideals, and structures of meaning) through which Americans understood and interpreted private and public life.

History 275 covers the 1820s to the 1890s. Topics include evangelical revival and reform; slave labor in the agrarian South and wage labor, industrialization, and urbanization in the North; the Western frontier as place and myth; the coming of civil war and the legacies of Reconstruction; the populist moment and subsequent decline of popular politics; the growth of corporations and labor strife; the significance of the 1893 World’s Fair; urban evangelical crusades; and the commercialization of leisure at the turn of the century.

The course is open to sophomores considering the history major and transfer students; others, including students in their first year, will be admitted as space permits by consent of the instructor. Conference with occasional lectures. Not offered 2007-08.

History 276 - Culture and Society in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century America

Full course for one year (History 275-276); semesters may be taken separately. Chronological survey of selected social, cultural, and political developments in the United States, 1820s to the 1940s. We will be especially concerned with the interaction of the society (defined here as social, economic, and political institutions) and culture (the values, ideals, and structures of meaning) through which Americans understood and interpreted private and public life.

History 276 covers the 1890s through the 1940s. Topics include the ideals and reforms of the Progressive era; a comparison of World War I and the influenza pandemic; the 1919 race riot in Chicago; domestic culture in the 1920s; the respective economic and cultural effects of the Great Depression, Dust Bowl, and New Deal; U.S. prosecution of World War II abroad and its effects on the homefront; and the global and domestic legacies of the war.

The course is open to sophomores considering the history major and transfer students; others, including students in their first year, will be admitted as space permits by consent of the instructor. Conference with occasional lectures.

History 278 - U.S. Politics and Culture, 1929–79

Full course for one semester. Examines the immediate and long-term social, cultural, and political effects of the Depression, World War II, and the Cold War, and the changing political landscapes of the 1960s and 1970s. Topics include the rise and fall of organized labor, the emergence of the civil rights movement, suburbanization, the economic and legal status of women, new immigrants after 1965, and the cultural roots of the new American right. The course is open to sophomores considering the history major and transfer students; others, including students in their first year, will be admitted as space permits by consent of the instructor. Conference with occasional lectures.

History 301 - European Diplomatic History: 1848–1914

Full course for one semester. A study of the development of international relations and the foreign policies of the Great Powers from the mid-nineteenth century to World War I. Topics include the rise of nationalism and its effects on European society and diplomacy, Bismarckian diplomacy, imperialism, the growth of the alliance system, and the coming of the war. Lecture-conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 302 - Origins of the Second World War

Full course for one semester. The course will examine the question of how Europe emerged from one world war only to enter another 20 years later, and how far the outbreak of the second war can be traced to diplomatic, ideological, economic, political, military, and other factors. We will consider the structure of international relations from the Versailles Conference of 1919 through the “appeasement” period of the late 1930s, and the sources of continuity and instability in the European system; how the major powers, both policy-makers and publics, thought about and dealt with the challenges of foreign policy and diplomacy; and the interpretive controversies that have exercised contemporaries and historians - e.g., how the “orthodox” interpretation of the origins of the war has fared in recent historiography. Conference.

History 303 - The Cold War

Full course for one semester. A survey of the diplomatic, strategic, and ideological conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union, from the last years of the Second World War through the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. The course will emphasize the early years of the Cold War and the sources of the Soviet–American antagonism; other topics will include the atomic bomb in 1945 and the subsequent nuclear arms race; the Cold War in American society and politics; the Cuban missile crisis of 1962; the Vietnam war; and in general the role of ideology, public opinion, military strategy, and domestic politics in American and Soviet policy-making. There will be discussion throughout of the controversies among historians. Conference.

History 306 - Theology and the European Imagination Between the World Wars

Full course for one semester. This seminar explores the theological dimension of European intellectual life between the world wars. It will address innovations in theological thinking, but also their resonance in political, legal, aesthetic, philosophical, historical, anthropological, and natural-scientific discourses. The aims are several: to understand how notions of the divine underwrote some of the major cultural undertakings of the early twentieth-century, and to reconsider the problem of secularization. What do we mean when we say we live in a secular (worldly) world? When did we (or the western intellectual tradition) begin to make this claim, and why? What does it mean that talk of God has not only endured, but flourished in this worldly world of ours? To get at these questions, we will read selections from a spectrum of interwar thinkers: from Protestants (Adolf von Harnack, Rudolf Otto, Friedrich Gogarten, Karl Barth), from Jews (Gershom Scholem, Hannah Arendt, Franz Rosenzweig, Sigmund Freud, Walter Benjamin), and from figures who creatively transformed the Catholic tradition (Carl Schmitt, Martin Heidegger, Georges Bataille, Hugo Ball)—all with an eye to the trans-confessional and inter-disciplinary character of their parallel efforts. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 308 - Special Topics: War and Society in the Twentieth Century

