Schedule (Fall 2017)

Weekly readings will be marked by where they can be found: bookstore (see Course Book List); book reserve (see Course Reserve List for complete listing by week), ereserve, or online for articles available for downloading from the web. E-reserve articles can be found at the top of our course Moodle page.  Note that most of the articles and excerpts are available in books on reserve. Please let me know as soon as possible if you have any trouble obtaining the readings. Please print out as many online and e-reserve readings as you can. Bring all readings to class.

For paper guidelines and a summary of assignment due dates, see Course Requirements.

Week One - Language and Performativity: Emergent Realities

Assignments

Tues Aug 29  Introductions and Goals of the Course

Thurs Aug 31 Revisiting the Paradigm Shift: Language, History, Power

  • Williams, Raymond. "Culture," and "Language," in Marxism and Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977. pp. 11-44. (ereserve, bookstore and book reserve, 5 copies).

Further Reading

To deepen your understanding of issues and concepts raised this week, consult these sources:

Willams, Raymond. Keywords: a Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Revised edition. NY: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Bauman, Richard. "Performance," in Int'l Encyclopedia of Communications, Oxford, 1989.

Duranti, Alessandro. "Ch. 1, The Scope of Linguistic Anthropology," Linguistic Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997.

Duranti, Alessandro, ed. Key Terms in Language and Culture. Blackwell, 2001. (bookstore, book reserve)

Dworkin and Roman, ed.s Views Beyond the Border Countery: Raymond Williams and Cultural Politics. London: Routledge, 1993.

Inglis, Fred. Raymond Williams. Routledge, 1995. Phil Shannon review

Higgins, John. Raymond Williams. Literature, Marxism and Cultural Materialism. London and New York: Routledge, 1999.

Links

Check these links out for further information on this week's topics!

Use these links as quick references and contextualizing material. To really delve, you need to print and read all essays, or go look at books and articles in Further Reading.

Remember that materials on the web MUST be evaluated as critically as any other texts we consider in this course. For brief guidelines on thinking critically about the web, click HERE.

Raymond Williams

Films

TBA

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Week Two - Models of Linguistic Form and Function

Assignments

Tues Sept 5 The Saussurean paradigm

  • Saussure, Ferdinand de. "Introduction," ch's 2-5 (pp. 6-23,); "Part One, General Principles," and "Part Two Synchronic Linguistics" (pp. 65-139), in Course in general linguistics, edited by Saussy and Meisel, Columbia U Press. (c1959) (paperback, lib. has 5 copies). (bookstore, book reserve); NOTE: Do NOT use the Harris translation, 1986 or the Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye edition of Baskin, the pagination is different!
  • Yaguello, Marina. ch. 4-6, pp. 28-69. Language through the Looking Glass: Exploring Language and Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1998 (1981). (ereserve, bookstore, book reserve).

Thurs Sept 7 Jakobson on multifunctionality

  • Jakobson, Roman. "Linguistics and Poetics," in Language in Literature, edited by Krystyna Pomorska and Stephen Rudy. Cambridge, Mass. : Belknap Press, 1987 PN54 .J35 1987 (ereserve, book reserve).
  • Yaguello, Marina. Ch. 1 What language is for; and, Ch. 10 The house that Jack built: competence and performance, pp. 6-21, 99-112. Language through the Looking Glass: Exploring Language and Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1998 (1981). (ereserve, bookstore, book reserve).
Slide: Jakobson on multifunctional speech events

Further Reading

Chomsky, Noam. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Ma: MIT press, 1965.
Locus classicus of his famous distinction between "competence" and "performance", drawing on and refiguring Saussure's Langue vs. Parole distinction.

Culler, Jonathan. Ferdinand de Saussure. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986.

Jakobson 1942 Six Lectures on Sound and Meaning. Lectures II-IV, pp. 23-107. P217.J3213 1978. articulates his critique of Saussurean linguistics

Jakobson, Roman. "Two Aspects of Language and Two Types of Aphasic Disturbances," in Language in Literature, edited by Krystyna Pomorska and Stephen Rudy. Cambridge, Mass. : Belknap Press, 1987 PN54 .J35 1987 (1956). (book reserve) (lib. has 4 copies).

Derrida, Jacques. Of Grammatology. translated by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press, c1997. Online excerpt.
articulates his famous critique of Saussurean linguistics.

Caton, S. "Contributions of Roman Jakobson". Annual Review of Anthropology 16: 223-60, 1987. (JSTOR)

Waugh, L.R, and M. Monville-Burston. "Roman Jakobson: His Life and Work," in On Language: Roman Jakobson. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1990. (book reserve, 5 copies).

Silverstein, Michael. "Functions," in Duranti, Alessandro, ed. Key Terms in Language and Culture. Blackwell, 2001. (bookstore and book reserve)

Stasch, Rupert. 2006 Structuralism in Anthropology. The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd edition, vol. 12, pp. 167-170. Oxford: Elsevier. (4 pages).

Manning, Paul. [unpub]. Words and Things, Goods and Services: problems of translation between language and political economy. Begins with discussion of structural similiarities between nascent fields of linguistics and economics.

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Week Three - Constituting Linguistic and Cultural Worlds: Anthropological Approaches

Assignments

Tues Sept 12 Magic, Performance and Power: Coral Gardens

  • Malinowski, Bronislaw. "An Ethnographic Theory of Language and some practical corollaries," Coral Gardens and their Magic, Vol. 2, Part 4, 1965 (1935) or 2002 (1935) pp. 3-74. (book, ereserve). Focus on pp. 1-22, SKIM Section III, pp 24-45; Focus on Section IV-VII p. 45-74.

