Schedule (Fall 2016)

Weekly readings will be marked by where they can be found: bookstore (see Course Book List); book reserve (see Course Reserve List for complete listing by week), ereserve, or online for articles available for downloading from the web. ereserve articles can be accessed via the course Moodle page (click link at the top for the list). Note that most of the articles and excerpts are available in books on reserve. Note all e-reserves are available in one hard copy in library folders. Please let me know as soon as possible if you have any trouble obtaining the readings. Please print out all online and e-reserve readings to read them. Bring all readings to class.

For paper guidelines and a summary of assignment due dates, click HERE.

Part I: Nationalisms and Rethinking Histories

Week 1: Locating "Tibet"

Assignments

Tues Aug. 30 Introductions and Goals of the Course.

Week one image assignment: Maps as Imagined Geographies

Thurs Sept. 1 Locating "Tibet"

  • Lopez, Donald. "Introduction," in Prisoners of Shangri-La: Tibetan Buddhism and the West. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998. (11pp) (ereserve, book reserve, bookstore)
  • Goldstein, Melvyn: "Preface" in The Snow Lion and the Dragon: China, Tibet, and the Dalai Lama. Berkeley: Univ. of CA Press, 1997. (ereserve, bookstore and book reserve) (4 pp)
  • Bishop, Peter. "Ch. 4: The Axis Mundi Appears (mid-19th century)" (pp. 97-135). The Myth of Shangri-La. 1989 (book, ereserve)

Further Reading

Bharati, Agehananda. (1974). "Fictitious Tibet: The origin and persistence of Rampaism," reprinted in Alex Mckay, ed. The History of Tibet, vol III: The Modern Period 1895-1959 Encounter with Modernity. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

Bray, John. (1993). "Christian Missions and the Politics of Tibet, 1850-1950," reprinted in Alex Mckay, ed. The History of Tibet, vol III: The Modern Period 1895-1959 Encounter with Modernity. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

Coales, Oliver. "Narrative of a Journey from Tachienlu to Ch'amdo and back via Batang," unpublished report to Govt. of India 1916, reprinted in Alex Mckay, ed. The History of Tibet, vol III: The Modern Period 1895-1959 Encounter with Modernity. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

Dodin, Thierry and Heinz Rather, eds. Imagining Tibet: Perceptions, Projections, and Fantasies. Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 2001.

Hansen, Peter. (1996) "The Dancing Lamas of Everest: Cinema, orientalism and Anglo-Tibetan relations in the 1920s," reprinted in Alex Mckay, ed. The History of Tibet, vol III: The Modern Period 1895-1959 Encounter with Modernity. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

French, Patrick. Tibet, Tibet: A Personal History of a Lost Land. Harper Collins, 2003.

Hostetler, Laura. Qing Colonial Enterprise: Ethnography and Cartography in Early Modern China. Univ of Chicago Press, 2001. [nice complement to Bishop from perspective of Qing imperial state]

Lopez, Donald. Chapters 1-5, in Prisoners of Shangri-La: Tibetan Buddhism and the West. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998. (Bookstore, book reserve).

Lopez, Donald. (1995). "Foreigner at the Lama's Feet," reprinted in Alex Mckay, ed. The History of Tibet, vol III: The Modern Period 1895-1959 Encounter with Modernity. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003. (see me.)

"Symposium on Donald S. Lopez Jr.'s Prisoners of Shangri-La: Tibetan Buddhism and the West," in Journal of the American Academy of Religion.Vol. 29(1), March 2001. (Includes reviews by David Germano, Tsering Shakya and Robert Thurman, w/response by Lopez). (see me)

Lopez, Donald. Curators of the Buddha. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Korom, Frank. (1997). "Old Age Tibet in New Age America," reprinted in Alex Mckay, ed. The History of Tibet, vol III: The Modern Period 1895-1959 Encounter with Modernity. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

McKay, Alex. (1998). "Tibet: The Myth of Isolation," reprinted in Alex Mckay, ed. The History of Tibet, vol III: The Modern Period 1895-1959 Encounter with Modernity. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003

McLagan, Meg. 2003. "Human Rights, Testimony, and Transnational Publicity," The Scholar and Feminist Online 2(1), Summer.

McLagan, Meg. 2002. "Spectacles of Difference: Cultural Activism and the Mass Mediation of Tibet," Media Worlds: Anthropology on New Terrain. Ginsburg et al, eds.,Berkeley: University of California Press.

Schell, Orvill. "The Kingdom of the Screen," and "Tinseltown Tulkus", in Virtual Tibet: Searching for Shangri-La From the Himalayas to Hollywood. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2000. (30 pp).

Related Films

Related Films in Reed Library or Online:

Flag-raising Ceremony, Beijing Summer Olympics Opening Ceremonies, Aug. 2008.

Lost Horizon scene (clip from 1937 film describing 'Shangri-la', Youtube)

Bill Murray as Carl Spackler on the Dalai Lama (Caddyshack, Youtube)

2012 Movie trailer: Tibet Scene (2011 feature film, Youtube)

Groupon commercial on Tibet (2011 Superbowl, Youtube)

Richard Gere Fiat car ad on Tibet (2008, Youtube)

"Why are We Silent?" (Int'l Campaign for Tibet PSA, 1997)

"The World Isn't Listening? (Save Tibet. org PSA, 1998)

Lost horizon, 132 min., 1937 (re-edited 1997)
Academy award-winning film directed by Frank Capra based on the book by James Hilton of same name. Fleeing war-torn China, a small planeload of white people are hijacked to an idyllic valley in the Tibetan Himalayas where time has virtually stopped. There Conway, a British diplomat, meets "the grand lama" (a British missionary priest), falls in love with a beautiful woman, and is asked to remain in Shangri-La as its new leader.

Sentimental imperialists: America in Asia, 60 min., 1992
Examines the stereotypic attitudes of Westerners towards Asia from 1776 to the present. Presents specific case studies of the U.S. relationships with China and the Philippines.

Discovering China and Tibet 52 min, 1988
A tour of China beginning in Beijing and ending in Tibet.

Kundun 135 min, 1998
Feature film directed by Martin Scorsese. In a remote area of Tibet a two-year-old child is identified as the Dalai Lama. The story follows him into adulthood where he tries to rule his nation at one of the most challenging times in its history.

Why are We Silent? 1 min. 1997
Garthwait & Griffin Films, Inc Public Service announcement for Tibet. Harrison Ford, Richard Gere, Goldie Hawn, Alanis Morissette, Julia Roberts, Sting and Adam Yauch recite portions of the U.N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights in support of Tibet.

The World isn't listening 3 min, 1995
Garthwait & Griffin Films, Inc Public Service announcement for Tibet. Designed for the college age/MTV audience, this film visualizes the horror of China invading Tibet.

Links

Use these links as quick references and contextualizing material as well as for ideas about forms of related activism and community work. To really delve, you need to print and read all essays, or go look at books and articles in the Further Reading tabs.

Remember that materials on the web MUST be evaluated as critically as any other texts we consider in this course. For brief guidelines on thinking critically about the web, click HERE.

General Websites for Tibetans Studies

International Sites

World Tibet News
Daily electronic newsletter which contains news and comments about Tibet from a variety of viewpoints. http://www.tibet.ca/en/newsroom/

China News Digest
fairly neutral online newsletter managed by overseas Chinese volunteers in Maryland. http://www.cnd.org/

Tibetan Studies WWW Virtual Library
http://www.ciolek.com/WWWVL-TibetanStudies.html

Tibetan and Himalayan Digital Library.
Based at the University of Viriginia, has links about all aspects of Tibetan language and culture. http://www.thlib.org/

Radio Free Asia, incl. Tibetan language service
http://www.rfa.org/english

Students for a Free Tibet,
Has a "Tibetan Women Speak Out" page: http://www.studentsforafreetibet.org/

Tibet Online:
Has list of major Tibet sites and Online Tibet resources. http://www.Tibet.org

Tibet Information Network.
Excellent independent news coverage on Tibet. http://www.tibetinfo.net/

Human Rights Watch.
Coverage on China and Tibet: http://www.hrw.org/asia/china

Human Rights in China.
Recently produced huge website under auspices of CND. Has links on Tibet, ethnic groups in China, photos and more. http://www.humanrights-China.org/

Inside China Today
Overseas Chinese magazine, produced outside of PRC control, has links to non-PRC news re: http://www.einnews.com/china/

Chinese Sites

China's Tibet
Online version of PRC figurehead glossy magazine on Chinese state accomplishments among Tibetans. Published in Chinese and English.
http://en.tibet328.cn/

China Education and News Network
Chinese site, in Chinese, http://www.net.edu.cn/

China Today
Chinese state-sponsored magazine: http://www.chinatoday.com/

People's Daily.
PRC main newspaper. http://english.peopledaily.com.cn

China Web.
Chinese produced site providing excerpts of Xinhua and People's Daily newspaper articles in English, has many links on Tibetans: http://www.china.org.cn/

Week 2: Imagined Communities

Assignments

Week Two Film Assignment: Tibet: Cry of the Snow Lion, Earthworks Films, 2004, 103 min. (Stream via Moodle) Content Notes: Some scenes of graphic violence, footage and commentary on protests in Tibet since 1987.

Tues Sept. 6 Nation, Culture and Identity Theorized

  • Anderson, Benedict. "Introduction" in Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso, 1983. (7 pp). (ereserve, bookstore, book reserve)
  • Ana Maria Alonso. The Politics of Space, Time, and Substance: State Formation, Nationalism, and Ethnicity. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 1994 , Vol. 23: 379-405. Alonso Online (JSTOR).
  • Maalki, Lisa. "National Geographic: The Rooting of Peoples and the Territorialization of National Identity Among Scholars and Refugees," in Gupta and Ferguson, eds. Culture, Power, Place: Explorations in Critical Anthropology. Durham: Duke University Press, 1997. (ereserve,, bookstore, bookreserve)

Thurs Sept. 8 Narratives of Nation

Further Reading

Abrams, Philip. "Notes on the Difficulty of Studying the State," J. of Historical Sociology, 1988(1977).

Anagnost, Ann.  National Pastimes: Narrative, Representation and Power in Modern China. Durham:  Duke University Press, 1997.

Dominic Boyer and Claudio Lomnitz. INTELLECTUALS AND NATIONALISM: Anthropological Engagements, Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 34 (2005): 105-120.

John Comaroff and Jean Comaroff. Ethnicity, Inc. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.

Das, Veena and Deborah Poole. "State and its Margins: Comparative Ethnographies," in Das and Poole, eds., Anthropology in the Margins of the State, Sante Fe: School of American Research Press, 2004.

Foster, Robert J. "Making National Cultures in the Global Ecumene", Annual Review of Anthropology 20, 1991. (20pp) (JSTOR)

Gupta, Akhil and J. Ferguson. "Beyond 'Culture': Space, Identity and the Politics of Difference," in Gupta and Ferguson, eds, Culture, Power, Place: Explorations in Critical Anthropology. Durham: Duke University Press, 1997. (18 pp.) (bookstore, book reserve).

Nagengast, Carole. Violence, terror and the crisis of the state, Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 23: 109-136, 1994.

Norbu, Jamyang. Rangzen Charter supplement, April 1999. (online).

Chantal Tetreault. Census and Identity: The Politics of Race, Ethnicity, and Language in National Censuses. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology. Volume 16. Issue 2. December 2006 (Pages 296 - 298)

Trouillot, Michel.  The state in age of globalization. Current Anthropology. 2001.

Peter Wade, ed. Race, Ethnicity and Nation: Perspectives from Kinship
and Genetics. New York: Berghahn, 2007.

Nationalism Project Journal Articles on Nationalism
Extremely useful searchable bibliography for articles relevant to nationalism in major journals.

Nationalism Project Select Bibliographies on Nationalism
Searchable by country (but no China or Tibet!)

Nationalism Project Book Reviews and Abstracts
Full text online!

Related Films

Related Films in Reed Library or Online:

Red Flag over Tibet, PBS Frontline, 1994.

Tibet: Cry of the Snow Lion, 1994 (online)

Dalai Lama March 10th 2011 Statement (in Tibetan, Dharamsala, India)

Dalai Lama receives U.S. Congressional Medal of Honor (2007)

Interview with Jamyang Norbu (excerpts, Aug. 2010)

CCTV News Report on Tibet Museum in Lhasa (China central television foreign news service, July 2011)

Kundun 135 min, 1998
Feature film directed by Martin Scorsese. In a remote area of Tibet a two-year-old child is identified as the Dalai Lama. The story follows him into adulthood where he tries to rule his nation at one of the most challenging times in its history.

Tashi Jong : a traditional Tibetan community in exile, 45 min, c1998
This award-winning documentary chronicles the life of one of the first Tibetan refugee communities established in India by the renowed spiritual teacher, the 8th Khamtrul Rinpoche after the Chinese occupation of Tibet. Interweaves everyday activities of laypeople and monks with intricate rituals and ceremonies of monastic life.

Dalai Lama: a portrait in the first person, 24 min, c1994, p1990
An interview with the current Dalai Lama, Bstan-'dzin-rgya-mtsho, originally broadcast on Canadian television in 1990. The Dalai Lama, winner of the 1989 Noble Peace Prize, talks about his religious and social beliefs, including such topics as nonviolence and Tibet.

From the barrel of a gun, 60 min., 1992
Describes the revolution begun by Asia's political leaders following WW II. Shows how the Pacific war, the cultural revolution in China and the Vietnam War stem from the roots of nationalism. The end of colonial dominance and the subsequent rise of nationalism and communism are told through the lives of Ho Chi Minh, the Vietnamese revolutionary, and Sukarno, the founder of Indonesia.