Full course for one semester. In each semester a different specific topic within twentieth-century history will be used to examine how modern Western societies have experienced war, hot and cold, and the interrelationships between armed forces and the states and societies from which they have emerged. Questions will include civil-military relations in a period of mass democracy and totalitarianism; the effect of advanced industrialization and technological change on war preparation and war fighting; the role of institutions, values, and ideologies in civilian and military policy-making; and how far one can speak of the “militarization” of modern society. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 314 - Medicine and Society in Europe, 1300-1700

Full course for one semester. This course examines ways that Europeans understood health and illness from the later Middle Ages through the Scientific Revolution, focusing primarily on two themes: the changing intellectual formation and social status of the learned physician, and the changing systems of public health care that developed in response to new epidemic diseases, religious and political upheaval, and the conquest of the New World. Conference.

History 318 - Modern Jewish History

Full course for one semester. This course serves as an introduction to the major themes of modern Jewish life in Europe from the middle of the seventeenth century to its postmodern present: among them marranism and the Sabbatian controversies, Enlightenment and emancipation, the advent of reform, conservative, neo-orthodox, and hasidic modes of religious expression, anti-semitism and the Holocaust, Zionism and other forms of Jewish nationalism, the establishment of Israel and postwar Jewish life in the diaspora. The course adopts an avowedly pluralistic tack, and asks what is to be learned by setting Jewish experience in Western, Eastern, and Southern Europe in comparison, before turning to the events of the late-19th and 20th centuries that transformed them all. Reading consists of primary sources—rabbinic responsa, poems, literature, diaries, pamphlets—complemented by secondary-source material, music, and film. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 323 - Japanese Modernities

Full course for one semester. A historical investigation of Japan’s competing modernities, 1870–1960. Major topics will include Meiji Westernization and its critics, statist narrations of modern Japanese subjectivity, hierarchy and individualism in modernist reform ideologies, territorial and ethnic displacements within the Japanese empire, cosmopolitan literariness and nostalgia for cultural and spiritual homelands, ethnic nationalism in the cultural sciences, and transcendence of the past in Japanese painting and films. Conference.

History 324 - Turning Chinese Farmers into Peasants?

Full course for one semester. This course examines the complexities of Chinese rural society and culture during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, focusing on the interactions between farm households and the state -- relationships that were mediated by rural elites, market forces, political brokers and Maoist activists, among others. Major topics include: dissemination and domestication of popular deities, commercialized agriculture before its time; anti-modern / anti-Christian rural protests; intellectual apprehensions of rural communities; the gendering of rural industrialization; central state penetration and rural defenses; and farmer narratives of bygone eras. This course assumes some familiarity with at least one of the following subjects: Chinese history, popular culture, village society, or peasant studies. Conference.

History 325 - The Family in China and Japan

 Full course for one semester. This course explores the visions and myths, manifestations and transformations of the family in China and Japan from the seventeenth century to the present. Major topics will include: classical statements on filiality, ancestors, and the family as paradigm for social and political theory; demographic change and family "life cycles"; household and lineage interactions; marriage and adoption practices; familial authority, inheritance regulations and household management strategies; domestic rituals; childrearing and child-parent relations; gender and generational conflicts; social impact of population control; the effect of modern revolutions on the family and its manifestations. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 326 - Imperialism and Colonialism in East Asia

Full course for one semester. This course will introduce some of the theoretical literature on imperialism and colonialism before examining East Asian experiences with such exploitation and control in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Major topics will include imperialist policies; economic imperialism; colonialism as a system of values and social relations; the relationship of culture and power in the colony; colonial elites and nationalist movements; gender, race, and class in both colonial and nationalist agendas; colonial writers and their literature; and the promises of decolonization and postcoloniality. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 327 - Meiji Restoration/Revolution