Handout guidelines for Midterm Paper.

Slide: Saussure vs. Malinowski

Thurs Sept 14 Emergent Worlds: Sapir, Whorf and World View

  • Sapir, Edward. 1929. "The Status of Linguistics as a Science," in Selected Writings in Language, Culture and Personality, edited by David G. Mandelbaum, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1985 [c1949] pp. 160-166 (ereserve, book reserve).
  • Review: Sapir 1927. "Unconscious Patterning of Behavior". (ereserve).
  • Whorf, Benjamin. 1939. "Relation of Habitual Thought and Behavior to Language," in Language, thought, and reality; selected writings. Edited and with an introd. by John B. Carroll. [Cambridge] Technology Press of Massachusetts Institute of Technology [1956] P27 .W53. pp. 134-159 (ereserve, book reserve).
Slide: Whorf's gas drum example

Further Reading

Hill, Jane and Bruce Mannheim. "Language and World View," Annual Review of Anthropology 21, 1992. (JSTOR).

Berlin, B and P. Kay. Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution, Berkeley: Univ. of Calif. Press, 1969.
Early argument against extreme linguistic relativism view attributed to Whorf.

Darnell, Regna. "Personality and Culture: the Fate of the Sapirian Alternative," in Stocking, ed. Malinowski, Rivers, Benedict and Others, 1986.

Darnell, Regna. Edward Sapir: Linguist, Anthropologist, Humanist. Berkeley: Univ. of CA press, 1990.

Darnell, Regna. "Linguistic Relativity and Cultural Relativism," in Invisible Geneologies: A history of Americanist Anthropology. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press, 2001. (see me).

Duranti, Alessandro. "Linguistic Diversity," in Linguistic Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997. (see me).

Duranti, Alessandro. "Relativity," in Duranti, Alessandro, ed. Key Terms in Language and Culture. Blackwell, 2001. (bookstore and book reserve)

Gumperz and Levinson. "Rethinking Linguistic Relativity," in Current Anthropology 32, 1991 (JSTOR).

Hill, Jane. "Language and World View," in Linguistics: The Cambridge Survey, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1988.

Leach, Edmund. 1957 The epistemological background to Malinowski's empiricism. Firth ed. Man and culture: an evaluation of the work of Bronislaw malinowski. London: routledge.
Scathing critique of the limitations of Malinowski's pragmatism and functionalism.

Keane, Webb. 2013. "Ontologies, anthropologists, and ethical life," Hau: Journal of Ethnographic theory 3(1): 186-91. Response from a Chicago-trained linguistic anthropologist to recent debates about 'ontologies'.

Malinowski, Bronislaw. "The Problem of Meaning in Primitive Languages," in Ogden and Richards, eds., The Meaning of Meaning: A Study of the Influence of Language Upon Thought and of The Science of Symbolism. NY: Harcourt Brace, 1923. (book reserve, lib. has 1 copy, or see me).
Sapir critiqued this essay a year before he published "Status of Linguistics as a Science.

Sahlins, Marshall. "Colors and Cultures," in Semiotica 16: 1-22, 1976.
Early critique of Berlin and Kay's conclusions

Silverstein, Michael. 1977. "The Limits of Awareness," in Duranti, ed., Linguistic Anthropology: A Reader, Blackwell, 2001. (book reserve)

Tambiah, Stanley. "The Magical Power of Words," Man, New Series, Vol. 3, No. 2. (Jun., 1968), pp. 175-208,(JSTOR), also reprinted in Culture, Thought and Social Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1985[1968]. (Reed has three copies)
Sustained critique and rethinking of Malinowski's data and conclusions in Coral Gardens.

Links

Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942)

Notes on Malinowski
Vanderbilt anthropology course notes and images on Malinowski.

Malinowski Life and Works
British lib. of political and economic science, detailed entry on Malinowski's life and works.

Malinowski and Ethnopoetics
Jerome Rothenberg comments on Malinowski's contributions to the field of ethnopoetics.

Edward Sapir (1884-1939)
Darnell and Irvine's biography

Benjamin Lee Whorf (1897-1941)
David Lavery's website devoted to Whorf

Dan Moonhawk Alford on Benjamin Whorf
Engaging debates, includes line by line rebuttal of Chomsky's famous rebuttal of Whorf's perspective on language and world view.

Wikipedia on the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

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Films

TBA

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Week Four - Doing things with Words: Speech Act Theory

Assignments

Tues Sept 19 Austin's Performatives

  • Austin, J.L. 1962. Lectures 1-5, (pp. 1-66), Lecture 8 (p. 94-108), Lecture 11 (133-147), How to do things with words, 2nd edition, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1975. (Bookstore and book reserve).
Slide: Austin's Felicity Conditions

Thurs Sept 21 Searle's Reformulation

  • Searle, John. "a Taxonomy of Illocutionary Acts," in Expression and meaning : studies in the theory of speech acts. Cambridge, Eng. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1979. pp. 1-29.   (ereserve, book reserve).

Slide: Searle vs. Austin

Assign trios 2

Further Reading

Austin, J.L. "Performative Utterances," in Philosophical Papers, 2nd edition, Urmson and Warnock, eds., London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1970(1956).
good brief summary of his arguments.

Searle, John. especially Ch.s 2 and 3 (pp. 22-71), Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge University Press, 1984(1969). (book reserve).

Searle, John. A classification of Illocutionary acts Language in Society 5: 1-23, 1976.