Tug of war: the story of Taiwan, 87 min., 1998
Is Taiwan an independent nation, or is it a breakaway province that still belongs to China? Drawing on rare archival film and photographs, this film explains why control over this bustling island 90 miles off the mainland is so pivotal to both sides and to the world.

Links

Theory

The Nationalism Project. Collaborative site edited by international committee of scholars with many useful links on theories of nationalism, including section entitled "What is Nationalism".
http://www.nationalismproject.org

See also the Nationalism Project's more recent blog: http://nationalismproject.blogspot.com/

Nationalist Organizations

United Nations Home page
http://www.un.org/

Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Ratified by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1948, this is the document that Harrison Ford, Julia Roberts, et al read during the Public Service Announcement we saw in class.
http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html

Chinese embassy, Washington D.C. Chinese state site, has pages on Tibet http://www.China-embassy.org

Chinese Government White Papers (English)

Chinese embassy, London:
http://www.chinese-embassy.org.uk/

The Government of Tibet in Exile:
http://www.tibet.com/

Tibetan Youth Congress:
http://www.tibetanyouthcongress.org/

Rangzen Alliance (Founded by Jamyang Norbu)

Week 3: Making Majorities: From Empire to Nation in China and the Invention of Nationality

Assignments

Week Three Chronology: Moments in Chinese Narratives of History

Image Assignment: Commodifying Ethnic Minorities in the PRC

Tues Sept. 13 Empire and Nation in China

  • Duara, Prasenjit. "Introduction," and "Linear History and the Nation-State" in Rescuing History From the Nation: Questioning Narratives of Modern China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. (50 pp.) (ereserve, bookstore and book reserve)
  • Hevia, James. Ch. 2 "A Multitude of Lords: The Qing Empire, Manchu Rulership, and Interdomainal Relations," in Cherishing Men from Afar: Qing Guest Ritual and the Macartney Embassy of 1793. Durham: Duke University Press, 1995. (27 pp.) (ereserve, and book reserve)

Thurs Sept. 15 Ethnicity and Nation in the PRC

  • Liebold, James. 2012. "Searching for Han: Early 20th Century Narratives of Chinese Origins and Development," in Thomas Mullaney (Editor), James Patrick Leibold (Editor), Stéphane Gros (Editor), Eric Armand Vanden Bussche (Editor), Critical Han Studies. UC Press. pp 210-233. (23 pgs) (ereserve, book reserve).
  • Mullaney, Thomas. 2011. Intro, p. 1-5, Ch. 1 Identity Crisis in Postimperial China, in Coming to Terms with the Nation: Ethnic Classification in Modern China. (~30 pp) (ereserve,book reserve).

In-Class Film clip: "Amazing Marriage Customs", Nanhai Film Co., 1992, ~20 min.

Further Reading

Anagnost, Ann. National Past-times: Narrative, Representation and Power in Modern China. Durham: Duke University Press, 1997.

Blum, Susan. "Desire for Difference: Cognitive Prototypes of Ethnic Identity,' and "China's Minorities Through Han Eyes: a Preliminary Sketch," in Portraits of Primitives. Rowan and Littlefield, 2001. (50 pp.)

Diamond, Norma. "Ethnicity and the State: The Hua Miao of Southwest China," Ethnicity and the State, New York: ME Sharpe, Inc., 1993

Dikotter, Frank. Race as Seed,

Dreyer, June. China's Forty Millions, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976.

Ebrey, Patricia.  "Surnames and Han Chinese Ethnicity," in Brown, ed.  Negotiating Ethnicities in China and Taiwan.  Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, 1996.

Eriksen, Thomas Hylland. 1993. Ethnicity and Nationalism: Anthropological Perspectives. London: Pluto Press. (Ch. 1 available online)
http://www.nationalismproject.org/links/article.htm

Fei Xiaotong. "Ethnic Identification in China," in Toward a People's Anthropology, Beijing: New World Press, 1981. (17 pp). (ereserve)

Gladney, Dru. Muslim Chinese: Ethnic Nationalism in the PRC Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 199.

Gorman, Patrick. 2016. Red Guard 2.0: Nationalist Flesh Search in China. Journal of Contemporary China.

Harrell, Stevan. Ways of Being Ethnic in Southwest China.

Honig, Emily. Creating Chinese Ethnicity: Subei People in Shanghai, 1850-1980. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1992.

Herberer, Thomas. China and Its National Minorities: Autonomy or Assimilation? Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1989.

Hostetler, Laura. Qing colonial enterprise : ethnography and cartography in early modern China. Chicago : University of Chicago Press, c2001.

Agnieszka Janiak-Lüthi. The Han: China's Diverse Majority. University of Washington Press, 2015

Jin Bingao.  "When does the Word 'Minority Nationality' [Shaoshu Minzu] [first] appear in Our Country?" translated from Chinese (1988 internal Bulletin of the History of the Tibet Communist Party) in Background Papers on Tibet--September 1992.(see me).

Leibold, J. 2007. Reconfiguring Chinese Nationalism. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

Leibold, J. 2013. Ethnic Policy in China. Honolulu: East West Centre.

Litzinger, Ralph A. Other Chinas: The Yao and the Politics of National Belonging. Durham: Duke University Press, 2000.

Mueggler, Erik. The Age of Wild Ghosts: Memory, Violence, and Place in SW China. Berkeley: Univ. of CA press, 2001.

Mackhann, Charles. "The Naxi and the Nationalities Question," in Harrell, Stevan, ed., Cultural Encounters on China's Ethnic Frontiers. Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press, 1995. (book reserve)

Mullaney, Thomas. 2011. Coming to Terms with the Nation: Ethnic Classification in Modern China. UC Press.

Mullaney, Thomas. 2012. "Introduction," in Thomas Mullaney (Editor), James Patrick Leibold (Editor), Stéphane Gros (Editor), Eric Armand Vanden Bussche (Editor), Critical Han Studies. UC Press.

Munson, Todd. "Selling China: www.cnta.com and Cultural Nationalism," The Journal for Multimedia History 2, 1999.

PRC State Council. White Paper: "National Minorities Policy and Its Practice in China". (Available on-line) http://www.china.org.cn/e-white/4/index.htm

Rossabi, Morris. "Introduction," Morris Rossabi, Ed. ,China Among Equals: The Middle Kingdom and its Neigbors, 10-14th Centuries, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983. (12 pp)

Safran, William (Ed.). Nationalism and Ethnoregional Identities in China. London: Frank Cass, 1998.

Schein, Louisa. Minority Rules: The Miao and the Feminine in China's Cultural Politics. Durham: Duke Univ. Press, 2000.

Sperling, Eliot. (1976). "The Chinese Venture in K'am, 1904-1911," reprinted in Alex Mckay, ed. The History of Tibet, vol III: The Modern Period 1895-1959 Encounter with Modernity. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

Thierry, Francois. "Empire and Minority in China," Gerard Chaliand, Ed., Minority Peoples in the Age of Nation-States. London: Pluto Press, 1989.

Woods, Jackson S. Woods & Bruce J. Dickson. 2016. Victims and Patriots: Disaggregating Nationalism in Urban China. Journal of Contemporary China.

Related Films

Related Films in Reed Library or Online:

Race: The Power of an Illusion (Companion Website; California Newsreel 3-part documentary, aired on PBS, 2010) (Youtube)

China: dynasties of power, 48 min, 1995.
Time Life's "Lost civilizations" series. Study the "dynasties of power" from the 2nd century B.C. through the rise of the first emperor to discover the achievements of ancient China. While uniting a vast land the Chinese built the 2,600-mile Great Wall, invented paper, printing, the compass and the world's first system of justice.

The Two coasts of China, 60 min, 1992.
Discusses the clash of Western and Chinese cultures as China's ports were transformed into trading centers and technological advances displaced traditional ways of working and living. Stories of the Mongol Invasions, Opium Wars and the Boxer Rebellion are recreated using original production footage shot in Mongolia, China, Japan and Southeast Asia.

Writers & Revolutionaries, 60 min. 1992.
The lives of Lu Xun, China's greatest modern writer, and Kita Ikki, the famous Japanese philosopher, are highlighted. Both revolutionaries explored the traditional strengths and weaknesses of their societies, with Lu Xun writing scathing satires aimed at China's ineffective leadership. Kita Ikki, on the other hand, watched with alarm as his radical teachings were distorted by right wing extremists and used to design a monstrous blueprint for a Japanese world empire. Details how China became vulnerable to the threat of the encroaching Japanese.

China in Revolution, 1911-1949, 120 min., 1989.
Made for television broadcast on PBS. This documentary recounts the 38 years between 1911 and 1949, during which China was transformed from a centuries-old empire into the world's largest Communist state. It was a transformation that affected hundreds of millions of people.

Amazing Marriage Customs, 91 min, 1992.
In Chinese with English subtitles. Chinese-made film depicting the "exotic" marriage customs of ethnic minorities in the PRC.

Where horses fly like the wind, 55 min., 1992.
Joint production of NHK (Japan) and CCTV (China), one in a series of travel films in China's northwest. Cross the Tian Shan Mountains and meet the Kazakhs, commonly referred to as Cossacks; visit the Western Land, home to the legendary Heavenly Horses ridden by Genghis Khan; and enter the no-man's land between the Chinese and Soviet border

China: beyond the clouds, 2 videos, 240 min, 1994.
Filmmaker Phil Agland reveals the everyday drama and passion of contemporary China, a country "steeped in tradition and wracked by change," by focussing on life in one small town in border region.

Links

History

China History Timeline
Leon Poon's useful reference.
http://www-chaos.umd.edu/history/time_line.html

Chinese Cultural Studies Bibliography
Paul Halsall's bibliography on all aspects.
http://acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~phalsall/chinbib.html

Nation and Ethnicity in China

China's Tibet
Online version of PRC figurehead glossy magazine on Chinese state accomplishments among Tibetans. Published in Chinese and English.

China Travel Web. Chinese language site promoting tourism in the PRC. 
http://cnta.gov.cn/ (analyzed by Todd Munson)

Citizens Against Chinese Propaganda
A group of American volunteers who are against the inclusion of 'minority' and religious exhibits at the Chinese Communist Government owned and operated Florida Splendid China theme park in Kissimmee, Florida. Note that as of Dec. 2003 the campaign had contributed to the closing of the park.
http://caccp.freedomsherald.org/

Week 4: Constructing a Pan-Tibetan Identity: From Empire to Nationalism in Tibet

Assignments

Week Four Chronology: Creating Tibetan Identities

Week Four Film Assignment:  A Stranger in My Native Land, 1997 (33 min). (Stream via Moodle) 

Tues Sept. 20 Empire and State in Tibet

  • Golstein, Melvyn. Ch. 1, "The Imperial Era," and Ch. 2, "Interlude: de Facto Independence," (35 pp) The Snow Lion and the Dragon: China, Tibet, and the Dalai Lama.Berkeley: Univ. of CA Press, 1997. (ereserve, book reserve, bookstore)
  • Goldstein, Melvyn. "Preface" and "Introduction," A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989. (36 pp) (ereserve, book reserve)
  • Goldstein, Siebenschuh and Tashing Tsering. The Struggle for Modern Tibet: The Autobiography of Tashi Tsering. NY: ME Sharpe, 1997. ch 1-4 (47 pp) (bookstore, book reserve)

Thurs Sept. 22 The Threat of Modernity: Nationalist efforts

  • Bell, Sir Charles (1946). The Political Testament of H. H. the 13th Dalai Lama, reprinted in Alex Mckay, ed. The History of Tibet, vol III: The Modern Period 1895-1959 Encounter with Modernity. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003. (ereserve).
  • Shakya, Tsering. 1993 Whither the Tsampa Eaters? Himal Sept-Oct: 8-11 (ereserve)
  • Schwartz, Ronald, "Conclusion: the Dimensions of Tibetan Nationalism," and "Appendices A-C": excerpt of Tibetan Exile Constitution, Workplans of the Regional Party, and An Urgent Appeal, in Circle of Protest: Political Ritual in the Tibetan Uprising. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994. (29 pp). (ereserve, bookstore, book reserve)

Stranger/Nationalism film commentary due Friday, Sept. 23, 5 pm (Wordpress blog post)

Further Reading

Ekvall, Robert. "The Tibetan Self-Image," in Pacific Affairs 33, 1960. (7 pg) (Available online)

Huang Xiaoxiao. Review of Goldstein et al's Struggle for Modern Tibet, includes comparison of the English language edition and the Chinese translation published in the PRC, 2009.

Larsen, Knud and Amund Sinding-Larsen. The Lhasa Atlas. Boston: Shambhala Press, 2001. (see me).

Norbu, Jamyang. "Atrocity and Amnesia: Goldstein and the Revision of Tibetan History," Tibetan Review, 1992. (reprinted on Rangzen Alliance blog).

Misra, A. Tibetan Nationalism, Asian Ethnicity, 2003.

Goldstein, Siebenschuh and Tashing Tsering. The Struggle for Modern Tibet: The Autobiography of Tashi Tsering. NY: ME Sharpe, 1997. ch 5-6 (40 pp) (bookstore, book reserve)

Samuel, Geoffrey. Civilized Shamans. Smithsonian press, 1993.

Sautman, Barry. "Vegetarian between Meals”: The Dalai Lama, War, and Violence," Positions, Volume 18, Number 1: 89-143, 2010.