Full course for one semester. Few events in Japanese history receive more attention than the Meiji Restoration (or Revolution). A critical marker in Japanese political history, the restoration is also perceived as a major watershed in economic, social, and cultural developments. This course will examine the specific drama of imperial restoration, the modernizing revolution initiated from above thereafter, and the historical contexts that help to explain both. Major topics will include agrarian uprisings, new religious movements, and ee ja nai ka dancing; nativism and world rectification thought; the “opening” of Japan and the effect of international trade and diplomacy on internal Japanese conflicts; bakafu attempts at political reform and the avoidance of foreign invasion; the military rebellion of “loyalist” samurai; and the transformative changes initiated by the Meiji oligarchy after 1868. Readings will include both participant observations and post-Meiji assessments. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 328 - Chinese Frontiers

Full course for one semester. After 1400 Chinese explorers and traders increasingly extended the limits of the “known world” in their search for profit, knowledge, tribute, and exotica; large-scale Chinese emigration followed in their footsteps. Conceptual and physical boundaries were also challenged by Manchu troops from the north and European traders and diplomats from the south. This course will explore the nature of this geographical and epistemological boundary transgression from 1400 to 1800. After a brief examination of Zheng He’s great explorations in the early fifteenth century, we will discuss Chinese practices of charting and mapping physical frontiers. Official and private attempts to represent and domesticate cultures and societies on China’s periphery will be the focus of our second exploration, and the effect of this conceptual and physical “travel” upon accepted notions of ethnicity, gender, and self-identity will make up the final leg of our voyage. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 329 - Education, Culture, and Society in Late Imperial and Early Republican China

Full course for one semester. This course focuses on the development of education and its changing relationship to society, culture, and politics in late imperial and early Republican China. We will trace the history of Chinese education from the apex of the civil examination system in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries through the decline and eventual abolition of the civil-service examination, and finally to the establishment of a new education system at the turn of the twentieth century. Secondly, we will examine this development from a variety of perspectives, including the top-down (official representation), the bottom-up (daily practice), and the "gray" area where state and society interacted. Finally, within this framework, we will focus on a variety of themes, including schooling, literacy, educational specialization, print culture, and gender. Readings will be based on historical monographs, regulations, and popular literature on the topic. Prerequisite: sophomore standing. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 332 - Early Modern British Social History: Villages, Towns, and Cities, 1500–1700

Full course for one semester. This course centers its attention on the history of rural and urban communities in the context of the great religious, political, social, and cultural upheavals of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: the Reformation, the political revolutions of the seventeenth century, and the development of commercial society and empire. Drawing on a wide range of historical and literary sources, special attention will be given to examining the processes of social, political, and cultural change that helped the British Isles emerge from the seventeenth century with a powerful state and a modernizing economy, both centered in England. Conference.

History 333 - Europe and the Americas in the “Age of Discovery,” 1400-1700

Full course for one semester. This course focuses on the history of the Atlantic peoples, nations, and states from the earliest period of contact, conquest and colonial settlement to the growth of settled commercial networks and systems of communication, the establishment of formal and informal imperial regimes, and the emergence of new societies with their own regional and cultural identities. Topics examined will include the impulses behind early European voyages of “discovery,” the socio-political and cultural characteristics of native peoples living in the Americas, the history of first encounters and the development of social and cultural relations between indigenous peoples and Europeans, the place of slavery as a system and the development of new patterns of enterprise in the Atlantic world, and the effects of contact on the social, political and culture life of Europe and the Americas. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 334 - The English Renaissance

Full course for one semester. Did the English experience a "renaissance" in the Tudor and Stuart age? Through examination of a variety of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century writings and artifacts, the course explores the cultural history of England and the English from the time of King Henry VIII to King Charles II. Particular attention will be paid to works concerned with the representation of authority, community, gender, social rank, and personal identity. The course will analyze the role of the literary and visual arts in the shaping of culture, the relationship between elite and popular cultural forms, and the development of new religious ideas and practices and new ideologies and mentalities. Conference.