Grice: "ch. 1 Prolegomena" (sustained critique of Searle) and ch. 2 Logic and Conversation, in Studies in the Ways of Words, Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1989. (2 hardcover in lib.).

Wittgenstein, Ludwig. paragraphs 1-88, 197-242, 398-427, 630-693, Philosophical Investigations. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1967. (see me).
Contemporary of Austin, articulates his 'language games' theory of meaning in use touted by recent linguistic anthropologists. See film on him in Reed library.

Levinson, S. Ch. 5 Speech Acts, Pragmatics, Cambridge, 1983. (lib. has 2 copies).

Duranti, Alessandro. "Speaking as Social Action," in Linguistic Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997. (see me).

Hall, Kira. "Performativity," in Duranti, Alessandro, ed. Key Terms in Language and Culture. Blackwell, 2001.

Sbisa, Marina. "Act," in Duranti, Alessandro, ed. Key Terms in Language and Culture. Blackwell, 2001. (bookstore and book reserve)

Roy D'Andrade, ed. Searle on Institutions. in Anthropological Theory, March 1 2006, Volume 6, No. 1. Available online [very recent debates btw anthro critics and Searle himself!]

Links

John Langshaw Austin (1911-1960)

Austin Profile
Philosophy pages' brief biography of Austin

Austin's Work
Philosophy pages' brief overview of Austin's work

Notes on Austin
English Prof. Warren Hedges' notes on Austin's How to do things with Words

John Searle (1932-)

Searle Profile
Philosophy pages' brief biography of Searle.

Searle articles online
These are pdf files Searle himself posted on his website at Berkeley.

Interview with Searle
Fascinating interview with the man himself the Institute of International Studies, Berkeley.


Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951)

Wittgenstein's work on language
Austin and Searle in some ways were engaged in a polemic against Wittgenstein's ideas. Philosophy pages' brief overview of Wittgenstein's work

Films

Films in Reed Library:

The philosophy of language. BBC Worldwide Americas, Inc. : Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1997
Berkeley philosopher of language John Searle discusses the question: "How does language relate to thought and to reality?"

Bryan Magee talks to John Searle about Wittgenstein. BBC Education & Training ; devised and presented by Bryan Magee, BBC, 1987

Youtube:

Illocutionary Acts: Obama's Swearing in (Jan 2009)

Obama's swearing in ceremony (January 2009)

CNN on Obama's swearing in mistakes

Brian Williams on Obama's swearing in mistakes

Fox News, Glenn Beck on Obama's swearing in mistakes

Locutionary Acts: Sean Spicer on Trump's Inauguration (Jan 2017, Sept 2017)

Sean Spicer First Press Conference (Jan 2017)

Sean Spicer Emmys Appearance (Sept 2017)

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Week Five - Doing things with Words: Performativity Refined

Assignments

Tues Sept 26 Derrida's Critique

  • Derrida, Jacques. 1971. "Signature, Event, Context, " in Limited, inc., Evanston: Northwestern Univ. Press, 1988. (ereserve, book store, book reserve). Do NOT read the version of this article in Margins of Philosophy, it is a different translation!
  • Optional: Searle, John. 1977. "Reiterating the Differences: a Reply to Derrida," Gylph 1 (10 pp.) (ereserve).

Thurs Sept 28 Rosaldo's Critique

  • Rosaldo, Michele. 1980. The things we do with words: Ilongot speech acts and speech act theory in philosophy. Language in Society 11: 203-237. (ereserve/JSTOR).

Slides: Rosaldo vs. Searle

Transcription assignment handout

Further Reading

Duranti, Alessandro and Charles Goodwin, "Rethinking Context: an Introduction," in Duranti and Goodwin, eds. Rethinking context : language as an interactive phenomenon, Cambridge [England] ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Duranti, Alessandro. "Speaking as Social Action," in Linguistic Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997.

Duranti, Alessandro. "Truth and Intentionality: an Ethnographic Critique," Cultural Anthropology 8(2), 1993: 214-245.

Hollan, Douglas. "Cross-cultural Differences in the Self," in Journal of Anthropological Research 48(4): 283-300, 1992.

Keenan, Elinor Ochs. 1976. "The Universality of Conversational Postulates," in Language in Society 5: 67-80.
Response to Grice's theory of universal conversational "implicatures".

Levinson, S. Ch. 5 Speech Acts, Pragmatics, Cambridge, 1983.
Silverstein, Michael. "Cultural Prerequisites to Grammatical Analysis. in M. Saville-Troike, ed., Linguistics and Anthropology: Georgetown Univesity Round Table on Languages and Lingustics 1977 (pp. 139-51). Washington, D.C: Georgetown University press, 1977.

Ochs, Elinor. "Experiencing Language," Anthropological Theory 12: 142, 2012.

Silverstein, Michael. 1979. "Language structure and linguistic ideology," in The Elements: a Parasession on Linguistic Units and levels. Clyne, Hanks, Hofbauer, eds., Chicago: C Linguist Soc., , pp. 193-247.