Smith, Warren. Tibetan Nation: a History of Tibetan Nationalism and Sino-Tibetan Relations. 1996.

Snellgrove, David & Richardson, Hugh. A Cultural History of Tibet. Boston: Shambala, 1986.

Sperling, Elliot, "'Orientalism' and Aspects of violence in the Tibetan Tradition," Dodin and Rather, eds., Imagining Tibet, 2001 .(Online)

Stein, R.A. Tibetan Civilization. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1972.

Stoddard, Heather. "Tibet from Buddhism to Communism," Government and Opposition 21, 1986 (20 pp.)

Tucci, Gusieppi. The Religions of Tibet. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970.

Wang, Xiangyun. "The Qing Court's Tibet Connection: Lcang skya Rol pa'i rdo rje and the Qianlong Emperor," Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 60, no. 1 (June 2000), pp. 125-63.

Yeh, Emily T and Kunga T Lama. Hip-hop gangsta or most deserving of victims? Transnational migrant identities and the paradox of Tibetan racialization in the USA, Environment and Planning A 2006, volume 38, pages 809-829.

Related Films

Related Films in Reed Library or Online:

Kundun 135 min, 1998
Feature film directed by Martin Scorsese. In a remote area of Tibet a two-year-old child is identified as the Dalai Lama. The story follows him into adulthood where he tries to rule his nation at one of the most challenging times in its history.

Tashi Jong : a traditional Tibetan community in exile, 45 min, c1998
This award-winning documentary chronicles the life of one of the first Tibetan refugee communities established in India by the renowed spiritual teacher, the 8th Khamtrul Rinpoche after the Chinese occupation of Tibet. Interweaves everyday activities of laypeople and monks with intricate rituals and ceremonies of monastic life.

Dalai Lama: a portrait in the first person, 24 min, c1994, p1990
An interview with the current Dalai Lama, Bstan-'dzin-rgya-mtsho, originally broadcast on Canadian television in 1990. The Dalai Lama, winner of the 1989 Noble Peace Prize, talks about his religious and social beliefs, including such topics as nonviolence and Tibet.

Home to Tibet, 76 min., 1995
Focuses on the dangerous journey of Sonam Lama from his exiled residence in Massachusetts to Tibet, a place he has not seen in twelve years. Includes his meeting with the Dalai Lama, visits with friends exiled in India, and his reunion with his sister and others from his home village.

Seeds of Tibet: voices of children in exile, 27 min., 1997.
Children at the Tibetan Homes School, a Tibetan refuge school in Mussorie, northern India, tell the stories of their departure from Tibet. Also reflects on current political and social conditions in Tibet and how schools such as theirs help to preserve Tibetan culture.

Links

Materials on Tibetan regions prior to 1949

The Tibet Album (curated online collection of British travelers' photography, travel diaries and more in Tibetan regions, early 20th century).

Tibetan Monasteries in Lhasa

Interactive Guide to Sera Monastery (by Jose Cabezon)

Interactive Guide to Meru Nyingpa Monastery (on Barkhor, Lhasa)

Interactive Guide to Drepung Monastery (by George Dreyfus)

Tibetan Nationalist and Cultural Preservation Organizations

The Government of Tibet in Exile:
http://www.tibet.net/en/index.php

Tibetan Youth Congress:
http://www.tibetanyouthcongress.org/

Northwest Tibetan Cultural Association. Organization for Tibetans based in Portland.
http://www.nwtca.org/

Conservancy for Tibetan Arts and Culture. Tibetan diaspora website based in Virginia.
http://www.tibetanculture.org/

Tibet Fund. New York-based Tibetan exile organization to support Tibetan culture in   the diaspora.
http://www.tibetfund.org/

Milarepa Fund. NYC based organization set up by Adam Yauch of the Beastie Boys to support the struggle for Tibetan independence.
Unofficial info here: http://www.beastiemania.com/qa/milarepa.php

Tibet Relief Fund. Supports Tibetan refugees.
http://www.tibetrelieffund.co.uk/

International Campaign for Tibet. Tibetan exile organization supporting struggle for self-determination.
http://www.savetibet.org/

Week 5: Gendered Nationalisms

Assignments

Week Five Chronology: Nationalism and Gender in China

Week Five film assignment: Through Chinese Women's Eyes, Mayfair Yang, 1997, 53 mins (Stream via Moodle)

Tues Sept. 27 Gender, Nation and Modernity

  • Nira Yuval Davis. "Ch. 1: Theorizing Gender and Nation," Gender and Nation, Sage: London, 1997. (ereserve, bookstore and book reserve).
  • Duara, Prasenjit. "The Regime of Authenticity: Timelessness, Gender, and National History in Modern China," in History and Theory 37(3), October 1998: 287-308. (ereserve/JSTOR)
  • Du, Shanshan. 2011. "Introduction: Multiethnic Approaches to Women and Gender in Chinese Societies," in Shanshan Du, Ya-chen Chen, eds., Women and Gender in Contemporary Chinese Societies: Beyond Han Patriarchy. Lexington Books. (ereserve, book reserve).

Thurs Sept. 29 Engendering Tibet

  • Enloe, Cynthia. "Nationalism and Masculinity," in Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics, 1989. (19 pp) (ereserve, bookstore, book reserve)
  • Denchen, Pema. "The Oppression and Resistance of Tibetan Women," in The Anguish of Tibet. Berkeley: Paralax Press, 1991. (3 pp) (ereserve)
  • Na Zhen. Women, Marriage and the Family," in Tibet. New York: McGraw Hill Book Co., 1981. (4 pp) (ereserve)
  • Ama Adhe (with Joy Blakeslee). Ch.s 1-4, Ama Adhe, the Voice That Remembers: The Heroic Story of a Woman's Fight to Free Tibet . Wisdom Publications, 1997. (40 pp) (book and article reserve) (4 copies)

Further Reading

"Affections Grow in the Snow-Covered Land: a Story of three Tibetan Mothers working as Mail Carriers for 27 years for the Soldiers at Frontier Outposts," China's Tibet 6(20), 2009.

Allione, Tsultrim. Women of Wisdom. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984.

Barlow, Tani. "Theorizing Women: Funu, Guojia, Jiating," Body, Subject and Power in China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Butler, Alex. Feminism, Nationalism and Exiled Tibetan Women. Kali for Women, 2003.

Bray, Francesca. Technology and Gender, 1997.

Brownell, Susan and Jeffrey Wasserstrom, eds. Chinese Feminities, Chinese Masculinities: a Reader. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Campbell, June. Traveller in Space: In Search of Female Identity in Tibetan Buddhism. New York: George Braziller, inc., 1996.

Croll, Elizabeth, ed. The Women's Revolution in China: A Selection of Readings. Anglo-Chinese Educational Institute, Modern China Series No. 6, 1974. (see me).

Devine, Carol. Determination: Tibetan Women and the Struggle for an Independent Tibet. Toronto: Vauve Press, 1993.

Diamant, Neil. Revolutionizing the Family: Politics, Love and Divorce in Urban and Rural China, 1949-1968. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000. (see me).

Dikotter, Frank. Sex, Culture and Modernity in China: Medical Science and the Construction of Sexual Identities in the Early Republican Period, Honolulu: Univ. of HI press, 1995.

Gyatso and Havnevik, eds. Women of Tibet. 2008.

Evans, Harriet. Women and Sexuality in China.New York: Continuum, 1997.

Havnevik, Hanna. Tibetan Buddhist Nuns, Oslo: Norwegian University Press, 1990.

Huber, Toni. "Why Can't Women Climb Pure Crystal Mountain? Remarks on Gender and Space at Tsa-ri," in P. Kvaerne, ed., Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the 6th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Fagernes, (1992), Vol. 1., Oslo, 1994. (see me)

Klein, Anne. Primordial Purity and Everyday Life: Exalted Female Symbols and the Women of Tibet. Immaculate & Powerful: The Female in Sacred Image and Social Reality. Boston: Beacon Press, 1985

Levine, Nancy. The Dynamics of Polyandry: Kinship, Domesticity and Population on the Tibetan Border, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988

Ortner, Sherry. "The Founding of the First Sherpa Nunnery and the Problem of "Women" as an Analytic Category", Feminist Re-Visions: What has been and might be. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Women's Studies Program, 1983

Makley, Charlene. "The Meaning of Liberation: Representations of Tibetan Women," in The Tibet Journal, Summer 1997. (18pp)

Mayer, Tamar. Gender ironies of nationalism: sexing the nation. Routledge, 2000.

Ortner, Sherry. "Gender Hegemonies," in Making Gender: The Politics and Erotics of Culture. Boston: Beacon Press, 1996.

Parker, Andrew, ed. Nationalisms and Sexualities.

PRC White Paper: "The Situation of Chinese Women," 1994.
http://www.china.org.cn/e-white/chinesewoman/index.htm

PRC White Paper: "Family Planning in China," 1995.
http://www.china.org.cn/e-white/familypanning/index.htm

Schein, Louisa. Ch. 4 "Internal Orientalism: Gender and the Popularization of China's Others," in Minority Rules: The Miao and the Feminine in China's Cultural Politics. Durham: Duke University Press, 2000.

Taring, Rinchen. Daughter of Tibet. 1970

Tshering Chotsho. "A Drop from the Ocean: The Status of Women in Tibetan Society," Tibet Journal, Vol 22 (2), 1997..

Watkins, Joanne. Spirited Women: Gender, Religion and Cultural Identity in the Nepal Himalaya. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996.

Willis, Janice, ed. Feminine Ground: Essays on Women and Tibet, Ithaca: Snow Lion Publications, 1987.

Wolf, Margery. Revolution Postponed: Women in Contemporary China

Wolf, Margery. Ch. 1 "Eating Bitterness: The Past and the Pattern," Revolution Postponed Women in Contemporary China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985. (26 pp)

Related Films

Related Films in Reed Library or Online:

Half The Sky, 28 min, 1997
Short documentary on women in the contemporary PRC.

Through Chinese women's eyes, 53 min., 1997.
Presents the transformations in the lives of Chinese women over the 20th century. Documents the attempts to erase gender differences under Mao, today's changing ideas of femininity, and the crystalization of Chinese feminism at the UN Women's conference in Beijing. By anthropologist Mayfair Yang.

Hsiao hsi (Small Happiness): Women of a Chinese Village, 58 min, 1990.
An acclaimed documentary, part of a series of three on this village, which examines the social conditions for Chinese women today and in the past, with specific focus on the village of Long Bow. Inhabitants reveal the strides that have been made for women's equality, despite the seeming oppression when observed from a Western viewpoint. Carma Hinton, the American director, grew up in China and participated in the Cultural Revolution as a Red Guard. Chinese is her native language.

Women of Tibet: a Quiet Revolution, Frame of Mind Films, 2008. (57 min).

Satya: a Prayer for the Enemy, Ellen Bruno, 1994, 28 min

Links

Nationalisms and Women

"Little Pink" (Xiao Fenhong) Social Media movement 2016

Week 6: One Nation Under Mao: Erasing Difference During The Radical Years

Assignments

Week Six Film Assignment: "XiuXiu: The Sentdown Girl", Joan Chen, Stratosphere Films, 1998, 99 mins. (Stream via Moodle) **Content Notes: This film depicts graphic sexual violence

Week Six Chronology: The Radical Years in the PRC

Tues Oct. 4 The Pursuit of Gradual Assimilation: Reform and Revolt

  • Shakya, Tsering. Ch. 6 "The Revolt," ch. 9, "Reform and Repression," skim ch. 7, "The Flight of the Dalai Lama," The Dragon in the Land of the Snows. NY: Columbia University Press, 1999. (~60 pp.) (ereserve, bookstore and book reserve)
  • "Black Wickedness" article, 1958, translated in Tibet and the Chinese People's Republic: a Report to the International Commission of Jurists. Geneva: International Commission of Jurists, 1960. (4 pp) (ereserve).

Thurs Oct. 6 The Homogeneous and Androgynous Ideal: The Cultural Revolution and the Collective State

  • Shakya, Tsering. Ch. 12, "The Cultural Revolution," The Dragon in the Land of the Snows. NY: Columbia University Press, 1999. (ereserve, bookstore and book reserve)
  • Evans, Harriet. "Comrade Sisters: Gendered Bodies and Spaces," in Evans and Donald, (Eds.), Picturing Power in the People's Republic of China: Posters of the Cultural Revolution. Oxford: Rowan and Littlefield, 1999. (13 pp.). (ereserve, book reserve).
  • Goldstein, Siebenschuh and Tashing Tsering. The Struggle for Modern Tibet: The Autobiography of Tashi Tsering. NY: ME Sharpe, 1997. ch 7-10 (49 pp). (bookstore, book reserve)

Handout Take-Home Midterm

Further Reading

Ama Adhe (with Joy Blakeslee). Ch.s 5-8, Ama Adhe, the Voice That Remembers : The Heroic Story of a Woman's Fight to Free Tibet . Wisdom Publications, 1997. (90 pp) (book reserve)

Atwill, David. 2016. Tibetan Muslim incident of 1960. J. Asian Studies.

Avedon, John. In Exile from the Land of the Snows. New York: Vintage Books, 1984.

Chang, Julian. "The Mechanics of State Propaganda: The People's Republic of china and The Soviet Union in the 1950's" New Perspectives on State Socialism in China. Timothy Cheek and Tony Saich, eds. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1997.

Dawa Norbu. Red Star Over Tibet. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1987.

Dhondup Choedon. Life in the Red Flag People's Commune. Dharamsala: Information Office of H.H. the Dalai Lama, 1978. (see me).