History 335 - The Development of Britain, c. 1680–1830

Full course for one semester. This course focuses on British sociocultural and political history, and to a lesser extent on British religious and intellectual history, as Britain changed from an agrarian and pre-industrial society in the seventeenth century to a commercial and industrial society in the early nineteenth century. It analyzes the development of the British state and British empire during the “long eighteenth century,” focusing especially on the formation of political hierarchies and social classes and the growth of characteristic political, economic, and cultural institutions from the Revolution of 1688 to the Napoleonic wars and the beginnings of Reform. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 337 - Community, Authority, and Culture in Europe’s “Wars of Religion”

Full course for one semester. Concentrating on the history and culture of northern Europe (especially, the British Isles, France, the Netherlands, and Germany) between 1500 and 1700, this course focuses on the formation of the characteristic ideologies and mentalities regarding society, politics, religion, culture, and the person in the era of Europe’s “Wars of Religion.” Using documents, texts, and visual sources from the period as well as modern historical interpretations, the course will introduce students to the major developments and the historical interpretations and controversies they have generated. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 339 - Late Imperial Russian Society, 1861-1917

Full course for one semester. In the last decades of their rule, Russia's Tsars attempted to modernize aspects of their predominantly agricultural, multi-ethnic empire, while avoiding the social, political, and cultural upheaval which had accompanied modernization elsewhere. This course examines the results of these efforts, looking at the ensuing processes social fragmentation and development of new social identities, and how these led to social instability and, eventually, revolution. Topics to be examined include class, gender, nationality, religion, individual rights, colonialism, and what it means to be "modern." Assignments include primary and secondary sources. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 340 - Women in Modern Europe

Full course for one semester. This course analyzes women’s history as an integral component of the history of Europe since the eighteenth century. We will trace the major trends in the cultural evolution of ideas about gender, the social organization of women’s work, women’s roles in the family, and the development of feminist political strategies. We will highlight how women’s experiences have differed due to class, ethnicity, and national context, but also seek to define the common ground that European women have shared. Through our study of European women’s history, we will also investigate the basic problems and assumptions of the history of gender. The course incorporates extensive use of primary texts created by women, allowing more immediate access to the ideas and experience of major political and intellectual figures, as well as ordinary individuals. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 342 - Special Topics in European Historiography: Historical Practice in Britain from the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Century

Full course for one semester. In each semester a different topic will be used to examine the traditions, practices, and methods of historical study and historical writing in Europe since ca. 1500. A central aim of the course will be to study the evolving characteristics of history as a discipline, the development of its distinctive methods and interpretative schools, and its relationships to neighboring disciplines in the humanities and social sciences. The special topic for 2006-07 is the treatment by Britons themselves of the history of Reformation and religious conflict in the British Isles during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, beginning with the earliest accounts written in the period itself and moving to the debates and discussions about these major developments in the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries. Prerequisite: at least one semester of Humanities 210, 220, or 230 and at least one history course. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 344 - Germany: 1918-1945

Full course for one semester. This course introduces students to some of the major themes and problems posed by the historical study of Germany between the World Wars and beyond, among them the Weimar Republic and its attendant crises, interwar cultural and intellectual activity, and the rise and consolidation of National Socialism. The course also broaches issues of more global concern: what does it mean to live in a time of political and existential crisis? what does it mean to come to terms with a morally troublesome past? how do interpretations of this period of German history continue to underwrite claims about the nature of modernity itself? Reading includes both primary sources and secondary accounts, supplemented by music and film. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 346 - Technology and Social Thought in 20th Century Europe

Full course for one semester. “The fully enlightened Earth radiates disaster triumphant.” So the German philosophers Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer argued in 1944, just before Hiroshima provided an eerily literal proof. Their unease was shared by many. Something about man’s attempt to master the world by technological means had gone seriously awry. This course will examine how European intellectuals of the twentieth century revisited notions of culture, nature, politics, economics and religion as part of a wide-ranging reassessment of the modern age prompted by the rise of technocracy. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 347 - Interpreting the Scientific Revolution

Full course for one semester. This course examines the concept of the “Scientific Revolution” and its usefulness as an interpretive framework for understanding the innovations in natural science during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the era of Copernicus, Galileo, Harvey, and Newton. The course will consider classic texts by historians who constructed the concept, as well as more recent studies that have challenged it from a variety of methodological and interpretive standpoints, such as sociological and cultural perspectives. Conference.