Links

Jacques Derrida (1930-)

Johns Hopkins Guide profile of Derrida

Johns Hopkins guide entry on "deconstruction"

Stanford Profile of Derrida
Stanford presidential lectures links on derrida's life and works

Of Grammatology (1967) online
Marxist.org excerpt from on grammatology

Derrida Online Archive
Extensive online archive of Derrida texts

Roundtable discussion w/Derrida 1994

Culture machine's interview with Derrida 1998

Films

TBA

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Week Six - Linguistic Form and Performative Contextualization: Indexicality

Assignments

Tues Oct 3 Pierce's Semiotic

  • Hoopes, ed., "Introduction," (focus on pp. 7-9) Pierce on Signs: Writings on Semiotics by Charles Sanders Pierce, Chapel Hill: Univ. of N. Carolina Press, (ereserve, book reserve).
  • Manning, Paul. 2012. Introduction excerpt, p. 1-14, The Semiotics of Drinks and Drinking. New York: Continuum. (ereserve)
  • Pierce, Charles. Ch. 7 "Logic as Semiotic: The Theory of Signs," (98-119) in Philosophical Writings of Pierce. Buchler, ed. New York: Dover Publications. 1955 (1940). (ereserve, book reserve)
Slides: Peircean Sign-Relations
Slides: Pierce's classes of Signs

Thurs Oct 5 Indexicality, language and culture

  • Jakobson, Roman. 1957 "Shifters and Verbal Categories," in On Language, edited by Linda R. Waugh and Monique Monville-Burston, Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1990 (pp. 386-392), (ereserve, book reserve).
  • Silverstein, Michael. 1976 "Shifters, Linguistic Categories, and Cultural Description." In Meaning in Anthropology, ed.s K. Basso and H. Selby, pp. 11-56. GN452.5.M4. (ereserve, book reserve).

Slide: Jakobson and Silverstein on shifters

 

Group Transcription Exercise Due Mon. Oct 9, 5 pm (Word Doc uploaded to Moodle)

Further Reading

Caton, S. "Contributions of Roman Jakobson". Annual Review of Anthropology 16: 223-60, 1987. (JSTOR)

Duranti, Alessandro and Charles Goodwin. "Rethinking Context: an Introduction," in Duranti, Alessandro and Charles Goodwin, eds. Rethinking context : language as an interactive phenomenon, Cambridge [England] ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1991

Duranti, Alessandro. pp. 199-213 in Linguistic Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997. (see me).

Jakobson, Roman. Ch. 6, On Language [attempts to reconcile Saussure and Peirce on the sign]

Pierce, Charles. Ch. 6 "The Principles of Phenomenology," (pp. 74-97) in Philosophical Writings of Pierce. Buchler, ed. New York: Dover Publications. 1955 (1940).




Links

Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914)

Online Dictionary of Peirce's terms in his own words

Philosophy pages Peirce Life and Works

Johns Hopkins Guide Peirce Life and Works
Essay by Leroy Searle.

Stanford Encyclopedia Peirce Profile
Comprehensive essay by Robert Burch

Peirce's Logic
Essay in Stanford Encyclopedia by Eric Hammer.

Peirce Edition Project

Films

TBA

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Week Seven - Performance in Context: The Ethnography of Speaking

Assignments

Oct 10 Emergent Structures: Frames and Interpretive Politics

  • Bateson, Gregory. "A Theory of Play and Fantasy," in Steps to an Ecology of Mind. New York: Ballantine Books, 1972. (ereserve, book reserve)
  • Goffman, Erving. "Footing," in Forms of Talk. Philadelphia: Univ. of Penn. Press, 1981. (ereserve, bookstore and book reserve).
Assign trios 3, Discussion Sign-up

Oct 12 Performance in speech events

  • Hymes, Dell. p. 35-38 (the preface), and pp. 52-65. (16 pg)."Models of the Interaction of Language and Social Life," in Gumperz, John and Hymes, eds., Directions in Sociolingustics: The Ethnography of Communication, New York. 1972 P40 .D49 1986 (2 in lib.) (book reserve and ereserve).
  • Bauman, Richard. "Verbal Art as Performance," in American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 77, No. 2. (Jun., 1975), pp. 290-311. (JSTOR)

In-class transcription analysis

Slide: Hymes vs. Jakobson Elements of Speech Events

No weekly assignment due

 

Midterm Paper due Monday Oct 16, 5 pm (Word Doc uploaded to Moodle)

Fall Break - Oct 16-20

Further Reading

Bauman, Richard. "The Role of Performance in the Ethnography of Speaking," in Working Papers Proc. Cent. Psychosoc. Studies 11: 3-12, 1987.

Bauman and Briggs. "Poetics and Performance as Critical Perspectives on Language and social life," Annual Review of Anthropology 19: 59-88, 1990. (JSTOR)
Updated approach responding especially to Limon and Young's critique.

 Bauman, Richard and Joel Sherzer. "The Ethnography of Speaking," in Annual Review of Anthropology 4, 1975. (JSTOR)

Bauman, Richard and Joel Sherzer. "Introduction to the 2nd Edition," in Explorations in the Ethnography of Speaking, Bauman and Sherzer, eds., Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1989.

Darnell, Regna. "Correlates of Cree Narrative Performance," in Explorations in the Ethnography of Speaking, Bauman and Sherzer, eds., Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1989.

Goffman, Erving. "Felicity's Condition," in The Goffman Reader, Lemert and Branaman, eds., Blackwell, 1997.Explicitly critiques Austinian speech act theory.

Goodwin, Marjorie. "Participation," in Duranti, Alessandro, ed. Key Terms in Language and Culture. Blackwell, 2001. (bookstore and book reserve).

Gumperz, John. Discourse Strategies, 1982 P95.45 .G8 1982 c.2 (2 in lib.)
Develops his notion, based on Goffman, of "contextualization cues" in conversation.

-----------------. "Contextualization and Understanding," Duranti, Alessandro and Charles Goodwin, eds. Rethinking context : language as an interactive phenomenon, Cambridge [England] ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Hymes, Dell. Foundations in Sociolinguistics: An Ethnographic Perspective. Philadelphia: Univ. of Penn, Press, 1974.
Foundational text for sociolinguistic challenge to Chomskyian linguistics' dichotomy between competence and performance.