Dreyer, June. "The Radical Experiment and Its Background, 1956-1958,"China's Forty Millions: Minority Nationalities and National Integration in the People's Republic of China. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976. (see me)

Ginsburgs, George and Michael Mathos. Communist China and Tibet: The First Dozen Years. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1964. (see me).

Goldstein, Siebenschuh and Tashing Tsering. The Struggle for Modern Tibet: The Autobiography of Tashi Tsering. NY: ME Sharpe, 1997. ch 7-10 (49 pp). (bookstore, book reserve)

Goldstein, Melvyn 2007. A history of modern Tibet, volume 2, the calm before the storm, 1951-55. UC Press.
  • Akester, Matthew. 2008. Review of A History of Modern Tibet, Volume 2: The Calm before the Storm, 1951-55, by Melvyn C. Goldstein. Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies (4). [JIATS online - PDF]
  • Goldstein, Melvyn C. 2009 (unpublished). Response to M. Akester’s review of “A History of Modern Tibet, Volume Two”. [Word doc]

Gorman, Patrick. 2016. Red Guard 2.0: Nationalist Flesh Search in China. Journal of Contemporary China.

H.H. The Panchen Lama. A Poisoned Arrow: The Secret Report of the 10th Panchen Lama. Tibet Information Network, London, 1997.

Kelly, Petra, Gert Bastian and Pat Aiello, eds. The Anguish of Tibet. Parallax Press, 1991.

Welch, Holmes. Buddhism Under Mao. 1972.

Zhai Zhenhua. Red Flower of China. NY: Soho Press, 1992.

The Great Leap Forward (1958)

  • Becker, Jasper. Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine. The Free Press, 1996.
  • Dikotter, Frank. Mao's Great Famine. New York : Walker & Co., 2010. (bookstore, book reserve)
  • Li Zhisui, The Private Life of Chairman Mao - The Memoirs of Mao's Personal Physician (London, etc.: Random House, 1996)
  • Mao Zedong. "On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among the People." Available online: http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/mao/
  • Mao Zedong. "Introducing a Co-operative," April 15, 1958. [speech about model commune Yingchu]. (3 pages).Online:http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/mao/selected-works/volume-8/mswv8_09.htm
  • Mao Zedong. "On the Ten Major Relationships," Speech at an enlarged meeting of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, April 25, 1956. (20 pages) Available online: http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/mao/selected-works/volume-5/mswv5_51.htm
  • MacFarquhar, Roderick. ch. 5 "The Coming of the Communes," Ch. 6 "High Tide", The Origins of the Cultural Revolution, vol. 2. Columbia University Press, 1983. (40 pages) (ereserve)
  • Roderick MacFarquhar, Timothy Cheek, Eugene Wu (eds), The Secret Speeches of Chairman Mao - From the Hundred Flowers to the Great Leap Forward (Cambridge, etc.: Harvard University Press, 1989
  • Frederick Teiwes and Warren Sun, China's Road to Disaster - Mao, Central Politicians, and Provincial Leaders in the Unfolding of the Great Leap Forward 1955-1959 (Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1998)
  • Ralph A. Thaxton, Jr. Catastrophe and contention in rural China : Mao's Great Leap forward famine and the origins of righteous resistance in Da Fo Village. Cambridge; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  • Yang, Dali. Calamity and Reform in China: State, Rural Society and Institutional Change Since the Great Leap Famine. Stanford Upress, 1996. [political science rational actor analysis].
  • Zhou Xun, ed. The great famine in China, 1958-1962 : a documentary history. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012 [translations of primary sources from county archives; some of which were used in Dikotter's book, compiler/translator was Dikotter's research assistant].
  • Zhou Xun, ed. Ch. 7 "Strategies of Survival," (pp. 114-141). The great famine in China, 1958-1962 : a documentary history. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012 (ereserve).

The Cultural Revolution (1966)

  • Xiaomei Chen. "Growing up with Posters in the Maoist Era," in Evans and Donald, eds., Picturing Power: Posters of the Cultural Revolution., 1999. (18 pages). 
  • Unger, Jonathan. Ch. 3: "The Cultural Revolution in the Villages," The Transformation of Rural China. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2002. (book reserve)
  • Gittings, John. "Excess and Enthusiasm," in Evans and Donald, eds., Picturing Power: Posters of the Cultural Revolution. 1999.
  • Benewick, Robert. "Icons of Power: Mao Zedong and the Cultural Revolution," in Evans and Donald, eds., Picturing Power: Posters of the Cultural Revolution. 1999.
  • Goldstein, Melvyn. 2009. On the Cultural Revolution in Tibet: The Nyemo Incident of 1969. UC press.
    • Makley, Charlene. Review of On the Cultural Revolution in Tibet: The Nyemo Incident of 1969. The China Journal, 2010.
  • Han, Dongping. "Impact of the Cultural Revolution on Rural Education and Economic Development: The Case of Jimo County," Modern China 27.1 Jan. 2001: 59-90. [rural Shandong, author looks at home county; optimistic view, sees CR intro of educ. youth as critical to mechaniz., industiraliz.]
  • Herberer, Thomas. Ch. 2 "The Cultural Revolution and the Ethnic Minorities" in China and Its National Minorities: Autonomy or Assimilation? New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1989. (6 pp.)
  • Honig, Emily. "Maoist Mappings of Gender: Reassessing the Red Guards," in Brownell and Wasserstrom, eds. Chinese Feminities, Chinese Masculinities: A Reader. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.
  • Luo Siling. The Cultural Revolution in Tibet: A Photographic Record. Oct. 3, 2016. [Interview with well-known Tibetan dissident Tsering Woeser discussing her book of her father's photos from Lhasa; fleshes out stories of people depicted]
  • Perry, Elizabeth and Nara Dillon. "'Little Brothers' in the Cultural Revolution: The Worker Rebels of Shanghai," in Brownell and Wasserstrom, eds. Chinese Feminities, Chinese Masculinities: A Reader. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.
  • Tatlow, Didi. Fate Catches Up to a Cultural Revolution Museum in China. Oct. 3, 2016 [new memorial museum honoring victims of CR is shut down by central authorities]
  • White, Lynn. Ch. 1 "What the Cultural Revolution Was, and Why it Happened," in Policies of Chaos: The Organizational Causes of Violence in China's Cultural Revolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989. (47 pp).
  • Woeser. Sha Jie ("Killing and Plunder", a Chinese homophone for the Tibetan "gsar rje", "revolution"). Forbidden Memory: Tibet During the Cultural Revolution. Locus Publishing, Taiwan, 2006.
  • Yan Jiaqi and Gao Gao. 1996 (1986). Introduction, Ch. 3, "The Rise of the Red Guards," and Ch. 4. "Declaring War on the Old World," Turbulent Decade: A History of the Cultural Revolution. DWY Kwok, trans., Univ. of Hawaii Press. (35 pages). (ereserve).

Related Films

Related Films in Reed Library or Online:

China on the march: [China 1949-1958], 130 mins., 1958?
Indian producer/director Mohan Bhavani and his wife Enakshi Bhavani
toured 12,000 miles of China at the invitation of the China-India Friendship Association. Includes views of several cities and cultural events.

China: the cold red war, 70 mins, c. 1960s
[Includes films "Truth and Slande"r and "Beware Maoism"] The ideological battles between the US and the USSR were nothing compared to the fierce and hostile intercommunistic battles between the Soviet Union and The People's Republic of China. This Soviet film is a dramatic example of the power of propaganda filmmaking. Complete with eerie sound effects, these government-made films portray a China constantly preparing to fight for world domination and an imperialist dictator--Chairman Mao

The great advancement of Mao Tse-Tung's thought (Mao's little red video), 52 min., c. 1960s
Chinese govt. propaganda film captured by American intelligence in the late 1960's. This film depicts PRC atomic and nuclear bomb testing in the 1960's. The philosophy of Chairman Mao and the good of the mission is emphasized throughout the film.

Lian ai ji jie (The season for love), 100 min, 1988.
Chinese feature film with English subtitles produced in Inner Mongolia. During the Cultural Revolution a female graduate student from Beijing was sent down to a sheep farming area in Inner Mongolia and fell in love with a local boy. Compare to Xiu Xiu the Sentdown Girl for portrayal of sexualized Han-minority relations.

Furong zhen (Hibiscus town), 126 mins, 1989.
Acclaimed feature film, Chinese with English subtitles. Story of a couple who sells rice beancurd for a living. During the "four clean-ups" movement of 1964, they are classified as new rich peasants: their house is confiscated and the husband is driven to suicide. After the Cultural Revolution, the wife falls in love with a rightist and almost dies when having a difficult delivery of their baby

Mao Zedong di gu shi (The story of Mao Zedong), 145 min, 1990
Chinese film with English subtitles. This film in two volumes portrays Mao Zedong's life from the 1940s to the 1970s. By dramatising interviews with people who had personal contact with Mao, and presenting anecdotes from his biographies, the life of the Chinese leader is presented from various angles.

The Mao years, 1949-1976, 120 mins., 1994.

Art in the Cultural Revolution: Establishment of a New Age, 33 min., 1997
Examines the Communist Party's rigorously enforced art policies during China's Cultural Revolution from 1966-1976, when pictorial artists were given strict aesthetic guidelines for the production of works designed to promote the ideology and imagery of Mao Zedong's vision of a new society. Through a detailed study of paintings, posters and operas- from their color scheme and their treatment of light and shadow, to the bodily poses and facial expressions ... - the video reveals how artists were politically mobilized under the guidance of Mao's wife, Jiang Qing, to promote an ideology of revolutionary purity.

Links

China News Digest's Virtual Cultural Revolution Museum:
http://CND.org/CR/english/

Steve Landsberger's Site on Cultural Revolution propaganda posters:
http://chineseposters.net/
(Old site can be found here: http://www.iisg.nl/~landsberger/)

Rent Collection Courtyard (life-size clay models depict a rapacious landlord collecting grain tax from peasants, exhibited in the mid-60s-70s, still exhibited in Liu Manor museum in Anren, Sichuan)

Morning Sun
An amazing multimedia online archive and commentary on Cultural Revolution era life and culture. Accompanies the film of the same name. Produced by Long Bow, inc

Week 7: The Eighties Reforms: Reasserting Dangerous Difference

Assignments

Week Seven Chronology: "Reform and Opening Up" in the PRC

Tues Oct. 11 Reform and Opening Up

  • Shakya, Tsering. Ch.s 13-14 The Dragon in the Land of the Snows. NY: Columbia University Press, 1999 (80 pp). (ereserve, bookstore, book reserve)
  • Hessler, Peter. "Tibet Through Chinese Eyes," in The Atlantic Monthly, Feb. 1999. (10 pp). (ereserve)

Thurs Oct. 13 Review and Image Analysis Day

  • Harris, Clare. [Focus on pgs 141-149] Ch. 4, "The Chinese Image of Tibet," In the Image of Tibet: Tibetan Painting After 1959. London: Reaktion Books, 1999. pp. 120-149. (ereserve).

Take-Home Midterm due Monday, Oct. 17, 5 pm, Moodle upload

October Break Oct. 15-23

Further Reading

Ama Adhe (with Joy Blakeslee). Ch. 13, Ama Adhe, the Voice That Remembers : The Heroic Story of a Woman's Fight to Free Tibet . Wisdom Publications, 1997. (20 pp) (book reserve)

Anagnost, Ann. National Past-times: Narrative, Representation and Power in Modern China. Durham: Duke University Press, 1997.

Goldstein, Siebenschuh and Tashing Tsering. The Struggle for Modern Tibet: The Autobiography of Tashi Tsering. NY: ME Sharpe, 1997. ch. 11-13 (28 pp). 

Goldstein, Melvyn and Cynthia Beall. "The Impact of China's Reform Policy on the Nomads of Western Tibet," in Asian Survey 29(6), June 1989. (21 pp).

Herberer, Thomas. Ch. 4, "Autonomy and the Right to Self-Administration on Trial," in China and Its National Minorities: Autonomy or Assimilation? New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1989. (13 pp.) (see me)

Larsen, Knud and Amund Sinding-Larsen. The Lhasa Atlas. Boston: Shambhala Press, 2001. (see me).

Wasserstrom, Jeffrey and Elizabeth Perry. Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China: Learning from 1989. Boulder: Westview Press, 1992.

Yezhol and Li Tao. "Doilungdeqen Farmers Have New Life," China's Tibet. Vol. 3, no. 4, Winter 1992. (2 pp)

Related Films

Related Films in Reed Library or Online:

Born under the Red flag: surviving Mao, 113 min. 1997.
Beginning with Mao's death in 1976, continuing with the new leadership of Deng Xiaoping, and concluding with the struggle of China's paradoxical goals of economic prosperity and absolute Communist Party control, we see China transformed into a never-before-seen hybrid of communism and capitalism. Series: China, a century of revolution; pt. 3

China, unleashing the dragon, 203 min, 1995.
4 part series. Episode 1. Dengs legacy / producers, Richard Hall, Alex Gibney (50 min.) -- episode 2. The fragile rice bowl / producers, Brenda Louie, Richard Alexander (50 min.) -- episode 3. The soul of the master / producer, Richard Hall (53 min.) -- episode 4. Hong Kong and the boom towns / producer, Alex Gibney (50 min.)

China in transition, 126 min., 1994.
Eight special reports, originally broadcast on PBS' the MacNeil/Lehrer newshour, about the changing face of China. Topics covered include economic changes, role of the military, women, culture and the arts, higher education, and human rights.