History 348 - Sex, Crime, and the State in Modern Europe

Full course for one semester. What about sex is criminal and what about crime is sexy? The answers to these questions have changed drastically through the ages, because the place where sex and crime intersect is a battleground of religion, law, politics, and science. This course will explore not only the varied interpretations of the sexual body and its functions but also how they have affected social organization on the broadest level. Beginning with an intensive reading of Foucault’s History of Sexuality, we will examine the interplay of power and the body in the areas of Enlightenment models of anatomy, pornography and politics, degeneration and national health, prostitution, sexual violence, psychological definitions of deviance, and the emergence of homosexual identities. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 349 - From Liberalism to Liberation: Social Action in the Twentieth Century

Full course for one semester. This course considers competing notions of freedom articulated by movements for social change as they evolved over the course of the twentieth century (in Europe above all). It proceeds from the crisis of liberalism and the advent of revolutionary and counter-revolutionary alternatives, to the mid-century rise of the welfare state, to decolonization and liberation movements in the post-war period fueled by concerns with gender, race and the non-human, and finally to some attempts to rearticulate the liberal project for the 21st century. Readings include texts from John Dewey, Lenin, Luxembourg, Trotsky, Giovanni Gentile, Carl Schmitt, Fanon, Marcuse, Foucault, Peter Singer, and Richard Rorty. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 350 - Renaissance Italy: State, Culture, and Society

Full course for one semester. This course will examine the social, political, and cultural developments associated with the rise of the Northern Italian communes and the gradual development of the territorial city-state system during the trecento and quattrocento. Drawing on a wide range of historical sources and current scholarship, we will examine the interplay between family and social relations, political theory and practice (in both republics and signories), economic expansion, and the flourishing artistic and literary production of the “Renaissance.” Particular attention will be devoted to the rise of humanist culture in both Republican and courtly settings. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 353 - The French Revolution, 1775-1800

Full course for one semester. Within a generally chronological framework, the course will focus on the social and cultural history of the French Revolution. Particular attention will be given to the ideological origins of the Revolution, the question of class, the popular movement, revolutionary culture, gender and citizenship, the role of terror, and the nature of counter-revolution. Another focus of the course will be the historiography of the French Revolution. Works from both traditional historiography and contemporary revisionist historiography will be included on the syllabus. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 354 - The Soviet Union, 1917-1953

Full course for one semester. This course examines Soviet history from the 1917 Revolution to Joseph Stalin's death in 1953. It gives special attention to post-1990 scholarship, looking at how the end of the Cold War altered our understanding of the Soviet past. Subjects examined include the role of ideology in the Soviet state, the nature of Stalinism, the thorny question of Soviet subjectivity, and the ways in which the Soviet experience reflected broader European trends. Assignments include primary and secondary sources, including film and other media. Conference.

History 355 - Social and Cultural History of Nineteenth-century France

Full course for one semester. This course investigates French history from Napoleon to the eve of the Great War, focusing on social organization and the creation of cultural meaning. Topics include the transformation of rural France, migration and urbanization, the development of popular political consciousness and mass politics, class conflict, the spread of literacy, the evolution of French national identity, changes in gender roles and family structure, and the role of the state in cultural production. As we explore these topics we will also interrogate the methodological boundaries between social and cultural history. Through an analysis of secondary sources and theoretical texts, we will consider what is facilitated or hindered by various methodological approaches. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 356 - The Revolutionary Tradition in France from 1789–1871

Full course for one semester. An examination of the uneven development of a revolutionary tradition in France.  We will follow the attempts to define, deny, foreclose, and revive the Revolution from its inception in 1789 through the final stabilization of a republican government in the mid-1870s.  A strong historiographic focus will direct our attention to the gendered nature of the revolutionary project; the tension between liberty and equality that runs throughout French revolutionary history; and the plausibility of competing social, political, and cultural interpretations of the Revolution.  Conference.

History 357 - France and the French Colonial World, 1500-1750

Full course for one semester. This course will explore the social, political and cultural processes that established France as a preeminent European power, fostered the growth of the royal state, and transformed French culture and society from the Renaissance through the first half of the reign of Louis XV. We will also examine the development of the French overseas empire in New France, Louisiana and the Caribbean during this period. Among the topics we will address are: the impact of the Reformation and the Wars of Religion; the growth of the “absolute monarchy” and its social, political and cultural consequences; the changing nature of elite and popular cultures; and the cultural, economic and political relationships between France and its disparate colonial societies. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 358 - Propaganda and Mass Mobilization in Modern Europe

Full course for one semester. The twentieth-century saw the emergence of mass propaganda on a wide scale. This course looks at the ways in which modern states and movements used different propaganda techniques to achieve their ends. It follows all stages of this process, from conceptualization and creation through dissemination and reception. The course focuses on Germany, Britain, and the Soviet Union between the First World War and early Cold War, with some material from other states and periods. Assignments include primary and secondary sources from a variety of media. Conference.