Hymes, Dell. "On Communicative Competence," in Duranti, ed., Linguistic Anthropology: A Reader, Blackwell, 2001. (book reserve)
Programmatic piece spelling out his critique of Chomsky's performance/competence dichotomy.

Hymes, Dell. "Breakthrough into Performance," in Ben-Amos and Gowstein, eds. Folklore: Performance and Communication, The Hague. 1975.
Oft-cited seminal ethnography.

J. E. Limon; M. J. Young. Frontiers, Settlements, and Development in Folklore Studies, 1972-1985 Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 15. (1986), pp. 437-460. (JSTOR)
Important critique of early performance studies in anthropology arguing the focus has been too micro, not enough attention to larger political economic contexts.

Silverstein, Michael. What goes around. . .: Some Shtick from ‘Tricky Dick’ and the Circulation of U.S. Presidential Image. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology. 21(1):54-77.

Links

Gregory Bateson (1904-1980)

Bateson Online
comprehensive site on Bateson, short bio, many online articles

Bateson Links
Univ. of colorado school of educ. page of links on Bateson

Anton-Luca Bateson Online
Alexandru Anton-Luca's comprehensive site on Bateson at Indiana univ.

Bateson Profile
Anthrobase entry on Bateson, hyperlinked to other theorists and concepts

Erving Goffman (1922-1982)

Goffman Profile
brief bio, info re: his life and works

Celebrating Goffman
By Eliot Freidson, in Contemporary Sociology, 12 (4) July, 1983: 359-362. This paper was read at a memorial session for Erving Goffman at the Eastern Sociological Society meeting in Baltimore, March 4, 1983.

Goffman Profile
Diane Blackwood essay on G's life and works

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Week Eight - Formality, Meaning and Agency: Performativity in Ritual

Assignments

Tues Oct 24 Ritual Performance: constraint or creativity?

  • Bloch, Maurice 1974 (1989) Symbols, Song, Dance, and Features of Articulation: Is Religion an Extreme Form of Traditional Authority? Ritual, History, and Power: Selected Papers in Anthropology. London School of Economics Monographs on Social Anthropology 58. London: Athlone Press. (ereserve, book reserve).
  • Tambiah, Stanley. 1979. A Performative Approach to Ritual, Proceedings of the British Academy, 65: 113-169. Reprinted in in Culture, thought, and social action : an anthropological perspective. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1985. (ereserve).
Slides: Austinian Dichotomies in Bloch and Tambiah

Thurs Oct 26 Formality and Agency

  • Irvine, Judith T. 1979 "Formality and Informality in Communicative Events." American Anthropologist. 16: 248-67. (JSTOR).
  • Dubois, John. 1993 Meaning without Intention: Lessons from Divination. Responsibility and Evidence in Oral Discourse. Ed. Jane H. Hill and Judith T. Irvine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (ereserve, book reserve).

Slide: Irvine's Four Aspects of Formality

Handout guidelines for Final Paper.

Furhter Reading

Bloch, Maurice, ed. 1975 Introduction. Political Language and Oratory in Traditional Society. New York: Academic Press.

Brenneis, D., and Myers, eds. Dangerous Words: Language and Politics in the Pacific. NY: NYU Press, 1984.
Hanks, William. "Sanctification, Structure and Experience in a Yucatec Ritual event," Journal of American Folklore 97: 131-166, 1984. (JSTOR)

Duranti, Alessandro 1993 Truth and Intentionality: An Ethnographic Critique. Cultural Anthropology. 8 (2): 214-45. (JSTOR)

Boddy, Janice 1994 Spirit Possession Revisited: Beyond Instrumentality. Annual Review of Anthropology. 23: 407-34. (JSTOR)

Ahearn, Laura M. 2001 Language and Agency. Annual Review of Anthropology 30: 109-137. (JSTOR)

Ahearn, Laura. "Agency," in Duranti, Alessandro, ed. Key Terms in Language and Culture. Blackwell, 2001. (bookstore and book reserve).

Keane, Webb. 1997 From Fetishism to Sincerity: On Agency, the Speaking Subject, and their Historicity in the Context of Religious Conversion. Comparative Studies in Society and History. 39: 674-693. (JSTOR)

Keane, Webb. "Language and Religion," A Companion to Linguistic Anthropology, ed. Alessandro Duranti, Oxford, UK: Blackwell, July 2002. (see me).
Good overview of performativity and agency issues in relation to religion, ritual and language.

Keane, Webb. 2007. Christian Moderns. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

Duranti, Alessandro. "Intentionality," in Duranti, Alessandro, ed. Key Terms in Language and Culture. Blackwell, 2001. (bookstore and book reserve).

Early anthropological applications of speech act theory to ritual:

Rappaport, Roy. "Obvious Aspects of Ritual," reprinted in Ritual and religion in the making of humanity. Cambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1999. (Lib. has 5 copies).

Ahern, Emily (Martin) 1979. The Problem of Efficacy: Strong and Weak Illocutionary Acts. Man. (NS) 14 (1): 1-17. (JSTOR)

Finnegan, Ruth. "How to do things with words: performative utterances among the Limba of Sierra Leone," Man 4: 537-552, 1969. (JSTOR)

Foster, M. "When words become deeds: an analysis of three Iroquois Longhouse speech events," in Explorations in the Ethnography of Speaking, Bauman and Sherzer, eds., Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1989 (1974). 345-67. (book reserve)

Ravenhill, P.L. "Religious Utterances and the theory of speech acts," in Language in Religious Practice. W. Samarin, ed. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 1976.