Student protest in China, 1989.
Friday, May 5, 1989 / ABC News. A segment from the television program: Nightline. Students fill Tiananmen Square in a peaceful protest aimed at the Chinese government. The possibility of political repercussions are discussed

Gate of Heavenly Peace, Long Bow Group, 1996. Discusses Tiananmen Square incident, June 4, 1989. Includes still photographs, eyewitness accounts, interviews, and newsreels

China: beyond the clouds, 2 videos, 240 min, 1994.
Filmmaker Phil Agland reveals the everyday drama and passion of contemporary China, a country "steeped in tradition and wracked by change," by focussing on life in one small town in border region.

Hsiao hsi (Small Happiness): Women of a Chinese Village, 58 min, 1990.
An acclaimed documentary, part of a series of three on this village, which examines the social conditions for Chinese women today and in the past, with specific focus on the village of Long Bow. Inhabitants reveal the strides that have been made for women's equality, despite the seeming oppression when observed from a Western viewpoint. Carma Hinton, the American director, grew up in China and participated in the Cultural Revolution as a Red Guard. Chinese is her native language.

Links

Maps of Lhasa urban growth.
http://www.asianart.com/lhasa_restoration/map.html

Tibet Information Network Lhasa urban growth report, Sept. 02
http://www.tew.org/archived/himal.part1.html

New Public Security Bureau Bldg, Lhasa, Feb. 02
http://www.tibet.ca/en/newsroom/wtn/archive/old?y=2002&m=2&p=27_1

Part II: Post-Mao Cultural Politics

Week 8: The Cultural Politics of Development

Assignments

Week Eight Film assignment:  "Kokonor", Chenaktsang Dorje Tsering, 2008, 53 min. (Stream via Moodle)

Image Assignment: Lhasa Train Painting Exhibition

Tues Oct. 25 Nation, Ideology and Development

  • Escobar, Arturo. Ch. 1 "Introduction: Development and the Anthropology of Modernity," Encountering development : the making and unmaking of the Third World. Princeton, 1995. (30 pp) (ereserve, book reserve)
  • PRC State Council. White Paper: "Tibet's March Toward Modernization," (Foreword, Sections II-III) Nov. 2001.
  • Rinpoche, Samdhong. Tibetan Govt. in Exile. "Height of Darkness: Chinese Colonialism on the World's Roof," Dec. 2001. (pp. 1-18, up to "Education"), (ereserve).

Thurs Oct. 27 Development and Environment in Tibet: Myth and Reality

  • Huber. Green Tibetans: a Brief Social History. in Korom, ed. Tibetan culture in the Diaspora. 1997. (book, ereserve).
  • Yeh, Emily. 2014. The rise and fall of the Green Tibetan. Mapping Shangri-la. (book, ereserve)

Further Reading

Government and NGO Reports

Apte, Robert Z. and Andres R. Edwards. TIBET: Enduring Spirit, Exploited Land, ~2000. Available in exerpts online at the Tibet Environment watch website. Includes photographs.
http://www.tew.org/publications/index.html

Chinese State Council. Various other White Papers on development issues in the PRC. http://www.china.org.cn/e-white/

Marshall, Steven D. and Susette T. Cooke. Tibet Outside the TAR (CD-ROM).Alliance for Research in Tibet, 1997. (see me)

"Tibet's Environment and Development Issues," Tibetan Government in Exile White paper.

Tibetan Govt. in Exile. "Guidelines For International Development Projects And Sustainable Investment In Tibet". (Available on-line) http://www.tew.org/tibet2000/t2.ch9.devguidelines.html

Tibet Information Network. China's Great Leap West : [a report], London, 2000. (see me).

Tibet Information Network 2002. Mining Tibet: Mineral exploration in Tibetan areas of the PRC.

Vigoda, Marcy. "Religious and Socio-Cultural Restraints on Environmental Degradation among Tibetan Peoples--Myth or Reality" Tibet Journal, vol. 14, 4, 1989.

WTN coverage of World Bank and Qinghai resettlement (Search WTN archives. Also see Gabriel Lafitte commentary, "Go West, Young Man"--World Bank Project, Dulan", WTN archive, and his article in sThe Age, see me).

Scholarly Analyses

Bass, Catriona. Education in Tibet: Policy and Practice Since 1950, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998.

Croll, Elisabeth. Endangered Daughters: Discrimination and Development in Asia. London: Routledge, 2000.

Clark. Tradition, Modernity and Environmental Change. Dodin and Rather, Imagining Tibet. [DS785.A1 I45 2001]

Clarke, ed., Development, Society and Environment in Tibet. Proceedings of the 7th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Graz, (1995), Wien 1998.

Dreyer, June. Economic Development in Tibet under the People's Republic of China. Sautman, Barry and June Dreyer, eds. Contemporary Tibet: Politics, development and society in a disputed Region. M. E Sharpe. 2006. [BQ7590 .B84 1998]

Esler, Joshua. ‘Green Tibetans’ in China: Tibetan geopiety and environmental protection in a multilayered Tibetan landscape, Asian Ethnicity, 2016.

Fisher, Andrew. Intro and Conclusion. State Growth and Social Exclusion in Tibet. 2005. [HC428.T48 F57 2005]

Goodman, David S.G, ed. 2004. The Campaign to ‘Open up the West’: National, provincial-level and local perspectives. China Quarterly Series Special No. 5, Cambridge UniversityPress.

Hechter, M. 1999 (1975). Internal Colonialism. Berkeley: Univ. of CA press (w/new intro and appendix).

Hu, Xiaojiang. 2003. The Little shops in Lhasa, Tibet: Migrant businesses and the formation of markets in a transitional economy. PhD Dissertation, Harvard University. [Summit]

Huber, Toni.  "Traditional Environmental Protectionism in Tibet Reconsidered," Tibet Journal 16(3), 1991. (10 pp)

Huber, Toni. Ch. 11 "Culture, Nature and Economy Around a Holy Mountain," The Cult of Pure Crystal Mountain: Popular Pilgrimage and Visionary Landscape in Southeast Tibet. Oxford. 1999.

Huber, Toni, ed. Sacred Spaces and Powerful Places in Tibetan Culture. 1999. [essays by Stuchbury, Buffetrille, Huber, Diemberger, Pommaret on land, pilgrimage, tamings]. [Summit]

Essays on Amdo dev in Toni Huber, ed. Amdo Tibetans in Transition. 2000. [DS731.A53 I58 2000]

Lustgarten, Abrahm. 2008. China's Great Train: Beijing's Drive West and the Campaign to Remake Tibet. Times Books. [Catalog]

Makley, Charlene. 2006.  "Competing conversions: Gendered development encounters among Tibetans in Qinghai."  AAS annual meeting, paper.

Makley, Charlene. 2009. "The Politics of Presence: Voice, Deity Possession, and Dilemmas of Development Among Tibetans in the PRC." (unpub. manuscript).

Norberg-Hodge. Tibetan Culture as a Model of Ecological Sustainability. Dodin and Rather, eds., Imagining Tibet. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2001

Sautman, Barry and Irene Eng. 2001. "Tibet: Development for whom?" China Information  15(2):20-74. [PDF link]

Wang, Shiyong. 2007. "The failure of education in preparing Tibetans for market participation." Asian Ethnicity 8(2): 131-148. [Summit]

Wang Xiaoqiang and Bai Nanfeng. The Poverty of Plenty (Furao de Pinkun), translated by Angela Knox, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991. [HC427.92 .W37713 1991]

Wang Xiaoqiang. The Dispute Between the Tibetans and the Han: When Will it be Solved? in Barnett, ed. Resistance and Reform in Tibet, 1994. [DS785.A1 R47 1994]

Yeh, Emily. from wasteland to wetland? NATURE AND NATION IN CHINA'S TIBET, Environmental History; Jan 2009; 14, 1; 103-137

Yeh, Emily T.  “Greening western China: A critical view.”  Geoforum, 2010.

Yeh, Emily. Tropes of Indolence and the Cultural Politics of Development in Lhasa, Tibet. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 97(3), 2007. [Summit]

Yeh, Emily. 2008. "Modernity, Memory and Agricultural Modernisation in Central Tibet, 1950-1980," in Barnett and Schwartz, eds., Tibetan Modernities. [HN740.T55 I58 2003

Related Films

Related Films in Reed Library or Online:

NOTE: Chenaktsang Dorje Tsering. "Reflections on Tibetan Film," (with a note from Robbie Barnett), Tibetan Modernities, Brill, 2008.

China, unleashing the dragon, 203 min, 1995.
4 part series. Episode 1. Dengs legacy / producers, Richard Hall, Alex Gibney (50 min.) -- episode 2. The fragile rice bowl / producers, Brenda Louie, Richard Alexander (50 min.) -- episode 3. The soul of the master / producer, Richard Hall (53 min.) -- episode 4. Hong Kong and the boom towns / producer, Alex Gibney (50 min.)

China in transition, 126 min., 1994.
Eight special reports, originally broadcast on PBS' the MacNeil/Lehrer newshour, about the changing face of China. Topics covered include economic changes, role of the military, women, culture and the arts, higher education, and human rights.

Because They’re Worth It. 24 min, 2000.
Part 19 of a series under BBC auspices on how the globalized world economy affects ordinary people. Out of a total Chinese population of 1.3 billion, there are 42 million Chinese who are poor. This film looks at programs, including in Tibet and among minority women, attempting to provide them with micro-credit, basic health information, and education.

Leaving fear behind [videorecording] / produced by Filming for Tibet ; [directed by Dhondrup Wangchen [Zurich, Switzerland : Filming for Tibet, 2009?] 1 videodisc (ca. 25 min.) (filmed undercover in Amdo regions during the run-up to the Beijing Olympics, the filmmaker is currently in prison).

Kekexili (Mountain Patrol), 2006, 89 min. When Beijing journalist Ga Yu arrives in a remote Tibetan village, he immediately finds himself embedded in a relentless manhunt across the barren waste lands of Kekexili. Acting without the Chinese government's approval, this ragtag group of impoverished vigilantes has sworn to capture of kill the poachers responsible for decimating the sacred antelope of Kekexili.

Links

NGO's and Watch Organizations

Tibet Environment Watch
http://www.tew.org/index.html

Tibet Information Network: coverage of environment in Tibet:
http://www.tibetinfonet.net/content/list_by_topic/4

Trace Foundation:
http://www.trace.org/

Kham Aid Foundation:
http://www.khamaid.org

US Embassy in Beijing policies on environment, technology and health.
http://beijing.usembassy-china.org.cn/policy.html

China brief Website
Great organization that monitors/supports NGO activity in the PRC. Publishes a newsletter that you can sign up to have delivered via email.
http://www.chinadevelopmentbrief.com/

Week 9: Gender and Households in post-Mao China

Assignments

Week Nine Film Assignment: "Inside the Chinese Closet," dir. Sophia Luvara, 2015, 72 min (Stream via Moodle)

Tues Nov 1 Gender, Marriage and Households

  • Carrico, Kevin. "Producing purity : an ethnography of a traditionalist "ladies' academy" in urban China," Tiantian Zheng, ed. Cultural politics of gender and sexuality in contemporary Asia. Honolulu : University of Hawaiʻi Press, 2016. (ereserve)
  • Rajan, Hamsa. 2015. "The impact of household form and marital residence on the economic dimensions of women’s vulnerability to domestic violence." The case of Tibetan Communities, GENUS, LXX (No. 2-3), 139-162. (ereserve)
  • Short Story:
    • Yangtso Kyi (Lauren Hartley, trans.). "Journal of the Grassland," in Song of the Snow Lion: New Writing from Tibet, Manoa 12(2), 2000.(book reserve and online) Yangtso Kyi Online. Choose Volume 12, 2000, Issue 2, 2000. Then scroll down to article.

Thurs Nov. 3 Gender, Ethnicity and the State:"Family Planning"

  • Anagnost, Ann. "A Surfeit of Bodies: Population and the Rationality of the State in Post-Mao China," in Ginsburg and Rapp, (Eds.) Conceiving the New World Order: The Global Politics of Reproduction. Berkeley: Univ. of CA Press, 1995. (20 pp). (ereserve, book reserve)
  • Wang, Danning. "Mobilizing the masses to change something intimate : the process of de-sexualization in China's family planning campaign," in Tiantian Zheng, ed. Cultural politics of gender and sexuality in contemporary Asia. Honolulu : University of Hawaiʻi Press, 2016. (book, ereserve)
  • Schrempf, Mona. "Planning the Modern Tibetan Family in China," Figurations of modernity : global and local representations in comparative perspective / Vincent Houben, Mona Schrempf (eds.) Publication Frankfurt ; New York : Campus Verlag, 2008. (ereserve, book reserve).

Further Reading

Govt and NGO reports:

China Web coverage of proposed amendments to 1980 Marriage law (2000) (Available online)

Kerr, Blake.  "Tibetans Under the Knife," in The Anguish of Tibet, Berkeley: Paralax Press, 1991. (10 pp)

PRC Law on Maternal and Infant Healthcare (passed Oct. 1994) (Available online)

PRC White paper on Population in China (Available online)

Tears of Silence:  Tibetan Women and Population Control. Tibetan Women's Association, May 1995. (Available on-line)

"Xinhua Cites U.S. Academics on Family Planning in Tibet", World Tibet Network News, Thursday, September 16, 1993 (Available online)

Scholarly Analyses: China

Carsten, Janet. Cultures of relatedness: new approaches to the study of kinship [some chapters on China, especially one questioning the focus on lineage over the cultural politics of family life]

Davis, Deborah and Stevan Harrel. "Introduction: The Impact of Post-Mao Reforms on Family Life," Deborah Davis and Stevan Harrell, Eds., Chinese Families in the Post-Mao Era. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Dikotter, Frank. Sex, Culture and Modernity in China: Medical Science and the Construction of Sexual Identities in the Early Republican Period, Honolulu: Univ. of HI press, 1995. (chapters on birth, birth planning, eugenics, marriage sexuality).