History 360 - Politics and Culture in Fin-de-Siècle Paris and Vienna

Full course for one semester. The final years of the nineteenth century were lived as a continual crisis in Europe.  The pressures of nationalism, the struggle between secular states and the Church, the rise of modern anti-Semitism, the challenge of a radical artistic avant-garde, and a pervasive revolt against reason threatened to tear apart the fabric of European societies. This combination of centrifugal forces and innovative responses was most evident in the two great capitals of nineteenth-century Europe: Paris and Vienna.  This course will examine the similar trajectories of these two cities struggling to retain their identities in the twilight of the European century.  Conference.

History 361 - Colonial America

Full course for one semester. This course will examine the cultural conflicts and creative adaptations that occurred as Indians, Europeans, and Africans encountered each other on the North American continent. While exploring patterns of cultural interaction we will pay particular attention to the social construction of race and gender. We will also investigate the changing nature of religious belief and the relationship between politics, economy, and society. Conference.

History 362 - Revolutionary America

Full course for one semester. In the late eighteenth-cent Americans severed their colonial relationship with England, formed an independent nation, and laid the foundations for many of the political institutions and social norms that persist to this day. This course will focus on the causes of the War of Independence and the meaning of American revolutionary ideology. We will address some of the major conflicts that characterized the era, including the tension between imperial policy and local control, liberty and slavery, enlightenment rationalism and evangelical religion, private property and communal interests, and Indian sovereignty and westward expansion. Particular attention will be paid to the debates over the drafting and ratification of the Federal Constitution and the subsequent rise of partisan politics in the new nation. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 364 - Civil War and Reconstruction

Full course for one semester. This course will examine the causes, conduct, and consequences of the Civil War. We will first compare social and ideological developments in the North and South and analyze the sectional and constitutional debates leading to the secession crisis and the outbreak of war. We will then study the Civil War itself, examining not only Union and Confederate wartime politics and military strategy but the social history of the conflict as well, paying close attention to the experience of common soldiers and fugitive slaves. Finally, we will explore the tremendous challenges involved in attempting to build an interracial political democracy after the destruction of slavery and the defeat of the Confederacy. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 365 - Consumer Cultures in Historical Perspective

Full course for one semester. We will examine the ways in which historians have employed various theories about the economic, social, and culture meanings of consumption and commodities to describe the material worlds and mentalities of the past. Historians’ debates about when identifiable consumer cultures emerged will be explored, with emphasis on how these debates illuminate our understanding of the development of Western capitalism. We will consider changes in production as well as consumption, and how such developments altered peoples’ understandings of self, class, and community. Readings focus on cases in the United States in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, with some comparative material from earlier periods and Britain. The course is open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors, with preference given to majors in history and the social sciences. Conference.

History 369 - American Slavery

Full course for one semester. This course is organized around a series of key questions that have driven the historical scholarship on slavery over the last several decades and which continue to spark historiographical debate: What was slavery and how did it differ from other forms of exploitation? What role did slavery play in the making of the modern world? What was new about New World slavery, particularly in the American South? Why did Europeans turn to African slave labor to develop the Americas? What role did Africans play in the slave trade and what impact did the trade have upon Africa? What was the nature of the master-slave relationship and how did it change over time? How did slavery shape the political economy of the American South and the United States as a whole? To what extent did enslaved Africans and their descendants lose, maintain, or transform elements of their African cultural past in the Americas? In what ways did slaves resist their enslavement? Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 370 - The Problem of Western Prosperity: Political Economy in History and Theory

Full course for one semester. Why is prosperity a problem? This course surveys the development of modern political economy in search of an answer: from its beginnings in eighteenth-century liberal thought to the radical permutations prompted by the industrial revolution and finally to some of its twentieth-century, post-industrial incarnations. The bulk of the course considers in historical context the work of Adam Smith, Karl Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim. We will also explore their contemporary relevance by considering more recent debates about neo-liberal globalization, labor rights and practices, capitalism and religion, and the relationship between wealth and democracy. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 372 - U.S. Women’s History, 1890-1990