Early religious studies applications of speech act theory to ritual:

Wheelock, Wade. 'The Problem of Ritual Language: From Information to Situation," Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 50(1), 1982.

Staal, Fritz. "the Meaninglessness of Ritual," Numen, 26(1),1979.

Links

TBA

Films

Fused Numinous Experience? (Tambiah, p. 164)

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Week Nine - The Dialogics of Emergent Performances

Assignments

Tues Oct 31 Bakhtin's Dialogics

  • Bakhtin, Mikhail. (skim Editor's Introduction), "Discourse in the Novel," (pp. 257-366), focus on pp. 259-300, skim 301-336, focus on p. 337-348 (section on 'reported speech'), skim 349-357, focus on pp. 358-366, The dialogic imagination : four essays; edited by Michael Holquist ; translated by Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist Austin : University of Texas Press, c1981. (Bookstore and book reserve).
Slide: Types of Dialogism

Thurs Nov 2 Bakhtinian Analyses

  • Hill, Jane. "The Grammar of Consciousness and the Consciousness of Grammar," Brenneis and Macaulay, eds. The Matrix of Language. Boulder: Westview press, 1998. (ereserve, bookstore and book reserve).
  • Limon, Jose. "Carne, Carnales, and the Carnivalesque: Bakhtinian Batos, disorder, and Narrative discourses," Brenneis and Macaulay, eds. The Matrix of Language. Boulder: Westview press, 1998. (ereserve, bookstore and book reserve).

Slide: Hill on Heteroglossia

Further Reading

Bakhtin, Mikhail. Speech Genres and Other Late Essays, 1986.

Bauman, Richard. "Contextualization, Tradition and the Dialogue of genres: Icelandic Legends of the kraftaskald, in Duranti and Goodwin, Rethinking Context. 1990.

Bauman, Richard. "Genre," in Duranti, Alessandro, ed. Key Terms in Language and Culture. Blackwell, 2001. (bookstore and book reserve)

Briggs, Charles. "Generic vs. metapragmatic dimensions of Warao narratives: who regiments performance?" in Lucy, ed. Reflexive Language: Reported Speech and Metapragmatics, Cambridge, 1993.

Hill, Jane. "The Voices of Don Gabriel: Responsibility and Self in a Modern Mexicano Narrative," in Tedlock and Mannheim, eds. The Dialogic Emergence of Culture. Chicago: Univ. of Illinois Press, 1995. (bookstore and book reserve).

Holquist, Michael. Dialogism: Bakhtin and his World. New York: Routledge, 1990.

Ivanov, Vyacheslav. "Heteroglossia," in Duranti, Alessandro, ed. Key Terms in Language and Culture. Blackwell, 2001. (bookstore and book reserve).

Keane, Webb. "Voice," in Duranti, Alessandro, ed. Key Terms in Language and Culture. Blackwell, 2001. (bookstore and book reserve).

Makley, Charlene. “The Power of the Drunk: Humor and Resistance in China’s Tibet,” Jennifer Dickinson et al, (Eds.), Linguistic Form and Social Action, Michigan Discussions in Anthropology 13: 39-79, 1998.

----------------------. (2013). "The Politics of Presence: Voice, Deity Possession, and Dilemmas of Development Among Tibetans in the PRC," Comparative Studies in Society and History.

Stam, Robert. "Mikhail Bakhtin and Left Cultural Critique," in Ann Kaplan, ed. Postmodernism and its Discontents, London: Verso, 1988.

Stewart, Susan. "Shouts on the Street: Bakhtin's Anti-Linguistics," Critical Inquiry 10, December 1983.
Very good introduction to Bakhtin.

Tedlock, Dennis and Bruce Mannheim. "Introduction," in Tedlock and Mannheim, eds. The Dialogic Emergence of Culture. Chicago: Univ. of Illinois Press, 1995. (bookstore and book reserve).

Todorov. Mikhail Bakhtin: The Dialogic Principle. 1981.

Volosinov, V.N. 1929. Marxism and the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press 1986.

Links

Mikhail Bakhtin (1895-1975)

Philosophy Research Database
Links to books and articles on Bakhtin's life and works.

Zappen on Bakhtin
James P. Zappen's comprehensive essay on Bakhtin's life and works, published in Twentieth-Century Rhetoric and Rhetoricians: Critical Studies and Sources. Ed. Michael G. Moran and Michelle Ballif. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2000. 7-20.

Morson and Emerson on Bakhtin
Johns Hopkins guide to Literary theory profile on Bakhtin by Gary Saul Morson and Caryl Emerson

The Bakhtin Circle
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy's account of the Bakhtin Circle

The Annotated Bakhtin Bibliography
Carole Adlams' Bakhtin bibliography (Google books)

Bakhtin Centre
The Bakhtin Centre at the University of Sheffield, UK; links to database on primary and secondary works on/by Bakhtin and his circle, email discussion lists and more.

Films

TBA

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Week Ten - Gender/Queer Performativity

Assignments

Tues Nov 7 Butlerian approaches

  • Butler, Judith. 1990. [Read first] "Bodily Inscriptions, Performative Subversions," and "Conclusion: From Parody to Politics," pp. 163-190, [Read second] Preface (1999), pp vii-xxvi. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity, 10th anniversary edition, London: Routledge, 1999. (ereserve, bookstore and book reserve).

