Week 9. Oct. 28th
Guest Seminar Nate Sawtell

Nate will give a "hard core" neuroscience lecture. Be prepared to stop him and ask questions. He will be presenting current research regarding neural function using as a model organism one of the electric fish that you will be working with in lab this week.

re-read the Nishikawa article, focusing on electric fish. and if you have time try Rose et al.

Nishikawa, K.C. (2002) Evolutinary Convergence in Nervous Systems: Insights from Comparative Phylogenetic Studies. Brain Behav Evol 59:240-249.
(warning: this one may open only in acrobat)

Rose (2004) Insights into Neural Mechanisms and Evolution of Behavior From Electric Fish. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 5:943-951.


Week 9 - Oct. 30th
Behavioral Endocrinology

With the ability to synthesize artificial hormones in the 1930s researchers gained increased ability to manipulate hormone titers. Beach and Holz-Tucker's paper was an essential contribution to our understanding of the effects of these hormones on behavior. Pay attention to the detailed description of their methods. This paper raises interesting questions about hormones as a possible source of individuual differences in sexual behavior. These questions are still largely unanswered today. The paper by Lehrman, presents a very nice study that has not gained as much popularity as some think that it should. He demonstrated that behaviors (in this case parental behavior) is not reflexive and rigidly controlled by hormones but that it is flexible and responds to social interactions. Wingfield brings together much historic work when he built his theory known now as "the challenge hypothesis". In class we will look at several recent tests of the challenge hypothesis.

Beach, F.A., and Hoz-Tucker, A.M. (1949) Effects of different concentration of androgen upon sexual behavior in castrated male rats. Journal of Comp. & Physiol Psychol. 42:433-453.
(also in Foundations of Animal Behavior)

Lehrman (1965) Interaction between internal and external environmnets in the regulation of the reproductive cycle of the ring dove. In Sex and Behavior, F.A. Beach, ed. (also in Fundamentals of Animal Behavior)
This one is really not that long, but it was presented at a meeting and the last several pages are notes from a discussion among several ethologists of the time.
Consider how this paper describes behaviors differently than the theory of Fixed Action Patterns.

Wingfield, J.C., Hegner, R.E., Dufty, A.M. and Ball, G.F. (1990) The "Challenge Hypothesis": Theoretical Implications for Patterns of Testosterone Secretion, Mating Systems, and Breeding Strategie. The American Naturalist, 136:829-846.

Sapolsky R.M. (1990) Stress in the Wild. Scientific American c?:116-123

EXTRA: book
I wish I had time to cover everything, we would read this as well. Robert Sapolsky is an outstanding research who studies the endorinology of stress. He works at all levels from baboon tribes in the wild to cell culture in the lab, and humans in clinics. He also writes for a general audience.

I would recommend "Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers".
Sapolsky, R.M., (2004) Social Status and Health in Humans and other animals. Ann. Rev. Anthropology 33:393-418.