Evans, Harriet. Women and Sexuality in China.New York: Continuum, 1997.

Gillette, Marris. "What's in a Dress? Brides in the Hui Quarter of Xi'an," in Davis, (Ed.), The Consumer Revolution in Urban China. Berkeley: Univ. of Ca Press, 2000.

Greenhalgh, Susan. "The Peasantization of the One-Child Policy in Shaanxi," Deborah Davis and Stevan Harrell, Eds., Chinese Families in the Post-Mao Era. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Greenhalgh, Susan. POPULATION AND THE RISE OF GLOBAL CHINA, forthcoming, Harvard University Press, 2010.

Greenhalgh, Susan. JUST ONE CHILD: SCIENCE AND POLICY IN DENG'S CHINA. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.

Greenhalgh, Susan. GOVERNING CHINA'S POPULATION: FROM LENINIST TO NEOLIBERAL BIOPOLITICS (with E.A. Winckler). Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2005.

Lihong Shi. The Wife is the Boss. in Shanshan Du, Ya-chen Chen, eds., Women and Gender in Contemporary Chinese Societies: Beyond Han Patriarchy. Lexington Books.

Santos, Gonçalo D. (2006) The anthropology of Chinese kinship: a critical overview. European journal of East Asian studies, 5 (2). pp. 275-333.

Gonçalo D. Santos (Author, Editor), Susanne Brandtstadter (Editor). Chinese Kinship: Contemporary Anthropological Perspectives (Routledge Contemporary China Series), 2008

Scharping, Thomas. Birth Control in China 1949-2000: Population Policy and Demographic Development. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

Watson, James. Chinese Kinship Reconsidered: Anthropological Perspectives On Historical. Research.

Watson, Ruby and Ebrey, Patricia, eds., Marriage and Inequality in Chinese Society.Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

Wolf, Margery. Revolution Postponed. Ch. 6, "Cooked Rice: Marriage in New China," and Ch. 7, "The Setting of Chinese Women's Lives: Family Organization" (60 pp)

Scholarly Analyses: Tibet

Chertow, Jennifer. Gender, medicine, and modernity: Childbirth in Tibet today. Harvard Asia Quarterly, 2003

Chertow, Jennifer. Gender, power, space: Transnational bodies and the cultures of health in contemporary Tibet (China) 2007

Chertow, Jennifer. "Embodying the Nation: Childbirth in Contemporary Tibet," Tibetan Modernities, Brill, 2008.

Goldstein, Melvyn and Cynthia Beall. "China's Birth Control Policy in the Tibet Autonomous Region," in Asian Survey 31(3), March, 1991. (18 pp)

Goldstein et al. Fertility and Family Planning in Rural Tibet, China Journal, 2002.

Makley, Charlene. "Mother Home: Circumambulation, Feminities, and the Ambiguous Mobility of Women," in The Violence of Liberation, 2007. (44 p). (book reserve, bookstore).

Papers on Tibetan marriage and polyandry (Case Univ. archive)

Papers on Tibetan Fertility and Family Planning (Case Univ. archive)

Related Films

Related Films in Reed Library or Online:

Popular Tibetan "nostalgia songs" for mothers:

"Ama" ("Mother"), Dekyi Tsering (mid-2000s) (Youtube)

"Ama" ("Mother"), Kunga (2010) (Youtube)

[And for contrast: "Father", Dekyi Tsering (mid-2000s) (Youtube)]

Amazing Marriage Customs, 91 min, 1992.
In Chinese with English subtitles. Chinese-made film depicting the "exotic" marriage customs of ethnic minorities in the PRC. Begins with a "traditional" Han wedding.

Half The Sky, 28 min, 1997
Short documentary on women in the contemporary PRC.

Through Chinese women's eyes, 53 min., 1997.
Presents the transformations in the lives of Chinese women over the 20th century. Documents the attempts to erase gender differences under Mao, today's changing ideas of femininity, and the crystalization of Chinese feminism at the UN Women's conference in Beijing. By anthropologist Mayfair Yang.

Hsiao hsi (Small Happiness): Women of a Chinese Village, 58 min, 1990.
An acclaimed documentary, part of a series of three on this village, which examines the social conditions for Chinese women today and in the past, with specific focus on the village of Long Bow. Inhabitants reveal the strides that have been made for women's equality, despite the seeming oppression when observed from a Western viewpoint. Carma Hinton, the American director, grew up in China and participated in the Cultural Revolution as a Red Guard. Chinese is her native language.

Generations, a Chinese family, 28 min., 1986
Looks at the way of life of the seventeen-member, four-generation Shen family, who are part of the small Christian minority in China. Also describes funeral, wedding, and New Year's customs among this minority

Nü ren di gu shi (A women's story), 96 min., 1988
Chinese feature film with English subtitles. The impact of traditional customs on Chinese women in the modern world is depicted in this story of a young girl faced with an impending, arranged marriage and her curiosity about urban life.

Tibetan village wedding [videorecording] film by Puhua Dongzhi
Morrisville, NC : Lulu, [2005]

"22-year old Lha dpa'tshe ring married 19-year old Tshe ring mtsho in rural 'ber gtsang om Tibetan Village, located in east central Mtsho sngon (Qinghai) Province, northwest China. Both have some primary school education. Both are farmers, cultivating wheat, barley, beans, potatoes and edible oil crops. The documentary includes activities the night prior to the formal wedding party; the groom and his companion's arrival at the bride's home; women from the bride's village attacking the groom and his companion and pulling their ears; the companion singing to thwart the women's attack; the bride and her companions' arrival at the groom's home; the bride prostrating three times to the groom's home's door protective deity, family god, and the fire deity; gifts; wedding food; orations; singing; the bride's entourage's departure; evening celebration."

Tibetan woman's daily life [videorecording] / directed, edited, filmed and subtitled by Puhua Dangzhi[2006]
34-year old Joemasue married Dongdrop at the age of 21 (in 1993) without experience of housework, fieldwork, and fetching wood. Filmed by her husband's younger brother, Puhua Dangzhi, in Amdo, the film concentrates on the daily life of Tibetan village women ... along with commentary by Joemasue about her life and family.

"Women of the Yellow Earth", John Bulmer, Cicada Films, 1995, 50 min.

Links

TBA

Week 10: Religious Revival and Ethnic Nationalism

Assignments

Week Ten Film Assignment: Chenaktsang Dorje Tsering "Ane Lhacham" (27 min) 2007 (Stream via Moodle)

Tues Nov 8 Gender, Ethnicity, Religion and the State

  • Gladney, Dru. "Salman Rushdie in China: Religion, Ethnicity and State Definition in the People's Republic," Keyes, Kendall and Hardacre, eds. Asian Visions of Authority: Religion and the Modern States of East and Southeast Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994. (20 pp) (ereserve, book reserve)
  • Schwartz, Ronald. Ch. 2, "Inventing Political Ritual," in Circle of Protest: Political Ritual in the Tibetan Uprising. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994. (45 pp) (ereserve, bookstore and book reserve).
  • Selected News Coverage of the Tibetan Self-Immolations (2011). (ereserve)
    **Content Notes: media portrayals of state violence and self-immolation by fire.

Thurs Nov. 10 Gender and religious revival: the case of nuns

  • Havnevik, Hanna. "The Role of Nuns in Contemporary Tibet," in Barnett, ed. Resistance and Reform in Tibet. London: Hurst and Co., 1994. (7 pp) (ereserve, book reserve)
    **Content Notes: brief reference to torture and sexualized violence
  • Makley, Charlene. "The Body of a Nun: Nunhood and Gender in Contemporary Amdo," in Hanna Havnevik and Janet Gyatso, Eds., Women in Tibet . (31 pp) (ereserve, book reserve)
  • Short Story:
    • Geyang. "An Old Nun Tells her Story," in Song of the Snow Lion: New Writing from Tibet, Manoa 12(2), 2000. (book reserve and online) Geyang Online. Choose Volume 12, 2000, Issue 2, 2000. Then scroll down to article.
      **Content Notes: brief reference to rape.

In-class Film: "Satya", Ellen Bruno, 1994, 28 min

Final project proposal and Annotated Bibliography Due Monday Nov. 14, 5 pm, Moodle upload.

Further Reading

State and News Reports

Materials on full ordination debates, Karmapa announces full ordin. Jan 2015

PRC State Council White Paper, "Freedom of Religious Belief," 1996.
http://www.china.org.cn/e-white/Freedom/index.htm

PRC State Council White Paper, "New Progress in Human Rights in the Tibetan Autonomous Region," 1998.
http://www.china.org.cn/e-white/last/index.htm

CNN Online: Chinese religious leaders circulate anti-evil cult (ch. Xiejiao) petition at the UN, 2001.

People's Daily online: "Carrying forward Buddhism or fueling evil cults?" (links Dalai Lama to Falun Gong and others), 2007.

Tibet Information Network: A Sea of Bitterness: Patriotic Education in Qinghai Monasteries. TIN Briefing Paper 32, 1999.

Tibetan Buddhist nuns struggling for education and equality, UNDP, 2014.

United States Dept. of State 2002 International Religious Freedom Report (China and Tibet)
http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2002/13870.htm

Scholarly Analyses

Barnett, Robert. "Symbols and Protest", in Barnett, ed. Resistance and Reform in Tibet. London: Hurst and Co., 1994. (book reserve)

-----------------. "Women and Politics in Contemporary Tibet, in Hanna Havnevik and Janet Gyatso, Eds., Women in Tibet .

Dalton. Jake. The Taming of the Demons: Violence and Liberation in Tibetan Buddhism. Yale University Press. 2011.

Devine, Carol. Determination: Tibetan Women and the Struggle for an Independent Tibet. Toronto: Vauve Press, 1993.

Goldstein, Melvyn and Matthew Kapstein, (Eds.). Buddhism in Contemporary Tibet: Religious Revival and Cultural Identity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

Gutschow, Kim. "The Women Who Refuse to be Exchanged: Nuns in Zangskar, Northwest, India," in Bell and Sobo, eds., Celibacy, Culture and Society: The Anthropology of Sexual Abstinence. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 2001.

Gutschow, Kim. Being a Buddhist nun: the struggle for enlightenment in the Himalayas. Harvard Univ. Press, 2004.

Havnevik, Hanna. Tibetan Buddhist Nuns, Oslo: Norwegian University Press, 1990.

Lempert, Michael. 2014. Discipline and Debate: the Language of Violence in a Tibetan Buddhist Monastery. UCalif. Press.

Makley, Charlene. "Fatherlands: Mapping Masculinities," and "Monks are Men too," in The Violence of Liberation, 2007. (bookstore, book reserve).

Makley, Charlene. (2009). "Ballooning Unrest: Tibet, State Violence and the Incredible Lightness of Knowledge," in China in 2008: a Year of Great Significance, Kate Merkel-Hess, Kenneth L. Pommeranz, and Jeffrey Wasserstrom, ed.s, Routledge.

Peng Wenbin. "Tibetan Pilgrimage in the Process of Social Change," in Alex McKay, ed., Pilgrimage in Tibet. Curzon, 1998. (see me)

Sautman, Barry. “Vegetarian between Meals”: The Dalai Lama, War, and Violence," positions 2010 Volume 18, Number 1: 89-143.

Schrempf, Mona. "Victory Banners, Social Prestige and Religious Identity: Ritualized Sponsorship and the Revival of Bon Monasticism in Amdo Shar-Khog," Samten Karmay and Yasuhiko Nagano, eds., New Horizons in Bon Studies, Osaka 2000. (see me)

Sperling, Eliot. "The Rhetoric of Dissent: Tibetan Pamphleteers," in Barnett, ed. Resistance and Reform in Tibet. London: Hurst and Co., 1994. (book reserve)

Sperling, Elliot, "'Orientalism' and Aspects of violence in the Tibetan Tradition," Dodin and Rather, eds., Imagining Tibet, 2001.

Tibet and China Scholars' Statements on the 2008 Unrest

Debates over the nature of self-immolation protests among Tibetans

  • Barnett, Robert. 2012. "Political Self-Immolation in Tibet: Causes and Influences", Revue d'Etudes Tibétaines, no. 25, Décembre, pp. 41-64.
  • Benn, James. Multiple Meanings of Buddhist Self-Immolation in China — A Historical Perspective. Revue d'Etudes Tibétaines, no. 25, Décembre 2012, pp. 203-212.

  • ---------------. Burning for the Buddha: Self-Immolation in Chinese Buddhism. Studies in East Asian Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2007.

  • Biggs, Michael. 2012. "Self-Immolation in Context, 1963-2012", Revue d'Etudes Tibétaines, no. 25, Décembre, pp. 143-150.

  • ------------------. 2005. "Dying Without Killing: Self-Immolations, 1963-2002," Diego Gambetta (ed.), Making Sense of Suicide Missions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Buffetrille, Katia. 2012. "Self-Immolation in Tibet: Some Reflections on an Unfolding History," Revue d'Etudes Tibétaines, no. 25, Décembre, pp. 1-17.