Thurs Nov 9 Constituting Gender: Anthropological approaches

  • Goffman, Erving. 1976. "Gender Display" and "Gender Commercials," in Gender Advertisements. New York: Harper and Row. (ereserve)

Further Reading

Bordo, Susan. "Postmodern Subjects, postmodern bodies, postmodern resistance,"Unbearable Weight, 1993.
Important early critique of Butlerian performativity as resistance.

Butler, Judith. Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex, 1993.

-----------------. Excitable Speech: a Politics of the Performative, 1997.

Case, Sue-Ellen, ed. Cruising the performative : interventions into the representation of ethnicity, nationality, and sexuality / edited by Sue-Ellen Case, Philip Brett, and Susan Leigh Foster PublicationBloomington : Indiana University Press, c1995

---------------------. Performing feminisms : feminist critical theory and theatre / edited by Sue-Ellen Case Publication Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press, c1990

---------------------. Split britches : lesbian practice/feminist performance / edited by Sue-Ellen Case PublicationLondon ; New York : Routledge, 1996

Hall, Kira. "Performativity," in Duranti, Alessandro, ed. Key Terms in Language and Culture. Blackwell, 2001. (bookstore and book reserve)

Livia, Anna and Kira Hall. ‘It’s a girl!’: Bringing performativity back to linguistics.” In A. Livia and K. Hall (eds.), Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 3-18, 1997. (book store and book reserve, 5 copies)
A somewhat confused attempt to reclaim performativity theory for a linguistic anthropological approach to queer theory.

Morris, Rosalind C. "All Made Up: Performance Theory and the New Anthropology of Sex and Gender," Annual Review of Anthropology 1995.24:567-92. (JSTOR).

Ochs, Elinor. "Indexing Gender," in Duranti, Alessandro and Charles Goodwin, eds. Rethinking context : language as an interactive phenomenon, Cambridge [England] ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1991. (ereserve).
ling. anth. alternative to Butlerian gender performativity.

Parker, Andrew and Eve Sedgewick. "Introduction: Performativity and Performance," in Parker and Sedgewick, eds. Performativity and Performance, NY: Routledge, 1995.

Weston, Kath. 1993. "Do Clothes Make the Woman? Gender, Performance Theory, and Lesbian Eroticism," reprinted in Gender in Real Time: Power and Transience in a Visual Age, New York: Routledge, 2002.
Important early critique of Butlerian performativity as resistance.

Worthen, W.B. "Drama, Performativity and Performance," PMLA, Oct 1998, Vol 113, Number 5. (see me).

Links

Judith Butler (1956-)

Films

Jean Killbourne's Killing Us Softly and other Critical Advertising Studies Film Series
This series of films developed over the past 25 years in response to Jean Kilbourne's spearhead 1979 film critiquing advertising images of women and femininity. Kilbourne herself has collaborated in various updating sequels, and she has several books as well. Reed owns:

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Week Eleven - Rethinking Context: Power, Ideology, Political Economy

Assignments

Tues Nov 14 Language and Political Economy: Bourdieu

  • Bourdieu, Pierre. 1982. Ch's 1-2 (pp. 37-89), ch. 3 (pp. 105-116). John Thompson, ed., Language and Symbolic Power. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1991. (bookstore and book reserve).

Thurs Nov 16 Anthropological applications

  • Irvine, Judith. "When Talk Isn't Cheap: Language and Political Economy," in Brenneis and Macaulay, eds. The Matrix of Language. Boulder: Westview press, 1998. 258-283. (ereserve, bookstore and book reserve)
  • Pardo, Rebecca. 2013. Reality TV and the Metapragmatics of Racism, Journal. of Linguistic Anthropology 23(1), May. (online)

 

Final Paper Preliminary Transcription Analysis due, Friday Nov 17, 5 pm, Word Doc uploaded to Moodle

Further Reading

Manning, Paul. 2006. "Words and Things, goods and services: Problems of translation between language and political economy," Language and Communication 26: 270-284.

Maurer, Bill. 2006. The Anthropology of Money. Annual Review of Anthropology.

Miller, Daniel, ed. 2005. Materiality. Duke University Press. [Essays by Webb Keane, Bill Maurer and others rethinking materiality as semiotic/pragmatic politics].

Graeber, David. 2001. Toward an Anthropological Theory of Value: The False Coin of Our Own Dreams. Palgrave.

Althusser, Louis. "Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects," in Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays, pp 170-83.

Silverstein, Michael. 1977. "The Limits of Awareness, " in Duranti, ed., Linguistic Anthropology: A Reader, Blackwell, 2001. (book reserve)
Argues need attention to ideologies that inform views of language and language use.

J. E. Limon; M. J. Young. Frontiers, Settlements, and Development in Folklore Studies, 1972-1985 Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 15. (1986), pp. 437-460. (JSTOR)
Important critique of early performance studies in anthropology arguing the focus has been too micro, not enough attention to larger political economic contexts.

Friedrich, Paul. 1989. "Language, ideology, and political economy." American Anthropologist 91:295-312. (JSTOR)

Duranti, Alessandro and Charles Goodwin. "Rethinking Context: an Introduction," in Duranti, Alessandro and Charles Goodwin, eds. Rethinking context : language as an interactive phenomenon, Cambridge [England] ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Gal, Susan. 1995. “Language and the ‘arts of resistance.’”Cultural Anthropology 10(3):407-424. (JSTOR).

Gal, Susan. 1989. "Language and Political Economy," Annual Review of Anthropology 18. (JSTOR).

