Further Reading


Review of  2007  Ocean  Salmon  Fisheries, Pacific Fishery Management Council

Gustafson, R. G., R. S. Waples, J. M. Myers, L. A. Weitkamp, G. J. Bryant, O. W. Johnson, J. J. Hard. 2007. Pacific salmon extinctions: quantifying lost and remaining diversity. Conservation Biology, 21(4):1009-1020.

Williams, J., R.W. Zabel, R.S. Waples. J.A. Hutchings, and W.P. Connor. 2008. Potential for anthropogenic disturbances to influence evolutionary change in the life history of a threatened salmonid. Evolutionary Applications 1:271-285


NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-29. Estuarine and Ocean Survival of Northeastern Pacific Salmon, Proceedings of the Workshop, March 20-22, 1996. Newport, Oregon


Ocean Ecosystem Indicators of Salmon Marine Survival in the Northern California Current


Marine Derived Nutrients

Ben-David, M; Hanley, TA; Schell, DM, 1998. Fertilization of terrestrial vegetation by spawning Pacific salmon: the role of flooding and predator activity. Oikos 83:47-55

Bilby, R.E., Fransen, B.R., Walter, J.K., Cederholm, C.J., and Scarlett, W.J.  2001. Preliminary evaluation of the use of nitrogen stable isotope ratios to establish escapement levels for Pacific salmon.  Fisheries 26(1):6-14.

Perrin CJ, Rosenau ML, Stables TB, Ashley KI. 2006. Restoration of a montane reservoir fishery via biomanipulation and nutrient addition. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 26(2):391-407


Weitkamp L, Neely K. 2002. Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) ocean migration patterns: insight from marine coded-wire tag recoveries. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59(7):1100-1115

Project CROOS


Lackey, RT, Lach D, Duncan S. Salmon 2100: the future of Wild Pacific Salmon. Published by American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland, 2006. 

Lichatowich J, Salmon without Rivers: a history of the Pacific Salmon Crisis. Island Press, Washington, DC. 1999

Salmon lifecycle details

Field Guide to the Pacific Salmon, 1992, Adopt-A-Stream Foundation , Robert Steelquist. Published by Sasquatch Books, Seattle, Washington.

Special Thanks to

Milton L. Fischer Grant and the Reed College Biology Department for generous summer funding.

Laurie Weitkamp, Bill Peterson and lab, Bob Emmet, Ken Ashley, David Bella, David Lane, Robin Waples, Xanthippe Augerot,   Dixie Boley, Paul Merz, Merk Olivier, Arnie Nova, Desma Williams, Michael Belchik, Tom Mattusch, Larry Glen, Nina Hempellin, Susan Chambers for their time and patience with my interviews.

Prof. Suzy Renn, Prof. Robert Kaplan, Michael Milstein, Lincoln Kaye, Hsu Mei Lang, Victoria Zero, Julian Aaron, Jason Parker and Tony Moreno for their careful guidance and support through this project.