  • Cabezon, Jose. 2013.  "On the Ethics of the Tibetan Self-Immolations". Religion Dispatches (June 16).

  • Cultural Anthropology. 2012. Self-Immolation as Protest in Tibet, Carole McGranahan and Ralph Litzinger, ed.s [most Tibet scholars, including Tsering Shakya, Makley, Yeh, Woeser, weigh in in brief online essays].

  • Dechen Pemba. 2012. Mourning Online, Self-Immolation as Protest in Tibet, Carole McGranahan and Ralph Litzinger, ed.s. [discussion of Tibetan online commentary]
  • Dhundup Gyalpo. 2012. "Making Sense of Tibetan Self-Immolation," Asian Times Online.

  • Makley, Charlene. 2015. The Sociopolitical Lives of Dead Bodies: Tibetan Self-Immolation Protest as Mass Media. Cultural Anthropology Journal, May 2015. (Online)

  • Robin, Francoise. 2012. Fire, Flames and Ashes. How Tibetan Poets Talk about Self-Immolations without Talking about Them, Revue d'Etudes Tibétaines, no. 25, Décembre, pp. 123-131.
  • Wang Lixiong. 2012. Last-words analysis – Why Tibetans Self-immolate?
  • Woeser. 2012. "The Testimonies Left By Tibetan Self-Immolators," translated in High Peaks Pure Earth blog, originally posted September 12.

Related Films

Online Coverage of Tibetan protest:

2008-2010 Demonstrations

2011 Self-Immolations

Missing in Tibet, 24 min., 1997.
A Garth and Griffin documentary. After being awarded a Fulbright scholarship to study ethnomusicology at prestigious Middlebury College in Vermont, Ngawang Choephel's research took him to Tibet. In the midst of this research he was arrested and sentenced to 18 years in prison. His life story is interwoven with actual footage he shot prior to his detention.

China in transition, 126 min., 1994.
Eight special reports, originally broadcast on PBS' the MacNeil/Lehrer newshour, about the changing face of China. Topics covered include economic changes, role of the military, women, culture and the arts, higher education, and human rights.

The XVII Karmapa's return to Tsurphu, 1993 (110 min.)

Links

Drapchi 14.
Spotlights the case of 14 jailed Tibetan Buddhist nuns, known collectively as the Drapchi 14.
http://www.drapchi14reunion.com/

Tibetan Nun Project.
Tibetan exiled organization supporting exiled Tibetan nuns in India.
http://www.tnp.org/

Tibet Heritage Fund.
European-Tibetan collaboration to protect religious buildings in Lhasa.
http://www.asianart.com/lhasa_restoration/thfwho.html

Human Rights Watch.
Coverage on China and Tibet:
http://www.hrw.org/asia/china

Week 11: Work and the Rural-Urban Divide

Assignments

Week Eleven Event: Tiantian Zheng visit to class and talk Tuesday Nov 15 4:40-6:00 "Health and Social Activism of Self-Identified Gay Men in Postsocialist China."

Tues Nov. 15 Work, Gender/Sexuality and the State

  • Zheng, Tiantian. Introduction, Ch. 7. Red lights: the lives of sex workers in postsocialist China, Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, 2009. (book reserve, bookstore, ereserve).

Thurs Nov. 17 Work, Gender and Empowerment among Tibetans

  • Makley, Charlene. "Mother Home: Circumambulation, Feminities, and the Ambiguous Mobility of Women," in The Violence of Liberation, 2007. (44 p). (book reserve, ereserve, bookstore)
  • Rajan, Hamsa. "The Discourse of Tibetan Women’s Empowerment Activists," Revue d’Etudes Tibétaines, no. 33, October 2015. (ereserve)

Further Reading

Work, Sexuality and Gender

Blecher, Marc. 2002. Hegemony and Workers' Politics in China. China Quarterly 170. [focus on workers' acceptance of core values of market and state; interviews 95-99 Tianjin; looks at rise in workers' protests 90s; addresses Gramsci hegemony]

Cartier, Carolyn and Jessica Rothenberg-Aalami. "Empowering the 'Victim'? Gender, Development, and Women in China Under Reform," Journal of Geography 98: 283-294, 1999.

Chan, Anita. (2001). China's workers under assault : the exploitation of labor in a globalizing economy (Armonk, N.Y. : M.E. Sharpe). [wife of Jonathan Unger, cases mostly east, except one in Sichuan; organized by chs. on types of violations of "rights", translates news articles from Chinese]

Chinese Women and Employment in the Reform Period, Pt. 2, Chinese Sociology and Anthropology 29(3), Spring 1997.

Du Guizhen, Chen Zhongming and Ma Lanmei. "Investigation and Thoughts on Marriage and Fertility Management of 'Migrant Girls' ('Wailaimei')," Chinese Sociology and Anthropology 29(1),Fall 1996.

The Economist, Corporate Social Responsibility survey, 2005.

Entwisle, Barbara & Gail Henderson (Eds.) Re-Drawing Boundaries: Work, Households, and Gender in China. University of California Press, 2001.

Fitzpatrick, Stephen. Work and Mobility: Recent Labour Migration Issues in China. (see me, collection of essays by Chinese social scientists from CASS]

Gaetano and Jacka, eds. On the Move: Women in Rural-to-Urban Migration in Contemporary China. Columbia, 2004

Gereffi, Gary et al. (sociology, environ. policy) "the NGO-Industrial Complex," Foreign Policy 125, 2001: 56-65. [talks of new global activism's pressure on MNCs, use of certification as problematic; industries using own certification to preempt laws]

Hart-Landsberg, Martin; Burkett, Paul. 2004. China & Socialism: Market Reforms and Class Struggle. Monthly Review 56(3). (see me).

Ho, Loreta Wing Wah. 2009. Gay and Lesbian Subculture in China.

Lisa Hoffman, "guiding college graduates to work: Social constructions of Labor Markets in Dalian," China Urban [Dalian is a NE SEZ]

Jeffreys, Elaine. Sex in China (2015, Polity),

......................... Prostitution Scandals in China: Policing, Media and Society (2012 Routledge)

........................ China, Sex and Prostitution (2012 [2004] Routledge).

........................ Sex and Sexuality in China (2009 [2006] Routledge);

Kam Wing Chan and Li Zhang. "The Hukou system and Rural-Urban Migration in China: Processes and Changes," The China Quarterly, no. 160 (Dec. 1999): 818-855.

Kipnis, Andrew. 2006. Suzhi: a Keyword Approach. China Quarterly.

Lee, Ching Kwan (sociology), Gender and the South China Miracle: 2 worlds of factory women. California, 1998 (Reed lib has)

Lee, Ching Kwan. 2002. From the specter of Mao to the spirit of the law: Labor insurgency in China. Theory and Society 31, pp. 189-228.

Lu, Xiaobo and Elizabeth Perry, ed., (1997) Danwei : the Changing Chinese Workplace in Historical and Comparative Perspective, Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

O'Donnell, Mary Ann. "Path Breaking: Constructing Gendered Nationalism in the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone," Positions 7 (2): 343-375,1999.

Osburg, John. Ch. 2 Masculinity and sexuality among Chengdu Elites, Ch. 5 Women entrepreneurs and the beauty economy, in Anxious Wealth

Pun Ngai. Made in China: Women Factory Workers in a Global Workplace.

Rofel, Lisa. Other Modernities: Gendered Yearnings in China After Socialism.Berkeley: University of California Press,1999.

Sassen, Saskia. Ch. 5 "Toward a Feminist Analytics of the Global Economy," in Globalization and its Discontents. New York: The New Press, 1998. [talks of valorization/devalorization of types of workers]

----------------. Ch. 6 "Notes on the Incorporation of Third World Women into Wage Labor through Immigration and Offshore Production," in Globalization and its Discontents. New York: The New Press, 1998.

Shanshan Du. "'Husband and Wife Do it Together': Sex/Gender Allocation of Labor among the Qhawquat Lahu of Lancang, Southwest China," American Anthropologist 102(3),September 2000: 520-537.

Solinger, Dorothy. Contesting Citizenship in Urban China. California, California, 1999.

Solinger, Dorothy. "Human Rights Issues in China's Internal Migration: Insights from Comparisons with Germany and Japan," in The East Asian Challenge for Human Rights, Cambridge 1999.

Wen Jun. "Social Development and Women's Employment among China's National Minorities," Chinese Sociology and Anthropology 29(3), Spring 1997.

Woon, Yuen-Fong. "Labor Migration in the 1990s: Homeward Orientation of Migrants in the Peral River Delta Region and its Implications for Interior China," Modern China 25.4 Oct. 1999: 475-512.

Wu, Harry. Laogai: The Chinese Gulag, Boulder: Westview Press, 1992.

Zhang Li. Strangers in the City: reconfigurations of space, power, and social networks within China's floating population.

Zheng, Tiantian. Tongzhi Living.

Work, Gender, and Education among Tibetans

  • Escobar, Arturo. Chapter 5, on the "Discovery of Poverty" and "women" in development discourse. Encountering development : the making and unmaking of the Third World. Princeton, 1995.
  • Fischer, Andrew Martin. "Urban Fault Lines in Shangri-La: Population and Economic Foundations of Inter-Ethnic Conflict in the Tibetan Areas of Western China," Crisis States Programme, Working Papers series no. 1, London: Destin Development Studies Institute, 2004.
  • Liu Zhonglu. Women of Tibet, Beijing: China Intercontinental Press, 1994. (23 pp) 
  • Greenhalgh, Susan. "The Social Construction of Population Science: An Intellectual, Institutional, and Political History of Twentieth-Century Demography," CSSH, 1996. [good overview of political economy of statistics and their usage with reference to China)
  • Seeberg, Vilma. "Tibetan girls' education : challenging prevailing theory," Education and social change in China : inequality in a market economy / Gerard A. Postiglione, editor ; foreword by Stanley Rosen Publication Armonk, N.Y. : M.E. Sharpe, 2006.
  • Yeh, Emily. "Green Governmentality and Pastoralism in Western China," Nomadic Peoples 9 (1-2), 2005. [Important rejoinder to especially Seeberg's Malthusian take on grassland degradation and population pressure as primary causes].

Bangsbo, Ellen "Schooling and 'Quality Education,' in the Tibetan Diaspora and Tibet," in Tibetan Modernities, 2008.

Bass, Catriona. Education in Tibet: Policy and Practice Since 1950, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998.

Andrew M. Fischer, Educating for Exclusion in Western China: Structural and institutional dimensions of conflict in the Tibetan areas of Qinghai and Tibet. CRISE WORKING PAPER No. 69, July 2009.

Iredale, Robyn, Naran Bilik and Fei Guo. China's Minorities on the Move. ME Sharpe, 2003.

Goldstein, Siebenschuh and Tashing Tsering.  The Struggle for Modern Tibet: The Autobiography of Tashi Tsering. NY: ME Sharpe, 1997. ch 14, epilogue.  (18 pp.)  (bookstore and book reserve)

Ross, Heidi. " Challenging the gendered dimensions of schooling : the state, NGOs, and transnational alliances," Education and social change in China : inequality in a market economy / Gerard A. Postiglione, editor ; foreword by Stanley Rosen Publication Armonk, N.Y. : M.E. Sharpe, 2006.

Upton, Janet.  "Home on the Grasslands?  Tradition, Modernity, and the Negotiation of Identity by Tibetan Intellectuals in the PRC," in Melissa J. Brown, (Ed.), Negotiating Ethnicities in China and Taiwan.  Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, 1996. (24 pp).

Related Films

China, unleashing the dragon, 203 min, 1995.
4 part series. Episode 1. Dengs legacy / producers, Richard Hall, Alex Gibney (50 min.) -- episode 2. The fragile rice bowl / producers, Brenda Louie, Richard Alexander (50 min.) -- episode 3. The soul of the master / producer, Richard Hall (53 min.) -- episode 4. Hong Kong and the boom towns / producer, Alex Gibney (50 min.)

China in transition, 126 min., 1994.
Eight special reports, originally broadcast on PBS' the MacNeil/Lehrer newshour, about the changing face of China. Topics covered include economic changes, role of the military, women, culture and the arts, higher education, and human rights.

No. 16, Barkhor South Street, 100 min. 1995
No. 16 Barkhor South Street, an old courtyard in Lhasa, Tibet is now the office of the Barkhor Neighborhood Committee. This film directed by a Chinese filmmaker records events and stories in the office and the neighborhood as they occurred in 1995.

Because They’re Worth It. 24 min, 2000.
Part 19 of a series under BBC auspices on how the globalized world economy affects ordinary people. Out of a total Chinese population of 1.3 billion, there are 42 million Chinese who are poor. This film looks at programs, including in Tibet and among minority women, attempting to provide them with micro-credit, basic health information, and education.