Thompson, John B. 1984. "Symbolic violence: language and power in the writings of Pierre Bourdieu." In Studies in the Theory of Ideology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 42-72.

Kruger, Loren. "Placing the Occasion: Raymond Williams and Performing Culture," in Dworkin and Roman, ed.s Views Beyond the Border Countery:Raymond Williams and Cultural Politics. London: Routledge, 1993. (see me).

Errington, Joseph. "Ideology," in Duranti, Alessandro, ed. Key Terms in Language and Culture. Blackwell, 2001. (bookstore and book reserve)

Links

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Week Twelve - Economic Performativity

Assignments

Tues Nov 21 Do Economists make Markets?

  • Callon, Michel. p. 311-330 in What does it mean to say Economics is Performative? D. MacKenzie, F. Muniesa and L. Siu (Eds.), Do Economists Make Markets? On the Performativity of Economics. Princeton University Press, 2007. (ereserve)
  • Graeber, David. The Sword, the Sponge, and the Paradox of Performativity: Some Observations on Fate, Luck, Financial Chicanery, and the Limits of Human Knowledge, Social Analysis, Volume 56, Number 1, Spring 2012 , pp. 25-42(18). (ereserve).

Thanksgiving Nov 23-24

Tues Nov 28 Economic Performativity: Anthropological Responses

Further Reading

Michel Callon, STS and Economic Sociology

  • Callon, Michel 1987. "Society in the Making: The Study of Technology as a Tool for Sociological Analysis." pp. 83–103 in The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology, edited by Wiebe Bijker et al. London: MIT Press.
  • Callon, Michel 1991. "Techno-economic networks and irreversibility." pp. 132–165 in A Sociology of Monsters: Essays on Power, Technology and Domination, edited by John Law. London: Routledge.
  • Callon, Michel (ed.) 1998. The Laws of the Markets. London: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Callon, Michel. 2005. Callon's response to Miller. Original newsletter entry.
  • Callon, Michel. 2005. "Why virtualism paves the way to political impotence", Economic Sociology - the European electronic newsletter. Read as PDF [Callon’s response to Miller’s critique]
  • Dumez, Herve and Jeunemaître, Alain. Michel Callon, Michel Foucault and the «dispositif» When economics fails to be performative: A case study. Vol. 6, n° 4 –Hiver 2010pp.27-37. [Nice brief overview by two disciples].
  • Hirschman, Dan. In Defense of Callon’s Performativity of Economics [Sociology and STS Phd candidate's supportive blog post].
  • Miller, Daniel. 1998. Turning Callon the right way up. Economy and Society Volume 31 Number 2 May 2002: 218– 233. [Influential anthro's critique of Callon's approach to performativity].

David Graeber on Value and Debt

Links

Films

TBA

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Week Thirteen - Implications

Assignments

Thurs Nov 30 The Limits of Ethnographic Awareness

  • Briggs, Charles. 1990 (1986). Ch. 3 "Interview techniques vis-a-vis native metacommunicative repertoires, or on the analysis of communicative blunders," and "Conclusion: Theoretical Quagmires and 'Purely' Methodological Issues," in Learning How to Ask: A Sociolinguistic Appraisal of the role of the Interview in Social Science Research. Cambridge University Press. (ereserve, bookstore and book reserve)

Tues Dec 5 Language and the Performativity of Race: Next steps?

  • Hill, Jane. 2008. Ch. 2 "Language in White Racism," and Ch. 7 "Everyday Language, White Racist Culture, Respect and Civility," (25 pp). The Everyday Language of White Racism. Wiley-Blackwell.(ereserve).
  • Shankar, Shalini. "Linguistic Anthropology in 2016: Now What?" American Anthropologist Vol. 119, No. 2, pp. 319–332. (ereserve).

 

Final paper due Monday Dec 11, 5 pm, (Word doc uploaded to Moodle)

Further Reading

Austin and Farnsworth. 2005. Hybrid genres: fieldwork, detection and the method of Bruno Latour [an intro to Latourian anti-sociological and anti-theoretical 'ethnography' of 'innovators', as in Latour's 1986 study Laborary Life; main metaphor/type for the analyst is a 'detective', who 'follows' (vs. participant observes) things and people]
"He favours method and enquiry over theory at every turn (1988); he prefers translation and engagement to metalanguage and reflexive textuality (1988), and he privileges the association of humans, non-humans and technologies over the purely social (1999a, 2000). For Latour, the social world is produced and sustained only out of the continuous interaction of persons and things: together, these create time, space and the dynamic network of relationships that constitute complex worlds (1997b)."
Goffman, Erving. 1983. "Frame Analysis of Talk," (Excerpt from "Felicity's Condition,") in The Goffman Reader, Lemert and Branaman, eds., Blackwell, 1997 (p 167-192). (ereserve, book reserve).

Silverstein, Michael. 1977. "The Limits of Awareness, " in Duranti, ed., Linguistic Anthropology: A Reader, Blackwell, 2001. (book reserve)

Links

TBA

Films

Youtube:

Cranston News Interview (2009): interviewee refuses interview frame

Today show interview fail (2008): TV-mediated time lag obstructs possibility for referential content at all

Kermit Interviews the Koosbanian Phoob (1970s): interviewee refuses proper respondent role

Guy Interviews LA Clippers Basketball star Sam Cassell (2007): invalid presuppositions, interviewee breaks frame

Sarah Palin Katie Couric Interview vs. SNL parody (CBS, NBC 2008): Palin's responses referentially obscure; Couric and Palin vie over communicative competence

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