Full course for one semester. This course examines transformations in women’s economic status, political participation, educational opportunities, and familial and reproductive lives from the late nineteenth to the late twentieth century in the United States. The course considers how structural changes and political movements involved and affected women of different classes, races and ethnic groups. Major topics will include: women’s increased participation in the paid labor force, especially wage work by married women with children; political struggles for equal rights (e.g., woman suffrage, pay equity); the separation of sexuality and reproduction; and the intellectual origins and development of feminism, as well as the arguments of those opposed to it. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 374 - Gender and Sex

Full course for one semester. Examination of the changing ideas about gender and sex roles in the context of key transformations from the late nineteenth through the late twentieth centuries in America. These include the second industrial revolution, which enabled women and men to live on their own outside of household economies, the emergence of modern consumer culture, service in same-sex militaries during two world wars, the rise of social scientific and psychological experts who named and quantified “deviant” and “normal” sexual practice, and the so-called sexual revolutions of the 1960s and beyond. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or consent of the instructor. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 375 - 1968: Origins, Actions, Afterlives

Full course for one semester. A global revolution or an interpretation in need of an event? 1968 has been characterized as both and much in between. This course situates the tumultuous events of the late-1960s in a broader story about the evolution and transformation of movements for social change in Europe and the U.S. following the Second World War. We will trace its intellectual roots in debates about decolonization, civil rights, the welfare-state and the cold war. We will also pursue some of its legacies: left-wing terrorism, the global environmental movement, the neo-conservative reaction, and the myth of the 1960s itself. Reading includes memoirs, manifestos, political philosophy and social thought, complemented by classic secondary accounts, music and film. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 378 - Gender and Family

Full course for one semester. The course begins with the rise and spread of waged labor, with emphasis on how new economic structures altered household and familial life. Families under slavery will be considered, especially African Americans under slavery and in transition to freedom. Migration and resettlement in the West shaped families on the frontier and workers in male-dominated mining towns. The legal and political meanings of marriage also changed; we will examine arguments for and against married women's ownership of property, and Mormon polygamy, to see how nineteenth-century Americans understood the relationship between patriarchy (legal rights of fathers and husbands over children and wives) and democracy. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or consent of the instructor. Conference.

History 381 - Rebellion, Revolution, and Independence in Latin America

Full course for one semester. This class examines the breakdown of colonial rule in Latin America from the 1750s through independence in the 1820s. Starting with a brief examination of the late colonial societies and economies of Latin America and the Caribbean, and their relations to European powers, the course focuses on violent opposition and resistance to the colonial order by different sectors of society. We will study in detail indigenous and peasant rebellions in central Mexico and highland Peru, the slave rebellion and struggle for independence in Haiti, and the wars of independence in Spanish America. The course pays particular attention to the different social, economic, and political objectives of the various movements, the different manners in which they articulated their grievances and demands, and the complex interplay between racial and class dynamics within Latin American societies and tensions in the metropolis–colony relationship. Conference.

History 384 - The Mexican Revolution

Full course for one semester. This course examines the roots, development, and effect of the Mexican Revolution (1910–17), from the Porfiriato through the institutionalization of PRI rule and the “miracle” of the 1940s and 1950s. Principal themes include regionalism and tensions caused by centralization; industrialization, economic development and dependency; class conflict; gender, citizenship, and political participation; and the production of a modern Mexican identity. Lecture-conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 385 - Catholicism and Counter-Reform in the Spanish World

Full course for one semester. This course examines the development and maturation of counter-reform Catholicism in the Spanish world during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Topics to be explored include the collapse of religious pluralism in medieval Iberia and the emergence of militant intolerance, the intellectual and theological challenges provoked by the conquest of the Americas, the varieties and gendering of elite religiosity, church-state relations, and popular religion in both Spain and the Americas. Conference.