Links

1992 Trade Union Law of the PRC (Amended 2001)
http://www.gov.cn/english/laws/2005-10/11/content_75948.htm

1994 Labour Act of the PRC
http://www.acftu.org.cn/template/10002/file.jsp?cid=56&aid=31

China Labour Bulletin (Hong Kong-based pro-labour organization)

Laogai Research Foundation (Research on China's Reform through Labour camp/prison system)
http://www.laogai.org/

China Labor Watch (Watchdog NGO based in NYC, founded by Chinese labor activist Li Qiang)

Mary Gallagher on failures of Labor Laws in China:
"An unequal battle Why labor laws & regulations fail to protect workers," China Rights Forum, Summer 1997
Google Cache

Weeks 12-13: Refiguring Identities: Globalization, Urbanity, and Consumption

Assignments

Week 12 Event: Huatse Gyal visit to class, Nov 22

Tues Nov. 22 Masculinity, Disenchantment and the Negotiation of Modernity among Tibetans

Thanksgiving Break: Nov. 24-27

Week Thirteen Film Assignment:  Pema Tseden, "Tharlo," 2015 (Stream via Moodle)

Tues Nov. 29 Han Disenchantment and the Commodification of Minorities

Image Assignment: Commodifying Ethnic Minorities in the PRC

  • Tenzin Jinba. "Introduction," Chapters 1-3, In the Land of the Eastern Queendom: The Politics of Gender and Ethnicity on the Sino-Tibetan Border. Seattle. University of Washington press, 2014. (bookstore, book reserve). (71 pp).
  • Short Story:
    • Chi Li. "The Heart More Than the Flesh" (Xin Bi Shen Xian Lao), in Chinese Literature. Beijing: Chinese Literature Press, 1999 (27 pp). (ereserve)

Thurs Dec. 1 Moral Crises: Consumption and Gendered Sexualities Among Tibetans

  • Selected media coverage on prostitution in Lhasa 1996-2009. (ereserve).
  • Makley, Charlene. "Consuming Women: Consumption, Sexual Politics and the Dangers of Mixing," in The Violence of Liberation, 2007. (ereserve, bookstore, book reserve).
  • Online exhibit:

Further Reading

Adams, Vincanne. "Karaoke as Modern Lhasa, Tibet: Western Encounters with Cultural Politics," in Cultural Anthropology 11(4): 510-546, 1996.

Barnett, Robert. "Symbols and Protest", in Barnett, ed. Resistance and Reform in Tibet. London: Hurst and Co., 1994. (book reserve)

Dalton. Jake. The Taming of the Demons: Violence and Liberation in Tibetan Buddhism. Yale University Press. 2011.

Dpa' Dar (pseudonym) (trans. Janet Upton). 1989. "Snow Mountain Tears" in Song of the Snow Lion Lion  (book reserve and online) (Project Muse). Choose Volume 12, 2000, Issue 2, 2000. Then scroll down to article.

Evans, Harriet. "Sexualities Under Suspicion," in Women and Sexuality in China: Dominant Discourses of Female Sexuality and Gender since 1949, 1997.

Gladney, Dru. "Representing Nationality in China: Refiguring Minority/Majority Identities," Journal of Asian Studies 53(1):92-123, February 1994. (26 pp).

Harris, Clare. In the Image of Tibet: Painters of Tibet post-1959. Reaktion Books: 1999. (especially chapters 3, 4 and 5) (book reserve)

Hladíková, Kamila. Shangri-la Deconstructed: Representations of Tibet in the PRC and Pema Tseden’s Films. Archiv Orientální 84, 2016, pp. 349-380. (see me). [Hladikova is a Czech scholar who got her Phd in 2011, dissertation and now book on Tibetan and Chinese cinema].

Hladíková, Kamila. The Exotic Other and Negotiation of Tibetan Self: Representation of
Tibet in Chinese and Tibetan Fiction of the 1980s, Olomouc: Palacký University Press, 2013.

Honig and Hershatter: Ch. 2 "The Pleasures of Adornment and the Dangers of Sexuality," in Personal Voices: Chinese Women in the 1980's. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1988. (40 pg) (bookstore, book, article and e-reserve)

Karmay, Samten. "Mountain Cults and National Identity in Tibet," in Barnett, ed.  Resistance and Reform in Tibet.  London: Hurst and Co., 1994. (8 pp).

Kvaerne, Per. "The Ideological Impact on Tibetan Art," in Barnett, ed. Resistance and Reform in Tibet. London: Hurst and Co., 1994. (book reserve)

Lhagyal Tsering (trans. Janet Upton). 1986.  "Tears of Regret Flow Uncontrollably" in Song of the Snow Lion  (book reserve and online) (Project Muse). Choose Volume 12, 2000, Issue 2, 2000. Then scroll down to article.

Makley, Charlene. "The Promise and Perils of Native Anthropology in the PRC," Journal of Asian Studies 73(4): 1081-1084. [book review of Tenzin Jinba's In the Land of the Eastern Queendom.

Sautman, Barry. “Vegetarian between Meals”: The Dalai Lama, War, and Violence," positions 2010 Volume 18, Number 1: 89-143.

Schein, Louisa.  "Urbanity, Cosmopolitanism, Consumption," in Chen, et al, eds.  China Urban: Ethnographies of Contemporary Culture. Duke University Press, 2001.

Seidman, Spencer. HIV/AIDS IN CHINA AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR TIBETANS AND OTHER MINORITIES
http://www.psychotherapysanfrancisco.com/CHIV1.htm

Sperling, Elliot, "'Orientalism' and Aspects of violence in the Tibetan Tradition," Dodin and Rather, eds., Imagining Tibet, 2001.

Tibet Information Network. Social Evils: Prostitution and Pornography in Lhasa. TIN Briefing Paper 31, 1999. (see me)

Yeh, Emily T and Kunga T Lama. Hip-hop gangsta or most deserving of victims? Transnational migrant identities and the paradox of Tibetan racialization in the USA, Environment and Planning A 2006, volume 38, pages 809-829.

Related Films

Online:

Tibetan language Waterfall of Youth (Wikipedia)

Waterfall of Youth (pop/rap tribute to Dongrup Gyal by Tibetan group Yudrug, 2011, Amdo gcan tsa, Qinghai, PRC)

High Peaks Pure Earth page on Yudrug's Waterfall of Youth (notes revival of interest in DG in Amdo)

Waterfall of Youth (pop/rap tribute to Dongrup Gyal by Dickyi Tsering, 2015, PRC).

Waterfall of Youth (poem recited by woman in Lhasa dialect, 2013)

Dondrup Gyal poem recited on stage, (PRC, 2011; poem mentioned by Tsering Shakya)

Dondrup gyal poem recited on stage (diaspora, 2010, Lhasa dialect)

China, unleashing the dragon, 203 min, 1995.
4 part series. Episode 1. Dengs legacy / producers, Richard Hall, Alex Gibney (50 min.) -- episode 2. The fragile rice bowl / producers, Brenda Louie, Richard Alexander (50 min.) -- episode 3. The soul of the master / producer, Richard Hall (53 min.) -- episode 4. Hong Kong and the boom towns / producer, Alex Gibney (50 min.)

China in transition, 126 min., 1994.
Eight special reports, originally broadcast on PBS' the MacNeil/Lehrer newshour, about the changing face of China. Topics covered include economic changes, role of the military, women, culture and the arts, higher education, and human rights.

No. 16, Barkhor South Street, 100 min. 1995
No. 16 Barkhor South Street, an old courtyard in Lhasa, Tibet is now the office of the Barkhor Neighborhood Committee. This film directed by a Chinese filmmaker records events and stories in the office and the neighborhood as they occurred in 1995.

Because They’re Worth It. 24 min, 2000.
Part 19 of a series under BBC auspices on how the globalized world economy affects ordinary people. Out of a total Chinese population of 1.3 billion, there are 42 million Chinese who are poor. This film looks at programs, including in Tibet and among minority women, attempting to provide them with micro-credit, basic health information, and education.

"Windhorse", Paul Wagner, 1998, 97 mins

Week 14: Conclusions: the Future of a Relationship

Assignments

Tues Dec. 6 Hope and Fear

  • Ma Rong. "The Key to Understanding and Interpreting Ethnic Relations in Contemporary China," The Hague: Int'l Institute of Social Studies, August, 2011. (ereserve).
  • Liebold, James. The minzu net? in Nations and Nationalism roundtable discussion on Chinese nationalism and national identity, Nations and Nationalism 22 (3), 2016, 415–446. (ereserve)
  • Carrico, Kevin and Peter Gries. "Race, knowledge production and Chinese nationalism," in Nations and Nationalism roundtable discussion on Chinese nationalism and national identity, Nations and Nationalism 22 (3), 2016, 415–446. (ereserve)
  • Grant, Andrew. 2016. ‘Don’t discriminate against minority nationalities’: practicing Tibetan ethnicity on social media," Asian Ethnicity. (ereserve)

In-Class Film clip: "Leaving Fear Behind," 2008.

Final Paper Project Due Wednesday, Dec. 14, 5 pm Moodle Upload

Further Reading

Activism and Futures of Sino-Tibetan Relations:

Appadurai, Arjun.  "Patriotism and its Futures," in Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization.Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996. (20 pp).

Barnett, Robert. Violated Specialness. Dodin and Rather, Imagining Tibet

Klieger, Christiaan. Riding High on the Manchurian Dream: three Paradigms in the Construction of the Tibetan Question. in Sautman and Dreyer, eds. Contemporary Tibet: Politics, Development and Society in a Disputed Region. M.E. Sharpe, 2006. [BQ7590 .B84 1998]

Goldstein, Melvyn.  Ch. 5, "The Future" The Snow Lion and The Dragon: China, Tibet, and the Dalai Lama.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997. (31 pp)  (book reserve)

H.H. The Dalai Lama. Guidelines for Future Tibet's polity and the basic features of its Constitution. (Available on-line) http://www.tibet.com/future.html

Kapstein, Matthew. "Concluding Remarks," in Goldstein, Melvyn and Matthew Kapstein, (Eds.). Buddhism in Contemporary Tibet: Religious Revival and Cultural Identity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998. (10 pp).

Lopez, Donald. "The Prison," Prisoners of Shangri-La:  Tibetan Buddhism and the West. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.  (book reserve)

Makley, Charlene. "Epilogue," in The Violence of Liberation, 2007.

McLagan, Meg. 2002. "Spectacles of Difference: Cultural Activism and the Mass Mediation of Tibet," Media Worlds: Anthropology on New Terrain. Ginsburg et al, eds.,Berkeley: University of California Press.

McLagan, Meg. 2003. "Human Rights, Testimony, and Transnational Publicity," The Scholar and Feminist Online 2(1), Summer.

Norbu, Jamyang. Rangzen Charter, 1999.

Samdhong Rinpoche. "Tibet: a Future Vision. New Delhi: Tibetan Parlimentary and Policy Research Centre, 1997. (see me).

Tuttle, Gray. Postscript. Tibetan Buddhists in the making of modern China. New York : Columbia University Press, c2005.

Wang Lixiong. "The People's Republic of China's 21st Century Underbelly," Beijing Zhanlue Yu Guanli, January 2, 1999, translation by BBC Monitoring service. (Also was translated and appeared in Ta Kung Pao in Hong Kong).

Xu Mingxu and Yuan Feng. The Tibet Question: a New Cold War. in Sautman and Dreyer, eds. Contemporary Tibet: Politics, Development and Society in a Disputed Region. M.E. Sharpe, 2006. [BQ7590 .B84 1998]

Responses to Clifford Bob/Problem of cynicism:

Bob, Clifford.  "Merchants of Morality," Foreign Policy No. 129, Jan-Feb, 2002.

Ayers, Andrew. Foreign Policy letter refuting Clifford Bob's thesis. Bob responds.

French, Patrick. Tibet, Tibet: A Personal History of a Lost Land. Harper Collins, 2003

Norbu, Jamyang. "The Incredible Weariness of Hope," a review of Patrick French's Tibet, Tibet: A Personal History of a Lost Land. Harper Collins, 2003.

Tsering Topgyal. "Cynicism as Intelligence: Symptom of an American Tragedy?". Letter to Foreign Policy Magazine refuting Clifford Bob's thesis.

Responses to Ma Rong/Problem of autonomy:

Elliot Sperling, "Autonomy? Think Again," Times of India, July 2009 (reprinted in Phayul.com).

Lobsang Sangay, "Rejoinder to 'Autonomy? Think Again?" (Aug 2009)

Elliot Sperling, "A Response to Lobsang Sangay," (Phayul.com, Aug. 2009)

Lobsang Sangay, "Lobsang Sangay's response to Elliot Sperling (2)," (Phayul.com, Aug 2009)

Related Films

Online:

Pop Songs and Activism:

Waterfall of Youth, Dhondup Gyal music video (SFT blog commentary)

Waterfall of Youth, Dhondup Gyal music video (by Amdo Tibetan pop group Yudrug)

Leaving Fear Behind (2008, Dhondup Wangchen)
From the website: "Leaving Fear Behind (in Tibetan, Jigdrel) is a heroic film shot by Tibetans from inside Tibet, who longed to bring Tibetan voices to the Beijing Olympic Games. With the global spotlight on China as it rises to host the XXIX Olympics, Tibetans wish to tell the world of their plight and their heartfelt grievances against Chinese rule. The footage was smuggled out of Tibet under extraordinary circumstances. The filmmakers were detained soon after sending their tapes out, and remain in detention today."

Tibetan songs calling for Tibetan solidarity in the PRC (Reed Anthro Youtube playlist)

The Song of Unity (Sherten), this song became popular in 2010, it was banned in early 2011 in most Tibetan regions, including in Xining.

Lhag dkar (Auspicious Wednesdays) Movement: A grassroots movement that began in Tibetan regions of the PRC post-2008 protests. Wednesdays are considered to be the Dalai Lama's 'soul day'. Tibetans pledge to take action promoting Tibetan language and culture, boycotting Chinese businesses, etc. on that day of the week.

Lhakar (U.S.-based Tibetan activist website covering grassroots organizing)

Lhakar Intro Video (by Lhakar.org)

Lhakar Diaries (Young diaspora Tibetan activists' blogs in solidarity with organizers in the PRC)

Links