History 386 - Andean Civilization and the Spanish Conquest

Full course for one semester. This course focuses on Andean society from the rise of the Inka Empire in the fourteenth century through the Spanish conquest and the establishment of the colonial order in the 1500s. Topics include the political and material organization of the Inka Empire, ideology and religious practice, and the impact of conquest and disease on the indigenous societies of the Andes. We then examine the effects of Spanish attempts to “re-form” indigenous societies by the forcible introduction of Catholicism and Spanish understandings of property and exchange, the imposition of Spanish imperial government, and the dismemberment and reorganization of indigenous polities. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 389 - Golden Age Spain

Full course for one semester. A study of Spain from its meteoric rise as a global power in the sixteenth century to the catastrophic crises of the 1640s, this course examines central issues in early modern European history, such as the rise of the absolutist state, the economic and political effects of transatlantic imperialism, growing religious orthodoxy and intolerance, and the intellectual and aesthetic complexity of the Baroque. Specific topics will include Iberian regionalism and its political effects; the political, economic, and intellectual impact of colonialism on Castilian society; the Spanish economy; Spanish Catholicism; the role of Spain in European politics and diplomacy; and Golden Age Spanish culture. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 391 - Ancient History: Greece

See Classics 371 for description.
Classics 371 Description

History 393 - Ancient History: Rome

See Classics 373 for description. Not offered 2007-08.
Classics 373 Description

History 395 - Special Topics in Greek and Roman History

See Classics 375 for description. Not offered 2007-08.

History 398 - Animals: An Intellectual and Cultural History

Full course for one semester. This class traces the history of the relation between man and animal, principally as it has emerged in Western thought and culture. What does it mean to be an animal? How have our answers to this question figured in the development of our moral, political and religious traditions? How have we made recourse to the notion of animality to make sense of what it means to be human? What could it possibly mean for an animal to be free? What is the historical and conceptual relation between animal liberation and human liberation? How have these issues played out in practices such as zookeeping, husbandry, slaughter, sex, consumption, companionship, ritual, jurisprudence, or dressing your dog in silly little sweaters? These are some of the foremost questions broached by the burgeoning academic field of “animal studies,” and we will address them by means of primary source readings (complemented by secondary readings and the occasional film) that span time from the ancients to our day. The narrative of the course proceeds as follows: from ancient arguments about animality and the soul, to the reception of these arguments in medieval philosophy and theology, to the status of animals in early-modern and enlightenment philosophy, science and jurisprudence (“animal trials”), to the birth of modern approaches to animal rights, and finally to some recent attempts to use the human/animal divide to reconsider the history of Western ethics and politics. Conference. Not offered 2007-08.

History 411 - Junior Seminar: The Making of Publics in Early Modern Europe

Full course for one semester. Europe in the early modern era (1500–1800), experienced significant changes in the structures and practices of public life.  In conjunction with developments in the history of politics and the state, of urban and rural economies, and of religious outlooks and institutions, European societies witnessed the creation of new modes of cultural production and of their presentation and distribution; new media and new sites for the expression of ideas and outlooks; and new forms of small-scale, voluntary association based on shared interests, tastes, and the desires of individuals. As a result of these changes, a multiplicity of publics came into being during this era, some concerned with matters of state and official policy and some with the cultivation of personal identities and the promotion of civility in social relations. This seminar will concentrate on the processes which brought this new, dynamic, and diverse form of public life into being, paying particular attention to the development of new ideas about the character of political, social, and cultural life (including religious life), and to the growth of new modes and institutions for the dissemination of information and opinion and for sharing or debating social outlooks and values. These include print, public theatre, the museum, the coffee house, and the salon. Conference. 

History 412 - Junior Seminar: Layered Memories of Japanese Colonialism

Full course for one semester. This course explores major issues in the recent historiography on Japanese imperialism and colonialism and the complex communities who designed, managed and/or experienced Japanese colonial rule in Taiwan and Korea (Japan's major colonies), without overlooking Japanese "informal" rule in China. Major topics will include: colonial typologies, "semi-colonialism" and "colonial modernity"; continuity and divergence in Dutch, Manchu and Japanese colonial rule in Taiwan; colonizers' representations of colonial landscapes; the rule of colonial difference and colonial identity formations; narratives of subaltern resistance; colonial literary movements; colonial anthropology; total war and total empire; sex slaves and their clients; and the complexity of post-colonial problems/ problematic postcolonialisms. Conference.

History 470 - Thesis

Full course for one year.

History 481 - Individual Study

One-half or full course for one semester. Individual study in fields either more specialized than the regular courses or not covered by them. Individual reading also may be done in connection with a regular course for one or two units additional to the course. Prerequisites: junior or senior standing and approval of instructor and division.

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